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  • Publication . Article . Part of book or chapter of book . Other literature type . 2022
    Authors: 
    Sichinava, David;
    Publisher: Routledge

    This article examines the territorialization of party support in the Republic of Georgia as political parties in Georgia try to territorialize by aligning themselves to existing societal cleavages....

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . Preprint . 2022 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jennifer Schober; Igor Rogachevskii; Axel Brandenburg;
    Publisher: arXiv
    Country: Switzerland
    Project: SNSF | Magnetohydrodynamical dyn... (185863)

    In relativistic magnetized plasmas, asymmetry in the number densities of left- and right-handed fermions, i.e., a non-zero chiral chemical potential mu_5, leads to an electric current along the magnetic field. This causes a chiral dynamo instability for a uniform mu_5, but our simulations reveal a dynamo even for fluctuating mu_5 with zero mean. It produces magnetically-dominated turbulence and generates mean magnetic fields via the magnetic alpha effect. Eventually, a universal scale-invariant k^(-1) spectrum of mu_5 and a k^(-3) magnetic spectrum are formed independently of the initial condition. Comment: 6 pages, 4 figures, published in Phys. Rev. Lett

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . Preprint . 2022
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jennifer Schober; Igor Rogachevskii; Axel Brandenburg;
    Publisher: American Physical Society (APS)
    Country: Switzerland
    Project: SNSF | Magnetohydrodynamical dyn... (185863)

    We study the dynamics of magnetic fields in chiral magnetohydrodynamics, which takes into account the effects of an additional electric current related to the chiral magnetic effect in high energy plasmas. We perform direct numerical simulations, considering weak seed magnetic fields and inhomogeneities of the chiral chemical potential mu_5 with a zero mean. We demonstrate that a small-scale chiral dynamo can occur in such plasmas if fluctuations of mu_5 are correlated on length scales that are much larger than the scale on which the dynamo growth rate reaches its maximum. Magnetic fluctuations grow by many orders of magnitude due to the small-scale chiral dynamo instability. Once the nonlinear backreaction of the generated magnetic field on fluctuations of mu_5 sets in, the ratio of these scales decreases and the dynamo saturates. When magnetic fluctuations grow sufficiently to drive turbulence via the Lorentz force before reaching maximum field strength, an additional mean-field dynamo phase is identified. The mean magnetic field grows on a scale that is larger than the integral scale of turbulence after the amplification of the fluctuating component saturates. The growth rate of the mean magnetic field is caused by a magnetic alpha effect that is proportional to the current helicity. With the onset of turbulence, the power spectrum of mu_5 develops a universal k^(-1) scaling independently of its initial shape, while the magnetic energy spectrum approaches a k^(-3) scaling. Comment: 22 pages, 22 figures

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Krys, Kuba; Yeung, June Chun; Capaldi, Colin A.; Lun, Vivian Miu-Chi; Torres, Claudio; van Tilburg, Wijnand A. P.; Bond, Michael Harris; Zelenski, John M.; Haas, Brian W.; Park, Joonha; +54 more
    Countries: Lithuania, United Kingdom, Portugal, Croatia, Switzerland, Serbia, Italy, Netherlands

    In this paper, we introduce the concept of ‘societal emotional environment’: the emotional climate of a society (operationalized as the degree to which positive and negative emotions are expressed in a society). Using data collected from 12, 888 participants across 49 countries, we show how societal emotional environments vary across countries and cultural clusters, and we consider the potential importance of these differences for well-being. Multilevel analyses supported a ‘double-edged sword’ model of negative emotion expression, where expression of negative emotions predicted higher life satisfaction for the expresser but lower life satisfaction for society. In contrast, partial support was found for higher societal life satisfaction in positive societal emotional environments. Our study highlights the potential utility and importance of distinguishing between positive and negative emotion expression, and adopting both individual and societal perspectives in well- being research. Individual pathways to happiness may not necessarily promote the happiness of others.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Zhe Kang Law; Jason P. Appleton; Polly Scutt; Ian Roberts; Rustam Al-Shahi Salman; Timothy J. England; David J. Werring; Thompson G. Robinson; Kailash Krishnan; Robert A. Dineen; +17 more
    Countries: United Kingdom, Denmark

