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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rebecka Lindvall; Axel Bjerke; Armin Salmasi; Filip Lenrick; Rachid M’Saoubi; Jan-Eric Ståhl; Volodymyr Bushlya;
    Publisher: KTH, Strukturer
    Country: Sweden

    Conventional cemented carbide is recommended for machining Ti6Al4V. However, polycrystalline diamond (PCD) and polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (pcBN) also show promise. Demands for higher productivity accelerate diffusional dissolution and chemically driven wear mechanisms in these tool materials. This study investigates active wear mechanisms by studying the interactions between Ti6Al4V and PCD, pcBN, and cemented carbide tools in diffusion couples at temperatures from 900° to 1300°C. All tool materials suffered from diffusion to varying degrees, and different chemical reactions occurred. Titanium carbide with minor vanadium alloying (Ti,V)C reaction products act as diffusion barriers when using PCD and cemented carbide, while the reaction products acting as diffusion barrier in pcBN is (Ti,V)B2. The presence of Mo and W in binder sites of pcBN reduces diffusional dissolution of cBN. Diffusion simulations agreed well with microscopy investigations and were enabled by the known temperature and pressure conditions of the static diffusion couples. QC 20221025

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sandhya Thantla; Jonas Aspfors; Morteza Ghanbarpour; Jens Fridh;
    Publisher: KTH, Förbränningsmotorteknik
    Country: Sweden

    Strict legislations over emissions from heavy-duty trucks are pushing the manufacturers towards improving their brake thermal efficiency, thereby mitigating fuel consumption and reducing CO2 emissions. Organic Rankine cycle-based waste heat recovery system has proven to be an inevitable technology in boosting the engine performance besides the other methods and approaches. In addition to recovering the exhaust heat from the engine, recovering heat from the engine coolant is also beneficial, provided its nominal temperature is raised. Thus, this work investigates the scope of improvement in performance of a heavy-duty truck engine when integrated with a dual-loop organic Rankine cycle system for recovering heat from its exhaust and coolant, simultaneously. The analysis has been performed as a simulation study on GT-SUITE using the one-dimensional model of the engine with its organic Rankine cycle heat recovery setup. The model was developed based on the components of a real commercial truck engine connected with a simple exhaust waste heat recovery system. For the work described in this paper, model of the single-loop exhaust waste heat recovery system was modified to a dual-loop circuit comprising of two scroll expanders and R1233zd(E) as the working fluid. Notably, performance investigation was carried out using a unique Scandinavian motorway road data retrieved from the truck. This paper addresses the challenges associated with simultaneous heat recovery from engine exhaust and coolant. Performance comparison at four steady-state engine operating points reveal that the low temperature radiator installed for the indirect condensation of the working fluid is the major influencing component on system efficiency. At higher engine loads, the overall system efficiency considerably decreased due to limited heat rejection capacity of this radiator. Moreover, on assessing the scope of improving the system’s performance by having variable gear ratio between the engine and the expanders, 1.6% points (0.12 kW) gain in power was observed by having the high-pressure expander’s speed fixed and the low-pressure expander’s speed varied. Furthermore, elevating the engine coolant temperature from 120 °C to 140 °C, significant heat loss from the coolant to the engine surroundings resulted in a substantial drop in net power at lower part loads although it had improved at higher engine operating points. QC 20221019 Low temperature waste heat recovery

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Cesario Ajpi; Naviana Leiva; Anders Lundblad; Göran Lindbergh; Saul Cabrera;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Sweden

    This work presents synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of a new metal-organic framework (MOF). The compound Fe-BDC-DMF was synthetized by the solvothermal method and prepared via a reaction between FeCl3.6H2O and benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid (H2BDC) or terephthalic acid using N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as solvent. The powder was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) analysis. The electrochemical properties were investigated in a typical lithium-ion battery electrolyte by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charging and discharging. The synthetized Fe-BDC-DMF metal-organic framework (MOF) contains a mixture of three phases, identified by PXRD as: MOF-235, and MIL-53(Fe) monoclinic with C2/c and P21/c space groups. The structure of the Fe-BDC is built up from Fe3+ ions, terephalates (BDC) bridges and in-situ-generated DMF ligands. The electrochemical measurements conducted in the potential range of 0.5–3.5 V vs. Li+/Li0 show the voltage profiles of Fe-BDC and a plateau capacity of around 175 mAh/g. QC 20230109