    Background: Seeking consent rapidly in acute stroke trials is crucial as interventions are time sensitive. We explored the association between consent pathways and time to enrollment in the TICH-2 (Tranexamic Acid in Intracerebral Haemorrhage-2) randomized controlled trial. Methods: Consent was provided by patients or by a relative or an independent doctor in incapacitated patients, using a 1-stage (full written consent) or 2-stage (initial brief consent followed by full written consent post-randomization) approach. The computed tomography-to-randomization time according to consent pathways was compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify variables associated with onset-to-randomization time of ≤3 hours. Results: Of 2325 patients, 817 (35%) gave self-consent using 1-stage (557; 68%) or 2-stage consent (260; 32%). For 1507 (65%), consent was provided by a relative (1 stage, 996 [66%]; 2 stage, 323 [21%]) or a doctor (all 2-stage, 188 [12%]). One patient did not record prerandomization consent, with written consent obtained subsequently. The median (interquartile range) computed tomography-to-randomization time was 55 (38–93) minutes for doctor consent, 55 (37–95) minutes for 2-stage patient, 69 (43–110) minutes for 2-stage relative, 75 (48–124) minutes for 1-stage patient, and 90 (56–155) minutes for 1-stage relative consents ( P <0.001). Two-stage consent was associated with onset-to-randomization time of ≤3 hours compared with 1-stage consent (adjusted odds ratio, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.5–2.4]). Doctor consent increased the odds (adjusted odds ratio, 2.3 [1.5–3.5]) while relative consent reduced the odds of randomization ≤3 hours (adjusted odds ratio, 0.10 [0.03–0.34]) compared with patient consent. Only 2 of 771 patients (0.3%) in the 2-stage pathways withdrew consent when full consent was sought later. Two-stage consent process did not result in higher withdrawal rates or loss to follow-up. Conclusions: The use of initial brief consent was associated with shorter times to enrollment, while maintaining good participant retention. Seeking written consent from relatives was associated with significant delays. Registration: URL: https://www.isrctn.com ; Unique identifier: ISRCTN93732214.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Philip W. Rouadi; Samar A. Idriss; Jean Bousquet; Tanya M. Laidlaw; Cecilio Azar; Mona Al-Ahmad; Anahí Yáñez; Maryam Ali Al-Nesf; Talal M. Nsouli; Sami L. Bahna; +30 more
    Publisher: World Allergy Organization
    Countries: Netherlands, France

    Background: Chronic cough can be triggered by respiratory and non-respiratory tract illnesses originating mainly from the upper and lower airways, and the GI tract (ie, reflux). Recent findings suggest it can also be a prominent feature in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), laryngeal hyperresponsiveness, and COVID-19. The classification of chronic cough is constantly updated but lacks clear definition. Epidemiological data on the prevalence of chronic cough are informative but highly variable. The underlying mechanism of chronic cough is a neurogenic inflammation of the cough reflex which becomes hypersensitive, thus the term hypersensitive cough reflex (HCR). A current challenge is to decipher how various infectious and inflammatory airway diseases and esophageal reflux, among others, modulate HCR. Objectives: The World Allergy Organization/Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (WAO/ARIA) Joint Committee on Chronic Cough reviewed the current literature on classification, epidemiology, presenting features, and mechanistic pathways of chronic cough in airway- and reflux-related cough phenotypes, OSA, and COVID-19. The interplay of cough reflex sensitivity with other pathogenic mechanisms inherent to airway and reflux-related inflammatory conditions was also analyzed. Outcomes: Currently, it is difficult to clearly ascertain true prevalence rates in epidemiological studies of chronic cough phenotypes. This is likely due to lack of standardized objective measures needed for cough classification and frequent coexistence of multi-organ cough origins. Notwithstanding, we emphasize the important role of HCR as a mechanistic trigger in airway- and reflux-related cough phenotypes. Other concomitant mechanisms can also modulate HCR, including type2/Th1/Th2 inflammation, presence or absence of deep inspiration-bronchoprotective reflex (lower airways), tissue remodeling, and likely cough plasticity, among others.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    José-Miguel Tejero; Guy Bar-Oz; Ofer Bar-Yosef; Tengiz Meshveliani; Nino Jakeli; Zinovi Matskevich; Ron Pinhasi; Anna Belfer-Cohen;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Countries: France, Austria

    The region of western Georgia (Imereti) in the Southern Caucasus has been a major geographic corridor for human migrations during the Middle and Upper Paleolithic. Data of recent research and excavations in this region display its importance as a possible route for the dispersal of anatomically modern humans (AMH) into northern Eurasia. Nevertheless, within the local research context, bone-working and personal ornaments have yet contributed but little to the Upper Palaeolithic (UP) regional sequence’s characterization. Here we present an archaeozoological, technological and use-wear study of pendants from two local UP assemblages, originating in the Dzudzuana Cave and Satsurblia Cave. The ornaments were made mostly of perforated teeth, though some specimens were made on bone. Both the manufacturing marks made during preparation and use-wear traces indicate that they were personal ornaments, used as pendants or attached to garments. Detailed comparison between ornament assemblages from northern and southern Caucasus reveal that they are quite similar, supporting the observation of cultural bonds between the two regions, demonstrated previously through lithic techno-typological affinities. Furthermore, our study highlights the importance attributed to red deer (Cervus elaphus) by the UP societies of the Caucasus in sharing aesthetic values and/or a symbolic sphere.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Inayat Ur Rahman; Aftab Afzal; Zafar Iqbal; Abeer Hashem; Al-Bandari Fahad Al-Arjani; Abdulaziz A. Alqarawi; Elsayed Fathi Abd_Allah; Mohnad Abdalla; Eduardo Soares Calixto; Shazia Sakhi; +2 more
    Publisher: MDPI AG

    The ecotonal zones support populations that are acclimated to changing, fluctuating, and unstable conditions, and as a result, these populations are better equipped to adjust to expected change. In this context, a hypothesis was tested that there must be vegetation dominated by unique indicator plant species under the influence of ecological gradients in the ecotonal zone of Manoor Valley (northwestern Himalaya), Pakistan. Keeping the aforementioned hypothesis in mind, detailed field studies were conducted during different seasons in 2015-18. Line transect sampling and phytosociological characteristics (density, frequency, cover, and their relative values and Importance Value) were implemented as ecological methods. This investigation documented 97 plant species recorded from seven sampling sites. The community distribution modelling revealed that the ecological variables separate the seven sampling sites into two major plant communities (Indigofera-Parrotiopsis-Bistorta and Ziziphus-Leptopus-Quercus) recognized by TWINSPAN. The IBP communities showed a positive and significant correlation with altitude (1789.6–1896.3 m), sandy soil texture with a slightly acidic pH (6.4–6.5), and higher phosphorous (9–13 mg kg−1). In contrast with this, the ZLQ community was recognized on the southern slope under the strong influence of high electrical conductivity (2.82–5.4 dsm−1), organic matter (1.08–1.25%), calcium carbonate (5.8–7.6 mg kg−1), potassium (202–220 mg kg−1), and temperature (28.8–31.8 °C). Hence, both communities were found on opposite axes with clear differences based on the ecological gradients. NMDS clustered different species with similar habitats and different stands with common species, showing that plant species and stands were in a linear combination with ecological gradients. The IPB community has the maximum number of plant species (87 species), Shannon value (H’ = 4), Simpson value (0.98), and Pielou’s evenness value (0.96). Thus, the multivariate approaches revealed unique vegetation with sharp boundaries between communities which might be due to abrupt environmental changes.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Abdul Rahaman; Abdulraheem S. A. Almalki; Misbahuddin M Rafeeq; Omar Akhtar; Farah Anjum; Mutaib M Mashraqi; Ziaullah M. Sain; Ahmad Alzamami; Varish Ahmad; Xin-An Zeng; +1 more
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

    Vibrio cholerae causes the diarrheal disease cholera which affects millions of people globally. The outer membrane protein U (OmpU) is the outer membrane protein that is most prevalent in V. cholerae and has already been recognized as a critical component of pathogenicity involved in host cell contact and as being necessary for the survival of pathogenic V. cholerae in the host body. Computational approaches were used in this study to screen a total of 37,709 natural compounds from the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) database against the active site of OmpU. Following a sequential screening of the TCM database, we report three lead compounds—ZINC06494587, ZINC85510056, and ZINC95910434—that bind strongly to OmpU, with binding affinity values of −8.92, −8.12, and −8.78 kcal/mol, which were higher than the control ligand (−7.0 kcal/mol). To optimize the interaction, several 100 ns molecular dynamics simulations were performed, and the resulting complexes were shown to be stable in their vicinity. Additionally, these compounds were predicted to have good drug-like properties based on physicochemical properties and ADMET assessments. This study suggests that further research be conducted on these compounds to determine their potential use as cholera disease treatment.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Annett Lotzin; Linda Krause; Elena Acquarini; Dean Ajduković; Vittoria Ardino; Filip K. Arnberg; Maria Böttche; Maria Bragesjö; Małgorzata Dragan; Margarida Figueiredo-Braga; +14 more
    Publisher: Taylor & Francis
    Countries: Croatia, Sweden, Netherlands, Germany, Croatia, Lithuania, Croatia