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Adam Wickberg;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications
    Country: Sweden

    This article presents the new theoretical concept of environing media, which is developed to offer critical insight into how processes of mediation affect how we perceive of, manage and use the environment. Building on the insight that the environment has been in a continuous slow process of change that is now escalating due to human impacts, the article sketches a history of how environmental change and mediation are intertwined. Taking the history of agriculture as a case for the theoretical development, it shows how the current digitization of farming and implementation of AI systems in precision agriculture is the last of a long series in which environmental mediation come to play a crucial role in the forging of human–Earth relations. The article thereby shows the complex interplay between knowing and changing the environment as media technologies produce new epistemologies that in turn produce new interventions. QC 20221227

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kerem Kaya; Emre Iseri; Wouter van der Wijngaart;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: Sweden

    AbstractMagnetopolymers are of interest in smart material applications; however, changing their magnetic properties post synthesis is complicated. In this study, we introduce easily programmable polymer magnetic composites comprising 2D lattices of droplets of solid-liquid phase change material, with each droplet containing a single magnetic dipole particle. These composites are ferromagnetic with a Curie temperature defined by the rotational freedom of the particles above the droplet melting point. We demonstrate magnetopolymers combining high remanence characteristics with Curie temperatures below the composite degradation temperature. We easily reprogram the material between four states: (1) a superparamagnetic state above the melting point which, in the absence of an external magnetic field, spontaneously collapses to; (2) an artificial spin ice state, which after cooling forms either; (3) a spin glass state with low bulk remanence, or; (4) a ferromagnetic state with high bulk remanence when cooled in the presence of an external magnetic field. We observe the spontaneous emergence of 2D magnetic vortices in the spin ice and elucidate the correlation of these vortex structures with the external bulk remanence. We also demonstrate the easy programming of magnetically latching structures.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Joydeep Dutta; Johan Nordstrand;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Sweden

    Many works in capacitive deionization (CDI) use finite-element (FEM) simulations to investigate process behavior. Here, we present ELC, comprehensive software that integrates these methods with COMSOL Multiphysics. It can save significant time for common research questions in CDI operations and is well-suited for new research questions in complex and upscaled device designs. The ELC software has already been used for the simulation of time-varying desalination output, charge leakages, bipolar electrode devices, and stacks of over 100 CDI cells. Finally, we provide a video tutorial on how to use the software. In conclusion, ELC could be a strong software for aiding current and future research in electrochemical desalination. QC 20221123

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Mustapha Habib; Annika Gram; Abdelghani Harrag; Qian Wang;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Sweden

    This paper presents a methodology for the analysis and simulation of the effect of operating large photovoltaic(PV) plants, in coordination, as static synchronous compensators (STATCOM). The goal is to improve voltageprofiles at different load nodes and reduce power losses in transmission lines. The proposed approach takes intoaccount the varying reactive power capacity in PV inverters, which depends on weather conditions.To implement the proposed method, proper Internet of Things (IoT) hardware and software solutions arerequired. In this context, the grid status and weather data need to be transmitted continuously, via wirelesscommunication technology, to an edge computer. Based on the transmitted data, and using the system mathe-matical model, an optimization algorithm is then responsible for finding out the optimal reactive power setpointfor each plant in real time.The proposed method is implemented and tested successfully using MATLAB platform with the MATPOWERIEEE 30-bus test grid model. When only five 20 MW PV plants are connected to different locations in the gridwith a penetration rate lower than 25 percent, the simulation shows the effectiveness of the optimal coordinationof PV plants to deal with the effect on the transmission grid of instantaneous operation of multiple loads. In thiscontext, a daily load profile of heat pumps, operating in winter scenario in multiple households, is approved. Animprovement up to 68 percent in the global voltage profiles in the load buses for one-day scenario is achieved.Furthermore, total accumulated active and reactive power losses are reduced by 24.1 percent. QC 20220808

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Zheng Lu; Linus Hasselström; Göran Finnveden; Nils Johansson;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Sweden

    Plastic packaging is a major contributor to the environmental impacts associated with the linear plastic production and consumption system due to the prevalence of short-lived single-use plastic (SUP) packaging. Deposit-refund system (DRS), as an alternative policy instrument to Extended Producer Responsibility in waste management, is deemed as a potentially promising way to address the failure of the current plastic waste management and facilitate circular plastic packaging production and consumption for food contact use. In this paper, two DRS scenarios for recycling and reuse respectively are explored, with PET trays for food-grade use in Sweden in focus. Their costs and benefits are investigated relative to the business-as-usual scenario over a 25-year period. Results show that the costs are greater than the benefits for the recycling scenario but not for the reuse scenario and that the benefit-cost ratio (1,67) of the reuse scenario is 2.3 times as high as that (0,73) of the recycling scenario. The distributive analysis reveals major cost drivers such as deposit handling and recycling in the recycling case and deposit handling, dishwashing and packaging in the reuse case and major cost takers such as materials industry and hospitality/supermarkets in both scenarios. However, the results are uncertain, as is indicated by sensitivity analysis. Several parameters with high uncertainty are identified and highlighted for system development and innovation. QC 20221201

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fedra Vanhuyse; Shogofa Rezaie; Mathilda Englund; Julia Jokiaho; Maryna Henrysson; Karin André;
    Publisher: KTH, Energisystem
    Country: Sweden

    The circular economy (CE) model, where resources are kept "in the loop" for as long as possible through a series of reusing, remanufacturing, recycling, and recovery strategies, has been acclaimed for reducing the environmental impacts of our current economic model substantially and has therefore been supported by a wide range of policymakers as one solution to tackling climate change. However, how circular transitions in cities impact people has been rarely researched, and even less attention has been paid to the negative consequences of CE transitions. This paper presents the findings from a social impact assessment conducted in the city of Umeå, Sweden. We identified several negative impacts of a CE transition across seven social impact categories and explored three areas in depth with stakeholders in the city: employment, access to services and participation. We found that the negative impacts of the CE are perceived to be limited and that the CE interventions are mainly viewed as a win-win-win outcome, i.e., a win for the environment, the economy and people. This raises questions about the level to which societal consequences have been considered and whether all relevant stakeholders, in particular civil society, have participated in the design of the city's CE strategy. Our findings can inform other cities about possible negative consequences of CE transitions and provide insights into how to incorporate different stakeholders in the CE transition process to ensure that no one is left behind. QC 20221206 Urban Circularity Assessment Framework

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Qigui Yang; Zhongwen Chang; Luca Messina; Nils Sandberg; Nicolas Castin; Amine Yousfi; Elin Toijer; Mattias Thuvander; Bruno Boizot; Vincent Metayer; +2 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Sweden, France

    International audience; In this work, the Cu clustering in Fe under irradiation is investigated using experiments, cluster dynamics and atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo (AKMC) simulations. In experiments, cast iron and model FeCu alloy samples were irradiated with 2 MeV electrons for 143 h at 140 °C. The post-irradiation microstructure was characterized using atom probe tomography. Cluster dynamics and AKMC methods were used to simulate the Cu clustering under the same irradiation conditions. Both simulation methods show satisfactory agreement with experiments, lending strength to the validity of the models. Finally, the Cu clustering in spent-fuel repository conditions for 10$^5$ years at 100 °C was simulated using both methods. The results indicate that potential hardening by Cu clustering is insignificant over 10$^5$ years.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
4,410 Research products, page 1 of 441
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rebecka Lindvall; Axel Bjerke; Armin Salmasi; Filip Lenrick; Rachid M’Saoubi; Jan-Eric Ståhl; Volodymyr Bushlya;
    Publisher: KTH, Strukturer
    Country: Sweden