    ABSTRACT Background The COVID-19 pandemic exposes individuals to multiple stressors, such as quarantine, physical distancing, job loss, risk of infection, and loss of loved ones. Such a complex array of stressors potentially lead to symptoms of adjustment disorder. Objective This cross-sectional exploratory study examined relationships between risk and protective factors, stressors, and symptoms of adjustment disorder during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Data from the first wave of the European Society of Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS) longitudinal ADJUST Study were used. N = 15,563 participants aged 18 years and above were recruited in eleven countries (Austria, Croatia, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, and Sweden) from June to November 2020. Associations between risk and protective factors (e.g. gender, diagnosis of a mental health disorder), stressors (e.g. fear of infection, restricted face-to-face contact), and symptoms of adjustment disorder (ADNM-8) were examined using multivariate linear regression. Results The prevalence of self-reported probable adjustment disorder was 18.2%. Risk factors associated with higher levels of symptoms of adjustment disorder were female gender, older age, being at risk for severe COVID-19 illness, poorer general health status, current or previous trauma exposure, a current or previous mental health disorder, and longer exposure to COVID-19 news. Protective factors related to lower levels of symptoms of adjustment disorder were higher income, being retired, and having more face-to-face contact with loved ones or friends. Pandemic-related stressors associated with higher levels of symptoms of adjustment disorder included fear of infection, governmental crisis management, restricted social contact, work-related problems, restricted activity, and difficult housing conditions. Conclusions We identified stressors, risk, and protective factors that may help identify individuals at higher risk for adjustment disorder. HIGHLIGHTS We examined symptoms of adjustment disorder in 15,563 adults during the COVID-19 pandemic.The prevalence of probable adjustment disorder was 18.2%.We identified stressors, risk, and protective factors that may help identify individuals at higher risk for adjustment disorder.

Advanced search in
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arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
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Include:
734 Research products, page 1 of 74
  • Publication . Article . Part of book or chapter of book . Other literature type . 2022
    Authors: 
    Sichinava, David;
    Publisher: Routledge

    This article examines the territorialization of party support in the Republic of Georgia as political parties in Georgia try to territorialize by aligning themselves to existing societal cleavages....

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . Preprint . 2022 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jennifer Schober; Igor Rogachevskii; Axel Brandenburg;
    Publisher: arXiv
    Country: Switzerland
    Project: SNSF | Magnetohydrodynamical dyn... (185863)

    In relativistic magnetized plasmas, asymmetry in the number densities of left- and right-handed fermions, i.e., a non-zero chiral chemical potential mu_5, leads to an electric current along the magnetic field. This causes a chiral dynamo instability for a uniform mu_5, but our simulations reveal a dynamo even for fluctuating mu_5 with zero mean. It produces magnetically-dominated turbulence and generates mean magnetic fields via the magnetic alpha effect. Eventually, a universal scale-invariant k^(-1) spectrum of mu_5 and a k^(-3) magnetic spectrum are formed independently of the initial condition. Comment: 6 pages, 4 figures, published in Phys. Rev. Lett

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . Preprint . 2022
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Jennifer Schober; Igor Rogachevskii; Axel Brandenburg;
    Publisher: American Physical Society (APS)
    Country: Switzerland
    Project: SNSF | Magnetohydrodynamical dyn... (185863)

    We study the dynamics of magnetic fields in chiral magnetohydrodynamics, which takes into account the effects of an additional electric current related to the chiral magnetic effect in high energy plasmas. We perform direct numerical simulations, considering weak seed magnetic fields and inhomogeneities of the chiral chemical potential mu_5 with a zero mean. We demonstrate that a small-scale chiral dynamo can occur in such plasmas if fluctuations of mu_5 are correlated on length scales that are much larger than the scale on which the dynamo growth rate reaches its maximum. Magnetic fluctuations grow by many orders of magnitude due to the small-scale chiral dynamo instability. Once the nonlinear backreaction of the generated magnetic field on fluctuations of mu_5 sets in, the ratio of these scales decreases and the dynamo saturates. When magnetic fluctuations grow sufficiently to drive turbulence via the Lorentz force before reaching maximum field strength, an additional mean-field dynamo phase is identified. The mean magnetic field grows on a scale that is larger than the integral scale of turbulence after the amplification of the fluctuating component saturates. The growth rate of the mean magnetic field is caused by a magnetic alpha effect that is proportional to the current helicity. With the onset of turbulence, the power spectrum of mu_5 develops a universal k^(-1) scaling independently of its initial shape, while the magnetic energy spectrum approaches a k^(-3) scaling. Comment: 22 pages, 22 figures