    Conventional cemented carbide is recommended for machining Ti6Al4V. However, polycrystalline diamond (PCD) and polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (pcBN) also show promise. Demands for higher productivity accelerate diffusional dissolution and chemically driven wear mechanisms in these tool materials. This study investigates active wear mechanisms by studying the interactions between Ti6Al4V and PCD, pcBN, and cemented carbide tools in diffusion couples at temperatures from 900° to 1300°C. All tool materials suffered from diffusion to varying degrees, and different chemical reactions occurred. Titanium carbide with minor vanadium alloying (Ti,V)C reaction products act as diffusion barriers when using PCD and cemented carbide, while the reaction products acting as diffusion barrier in pcBN is (Ti,V)B2. The presence of Mo and W in binder sites of pcBN reduces diffusional dissolution of cBN. Diffusion simulations agreed well with microscopy investigations and were enabled by the known temperature and pressure conditions of the static diffusion couples. QC 20221025

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sandhya Thantla; Jonas Aspfors; Morteza Ghanbarpour; Jens Fridh;
    Publisher: KTH, Förbränningsmotorteknik
    Country: Sweden

    Strict legislations over emissions from heavy-duty trucks are pushing the manufacturers towards improving their brake thermal efficiency, thereby mitigating fuel consumption and reducing CO2 emissions. Organic Rankine cycle-based waste heat recovery system has proven to be an inevitable technology in boosting the engine performance besides the other methods and approaches. In addition to recovering the exhaust heat from the engine, recovering heat from the engine coolant is also beneficial, provided its nominal temperature is raised. Thus, this work investigates the scope of improvement in performance of a heavy-duty truck engine when integrated with a dual-loop organic Rankine cycle system for recovering heat from its exhaust and coolant, simultaneously. The analysis has been performed as a simulation study on GT-SUITE using the one-dimensional model of the engine with its organic Rankine cycle heat recovery setup. The model was developed based on the components of a real commercial truck engine connected with a simple exhaust waste heat recovery system. For the work described in this paper, model of the single-loop exhaust waste heat recovery system was modified to a dual-loop circuit comprising of two scroll expanders and R1233zd(E) as the working fluid. Notably, performance investigation was carried out using a unique Scandinavian motorway road data retrieved from the truck. This paper addresses the challenges associated with simultaneous heat recovery from engine exhaust and coolant. Performance comparison at four steady-state engine operating points reveal that the low temperature radiator installed for the indirect condensation of the working fluid is the major influencing component on system efficiency. At higher engine loads, the overall system efficiency considerably decreased due to limited heat rejection capacity of this radiator. Moreover, on assessing the scope of improving the system’s performance by having variable gear ratio between the engine and the expanders, 1.6% points (0.12 kW) gain in power was observed by having the high-pressure expander’s speed fixed and the low-pressure expander’s speed varied. Furthermore, elevating the engine coolant temperature from 120 °C to 140 °C, significant heat loss from the coolant to the engine surroundings resulted in a substantial drop in net power at lower part loads although it had improved at higher engine operating points. QC 20221019 Low temperature waste heat recovery

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Cesario Ajpi; Naviana Leiva; Anders Lundblad; Göran Lindbergh; Saul Cabrera;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Sweden

    This work presents synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of a new metal-organic framework (MOF). The compound Fe-BDC-DMF was synthetized by the solvothermal method and prepared via a reaction between FeCl3.6H2O and benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid (H2BDC) or terephthalic acid using N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as solvent. The powder was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) analysis. The electrochemical properties were investigated in a typical lithium-ion battery electrolyte by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charging and discharging. The synthetized Fe-BDC-DMF metal-organic framework (MOF) contains a mixture of three phases, identified by PXRD as: MOF-235, and MIL-53(Fe) monoclinic with C2/c and P21/c space groups. The structure of the Fe-BDC is built up from Fe3+ ions, terephalates (BDC) bridges and in-situ-generated DMF ligands. The electrochemical measurements conducted in the potential range of 0.5–3.5 V vs. Li+/Li0 show the voltage profiles of Fe-BDC and a plateau capacity of around 175 mAh/g. QC 20230109

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Adam Wickberg;
    Publisher: SAGE Publications
    Country: Sweden

    This article presents the new theoretical concept of environing media, which is developed to offer critical insight into how processes of mediation affect how we perceive of, manage and use the environment. Building on the insight that the environment has been in a continuous slow process of change that is now escalating due to human impacts, the article sketches a history of how environmental change and mediation are intertwined. Taking the history of agriculture as a case for the theoretical development, it shows how the current digitization of farming and implementation of AI systems in precision agriculture is the last of a long series in which environmental mediation come to play a crucial role in the forging of human–Earth relations. The article thereby shows the complex interplay between knowing and changing the environment as media technologies produce new epistemologies that in turn produce new interventions. QC 20221227

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kerem Kaya; Emre Iseri; Wouter van der Wijngaart;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: Sweden

    AbstractMagnetopolymers are of interest in smart material applications; however, changing their magnetic properties post synthesis is complicated. In this study, we introduce easily programmable polymer magnetic composites comprising 2D lattices of droplets of solid-liquid phase change material, with each droplet containing a single magnetic dipole particle. These composites are ferromagnetic with a Curie temperature defined by the rotational freedom of the particles above the droplet melting point. We demonstrate magnetopolymers combining high remanence characteristics with Curie temperatures below the composite degradation temperature. We easily reprogram the material between four states: (1) a superparamagnetic state above the melting point which, in the absence of an external magnetic field, spontaneously collapses to; (2) an artificial spin ice state, which after cooling forms either; (3) a spin glass state with low bulk remanence, or; (4) a ferromagnetic state with high bulk remanence when cooled in the presence of an external magnetic field. We observe the spontaneous emergence of 2D magnetic vortices in the spin ice and elucidate the correlation of these vortex structures with the external bulk remanence. We also demonstrate the easy programming of magnetically latching structures.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Joydeep Dutta; Johan Nordstrand;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Sweden

    Many works in capacitive deionization (CDI) use finite-element (FEM) simulations to investigate process behavior. Here, we present ELC, comprehensive software that integrates these methods with COMSOL Multiphysics. It can save significant time for common research questions in CDI operations and is well-suited for new research questions in complex and upscaled device designs. The ELC software has already been used for the simulation of time-varying desalination output, charge leakages, bipolar electrode devices, and stacks of over 100 CDI cells. Finally, we provide a video tutorial on how to use the software. In conclusion, ELC could be a strong software for aiding current and future research in electrochemical desalination. QC 20221123

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Mustapha Habib; Annika Gram; Abdelghani Harrag; Qian Wang;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Sweden

    This paper presents a methodology for the analysis and simulation of the effect of operating large photovoltaic(PV) plants, in coordination, as static synchronous compensators (STATCOM). The goal is to improve voltageprofiles at different load nodes and reduce power losses in transmission lines. The proposed approach takes intoaccount the varying reactive power capacity in PV inverters, which depends on weather conditions.To implement the proposed method, proper Internet of Things (IoT) hardware and software solutions arerequired. In this context, the grid status and weather data need to be transmitted continuously, via wirelesscommunication technology, to an edge computer. Based on the transmitted data, and using the system mathe-matical model, an optimization algorithm is then responsible for finding out the optimal reactive power setpointfor each plant in real time.The proposed method is implemented and tested successfully using MATLAB platform with the MATPOWERIEEE 30-bus test grid model. When only five 20 MW PV plants are connected to different locations in the gridwith a penetration rate lower than 25 percent, the simulation shows the effectiveness of the optimal coordinationof PV plants to deal with the effect on the transmission grid of instantaneous operation of multiple loads. In thiscontext, a daily load profile of heat pumps, operating in winter scenario in multiple households, is approved. Animprovement up to 68 percent in the global voltage profiles in the load buses for one-day scenario is achieved.Furthermore, total accumulated active and reactive power losses are reduced by 24.1 percent. QC 20220808