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Krys, Kuba; Yeung, June Chun; Capaldi, Colin A.; Lun, Vivian Miu-Chi; Torres, Claudio; van Tilburg, Wijnand A. P.; Bond, Michael Harris; Zelenski, John M.; Haas, Brian W.; Park, Joonha; +54 more
    Countries: Lithuania, United Kingdom, Portugal, Croatia, Switzerland, Serbia, Italy, Netherlands

    In this paper, we introduce the concept of ‘societal emotional environment’: the emotional climate of a society (operationalized as the degree to which positive and negative emotions are expressed in a society). Using data collected from 12, 888 participants across 49 countries, we show how societal emotional environments vary across countries and cultural clusters, and we consider the potential importance of these differences for well-being. Multilevel analyses supported a ‘double-edged sword’ model of negative emotion expression, where expression of negative emotions predicted higher life satisfaction for the expresser but lower life satisfaction for society. In contrast, partial support was found for higher societal life satisfaction in positive societal emotional environments. Our study highlights the potential utility and importance of distinguishing between positive and negative emotion expression, and adopting both individual and societal perspectives in well- being research. Individual pathways to happiness may not necessarily promote the happiness of others.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Zhe Kang Law; Jason P. Appleton; Polly Scutt; Ian Roberts; Rustam Al-Shahi Salman; Timothy J. England; David J. Werring; Thompson G. Robinson; Kailash Krishnan; Robert A. Dineen; +17 more
    Countries: United Kingdom, Denmark

    Background: Seeking consent rapidly in acute stroke trials is crucial as interventions are time sensitive. We explored the association between consent pathways and time to enrollment in the TICH-2 (Tranexamic Acid in Intracerebral Haemorrhage-2) randomized controlled trial. Methods: Consent was provided by patients or by a relative or an independent doctor in incapacitated patients, using a 1-stage (full written consent) or 2-stage (initial brief consent followed by full written consent post-randomization) approach. The computed tomography-to-randomization time according to consent pathways was compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify variables associated with onset-to-randomization time of ≤3 hours. Results: Of 2325 patients, 817 (35%) gave self-consent using 1-stage (557; 68%) or 2-stage consent (260; 32%). For 1507 (65%), consent was provided by a relative (1 stage, 996 [66%]; 2 stage, 323 [21%]) or a doctor (all 2-stage, 188 [12%]). One patient did not record prerandomization consent, with written consent obtained subsequently. The median (interquartile range) computed tomography-to-randomization time was 55 (38–93) minutes for doctor consent, 55 (37–95) minutes for 2-stage patient, 69 (43–110) minutes for 2-stage relative, 75 (48–124) minutes for 1-stage patient, and 90 (56–155) minutes for 1-stage relative consents ( P <0.001). Two-stage consent was associated with onset-to-randomization time of ≤3 hours compared with 1-stage consent (adjusted odds ratio, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.5–2.4]). Doctor consent increased the odds (adjusted odds ratio, 2.3 [1.5–3.5]) while relative consent reduced the odds of randomization ≤3 hours (adjusted odds ratio, 0.10 [0.03–0.34]) compared with patient consent. Only 2 of 771 patients (0.3%) in the 2-stage pathways withdrew consent when full consent was sought later. Two-stage consent process did not result in higher withdrawal rates or loss to follow-up. Conclusions: The use of initial brief consent was associated with shorter times to enrollment, while maintaining good participant retention. Seeking written consent from relatives was associated with significant delays. Registration: URL: https://www.isrctn.com ; Unique identifier: ISRCTN93732214.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Philip W. Rouadi; Samar A. Idriss; Jean Bousquet; Tanya M. Laidlaw; Cecilio Azar; Mona Al-Ahmad; Anahí Yáñez; Maryam Ali Al-Nesf; Talal M. Nsouli; Sami L. Bahna; +30 more
    Publisher: World Allergy Organization
    Countries: Netherlands, France

    Background: Chronic cough can be triggered by respiratory and non-respiratory tract illnesses originating mainly from the upper and lower airways, and the GI tract (ie, reflux). Recent findings suggest it can also be a prominent feature in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), laryngeal hyperresponsiveness, and COVID-19. The classification of chronic cough is constantly updated but lacks clear definition. Epidemiological data on the prevalence of chronic cough are informative but highly variable. The underlying mechanism of chronic cough is a neurogenic inflammation of the cough reflex which becomes hypersensitive, thus the term hypersensitive cough reflex (HCR). A current challenge is to decipher how various infectious and inflammatory airway diseases and esophageal reflux, among others, modulate HCR. Objectives: The World Allergy Organization/Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (WAO/ARIA) Joint Committee on Chronic Cough reviewed the current literature on classification, epidemiology, presenting features, and mechanistic pathways of chronic cough in airway- and reflux-related cough phenotypes, OSA, and COVID-19. The interplay of cough reflex sensitivity with other pathogenic mechanisms inherent to airway and reflux-related inflammatory conditions was also analyzed. Outcomes: Currently, it is difficult to clearly ascertain true prevalence rates in epidemiological studies of chronic cough phenotypes. This is likely due to lack of standardized objective measures needed for cough classification and frequent coexistence of multi-organ cough origins. Notwithstanding, we emphasize the important role of HCR as a mechanistic trigger in airway- and reflux-related cough phenotypes. Other concomitant mechanisms can also modulate HCR, including type2/Th1/Th2 inflammation, presence or absence of deep inspiration-bronchoprotective reflex (lower airways), tissue remodeling, and likely cough plasticity, among others.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    José-Miguel Tejero; Guy Bar-Oz; Ofer Bar-Yosef; Tengiz Meshveliani; Nino Jakeli; Zinovi Matskevich; Ron Pinhasi; Anna Belfer-Cohen;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Countries: France, Austria

    The region of western Georgia (Imereti) in the Southern Caucasus has been a major geographic corridor for human migrations during the Middle and Upper Paleolithic. Data of recent research and excavations in this region display its importance as a possible route for the dispersal of anatomically modern humans (AMH) into northern Eurasia. Nevertheless, within the local research context, bone-working and personal ornaments have yet contributed but little to the Upper Palaeolithic (UP) regional sequence’s characterization. Here we present an archaeozoological, technological and use-wear study of pendants from two local UP assemblages, originating in the Dzudzuana Cave and Satsurblia Cave. The ornaments were made mostly of perforated teeth, though some specimens were made on bone. Both the manufacturing marks made during preparation and use-wear traces indicate that they were personal ornaments, used as pendants or attached to garments. Detailed comparison between ornament assemblages from northern and southern Caucasus reveal that they are quite similar, supporting the observation of cultural bonds between the two regions, demonstrated previously through lithic techno-typological affinities. Furthermore, our study highlights the importance attributed to red deer (Cervus elaphus) by the UP societies of the Caucasus in sharing aesthetic values and/or a symbolic sphere.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Inayat Ur Rahman; Aftab Afzal; Zafar Iqbal; Abeer Hashem; Al-Bandari Fahad Al-Arjani; Abdulaziz A. Alqarawi; Elsayed Fathi Abd_Allah; Mohnad Abdalla; Eduardo Soares Calixto; Shazia Sakhi; +2 more
    Publisher: MDPI AG