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Zheng Lu; Linus Hasselström; Göran Finnveden; Nils Johansson;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Sweden

    Plastic packaging is a major contributor to the environmental impacts associated with the linear plastic production and consumption system due to the prevalence of short-lived single-use plastic (SUP) packaging. Deposit-refund system (DRS), as an alternative policy instrument to Extended Producer Responsibility in waste management, is deemed as a potentially promising way to address the failure of the current plastic waste management and facilitate circular plastic packaging production and consumption for food contact use. In this paper, two DRS scenarios for recycling and reuse respectively are explored, with PET trays for food-grade use in Sweden in focus. Their costs and benefits are investigated relative to the business-as-usual scenario over a 25-year period. Results show that the costs are greater than the benefits for the recycling scenario but not for the reuse scenario and that the benefit-cost ratio (1,67) of the reuse scenario is 2.3 times as high as that (0,73) of the recycling scenario. The distributive analysis reveals major cost drivers such as deposit handling and recycling in the recycling case and deposit handling, dishwashing and packaging in the reuse case and major cost takers such as materials industry and hospitality/supermarkets in both scenarios. However, the results are uncertain, as is indicated by sensitivity analysis. Several parameters with high uncertainty are identified and highlighted for system development and innovation. QC 20221201

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fedra Vanhuyse; Shogofa Rezaie; Mathilda Englund; Julia Jokiaho; Maryna Henrysson; Karin André;
    Publisher: KTH, Energisystem
    Country: Sweden

    The circular economy (CE) model, where resources are kept "in the loop" for as long as possible through a series of reusing, remanufacturing, recycling, and recovery strategies, has been acclaimed for reducing the environmental impacts of our current economic model substantially and has therefore been supported by a wide range of policymakers as one solution to tackling climate change. However, how circular transitions in cities impact people has been rarely researched, and even less attention has been paid to the negative consequences of CE transitions. This paper presents the findings from a social impact assessment conducted in the city of Umeå, Sweden. We identified several negative impacts of a CE transition across seven social impact categories and explored three areas in depth with stakeholders in the city: employment, access to services and participation. We found that the negative impacts of the CE are perceived to be limited and that the CE interventions are mainly viewed as a win-win-win outcome, i.e., a win for the environment, the economy and people. This raises questions about the level to which societal consequences have been considered and whether all relevant stakeholders, in particular civil society, have participated in the design of the city's CE strategy. Our findings can inform other cities about possible negative consequences of CE transitions and provide insights into how to incorporate different stakeholders in the CE transition process to ensure that no one is left behind. QC 20221206 Urban Circularity Assessment Framework

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Qigui Yang; Zhongwen Chang; Luca Messina; Nils Sandberg; Nicolas Castin; Amine Yousfi; Elin Toijer; Mattias Thuvander; Bruno Boizot; Vincent Metayer; +2 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Sweden, France

    International audience; In this work, the Cu clustering in Fe under irradiation is investigated using experiments, cluster dynamics and atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo (AKMC) simulations. In experiments, cast iron and model FeCu alloy samples were irradiated with 2 MeV electrons for 143 h at 140 °C. The post-irradiation microstructure was characterized using atom probe tomography. Cluster dynamics and AKMC methods were used to simulate the Cu clustering under the same irradiation conditions. Both simulation methods show satisfactory agreement with experiments, lending strength to the validity of the models. Finally, the Cu clustering in spent-fuel repository conditions for 10$^5$ years at 100 °C was simulated using both methods. The results indicate that potential hardening by Cu clustering is insignificant over 10$^5$ years.

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