    The ecotonal zones support populations that are acclimated to changing, fluctuating, and unstable conditions, and as a result, these populations are better equipped to adjust to expected change. In this context, a hypothesis was tested that there must be vegetation dominated by unique indicator plant species under the influence of ecological gradients in the ecotonal zone of Manoor Valley (northwestern Himalaya), Pakistan. Keeping the aforementioned hypothesis in mind, detailed field studies were conducted during different seasons in 2015-18. Line transect sampling and phytosociological characteristics (density, frequency, cover, and their relative values and Importance Value) were implemented as ecological methods. This investigation documented 97 plant species recorded from seven sampling sites. The community distribution modelling revealed that the ecological variables separate the seven sampling sites into two major plant communities (Indigofera-Parrotiopsis-Bistorta and Ziziphus-Leptopus-Quercus) recognized by TWINSPAN. The IBP communities showed a positive and significant correlation with altitude (1789.6–1896.3 m), sandy soil texture with a slightly acidic pH (6.4–6.5), and higher phosphorous (9–13 mg kg−1). In contrast with this, the ZLQ community was recognized on the southern slope under the strong influence of high electrical conductivity (2.82–5.4 dsm−1), organic matter (1.08–1.25%), calcium carbonate (5.8–7.6 mg kg−1), potassium (202–220 mg kg−1), and temperature (28.8–31.8 °C). Hence, both communities were found on opposite axes with clear differences based on the ecological gradients. NMDS clustered different species with similar habitats and different stands with common species, showing that plant species and stands were in a linear combination with ecological gradients. The IPB community has the maximum number of plant species (87 species), Shannon value (H’ = 4), Simpson value (0.98), and Pielou’s evenness value (0.96). Thus, the multivariate approaches revealed unique vegetation with sharp boundaries between communities which might be due to abrupt environmental changes.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Abdul Rahaman; Abdulraheem S. A. Almalki; Misbahuddin M Rafeeq; Omar Akhtar; Farah Anjum; Mutaib M Mashraqi; Ziaullah M. Sain; Ahmad Alzamami; Varish Ahmad; Xin-An Zeng; +1 more
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

    Vibrio cholerae causes the diarrheal disease cholera which affects millions of people globally. The outer membrane protein U (OmpU) is the outer membrane protein that is most prevalent in V. cholerae and has already been recognized as a critical component of pathogenicity involved in host cell contact and as being necessary for the survival of pathogenic V. cholerae in the host body. Computational approaches were used in this study to screen a total of 37,709 natural compounds from the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) database against the active site of OmpU. Following a sequential screening of the TCM database, we report three lead compounds—ZINC06494587, ZINC85510056, and ZINC95910434—that bind strongly to OmpU, with binding affinity values of −8.92, −8.12, and −8.78 kcal/mol, which were higher than the control ligand (−7.0 kcal/mol). To optimize the interaction, several 100 ns molecular dynamics simulations were performed, and the resulting complexes were shown to be stable in their vicinity. Additionally, these compounds were predicted to have good drug-like properties based on physicochemical properties and ADMET assessments. This study suggests that further research be conducted on these compounds to determine their potential use as cholera disease treatment.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Annett Lotzin; Linda Krause; Elena Acquarini; Dean Ajduković; Vittoria Ardino; Filip K. Arnberg; Maria Böttche; Maria Bragesjö; Małgorzata Dragan; Margarida Figueiredo-Braga; +14 more
    Publisher: Taylor & Francis
    Countries: Croatia, Sweden, Netherlands, Germany, Croatia, Lithuania, Croatia

    ABSTRACT Background The COVID-19 pandemic exposes individuals to multiple stressors, such as quarantine, physical distancing, job loss, risk of infection, and loss of loved ones. Such a complex array of stressors potentially lead to symptoms of adjustment disorder. Objective This cross-sectional exploratory study examined relationships between risk and protective factors, stressors, and symptoms of adjustment disorder during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Data from the first wave of the European Society of Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS) longitudinal ADJUST Study were used. N = 15,563 participants aged 18 years and above were recruited in eleven countries (Austria, Croatia, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, and Sweden) from June to November 2020. Associations between risk and protective factors (e.g. gender, diagnosis of a mental health disorder), stressors (e.g. fear of infection, restricted face-to-face contact), and symptoms of adjustment disorder (ADNM-8) were examined using multivariate linear regression. Results The prevalence of self-reported probable adjustment disorder was 18.2%. Risk factors associated with higher levels of symptoms of adjustment disorder were female gender, older age, being at risk for severe COVID-19 illness, poorer general health status, current or previous trauma exposure, a current or previous mental health disorder, and longer exposure to COVID-19 news. Protective factors related to lower levels of symptoms of adjustment disorder were higher income, being retired, and having more face-to-face contact with loved ones or friends. Pandemic-related stressors associated with higher levels of symptoms of adjustment disorder included fear of infection, governmental crisis management, restricted social contact, work-related problems, restricted activity, and difficult housing conditions. Conclusions We identified stressors, risk, and protective factors that may help identify individuals at higher risk for adjustment disorder. HIGHLIGHTS We examined symptoms of adjustment disorder in 15,563 adults during the COVID-19 pandemic.The prevalence of probable adjustment disorder was 18.2%.We identified stressors, risk, and protective factors that may help identify individuals at higher risk for adjustment disorder.

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