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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Rocco Palumbo; Maria Vincenza Ciasullo; Massimiliano Matteo Pellegrini; Andrea Caputo; Mario Turco;
    Publisher: Emerald
    Country: United Kingdom

    Purpose Eco-museums safeguard the cultural authenticity and the historical identity of the place in which they operate. Conventional organizational models and management practices are generally employed to achieve this institutional aim. Conversely, innovative solutions – such as digitization – are overlooked. Adopting a service quality management perspective, the article intends to examine the role of managerialization and professionalization in triggering eco-museums' digitization. Design/methodology/approach An empirical analysis involving 126 eco-museums operating in Italy as of 2018 was designed to investigate the implications of managerialization and professionalization on the eco-museums' propensity to embark on a digitization process. Two different forms of digitization were examined: (1) the presence of eco-museums in the digital environment; and (2) the exploitation of digital tools for service delivery. The mediating role of two “soft” total quality management (TQM) practices, i.e. people centredness and strategic focus on visitors' experience, was contemplated in the empirical analysis. Findings The research findings suggest that managerialization and professionalization have ambiguous effects on eco-museums' digitization. Nevertheless, they indirectly contribute to a greater digital presence of eco-museums and to a larger use of digital tools for service delivery through an increased use of soft TQM practices. Research limitations/implications Managerialization and professionalization are likely to foster the digital transition of eco-museums, which advances their ability to protect and promote the local cultural heritage. Soft TQM practices intended to achieve people-centredness and to enhance the visitors' experience should be exploited to stimulate the eco-museums' digitization. Originality/value The article examines the triggers of eco-museums' digitization, providing some food for thought to scholars and practitioners.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    AFSHARI, Leila;
    Publisher: Istanbul University

    The Ramhormoz region in south and southwest Iran and its large-scale geography extends to the northern highlands of present-day modern Khuzestan. Despite its significance for its connection with the Susa-Persopolis Road during the Achaemenid period, the region did not attract archaeological attention until 1948s. Even in its brevity, the results of the 1969 Wright-Carter survey showed that the Ramhormoz region is promising in shedding light on the relation between the highlands and lowlands of southwest Iran. As a result of new archaeological data and the survey conducted under my supervision, the characteristics of the Achaemenid settlements on the Ramhormoz plain in Southwest Iran were reanalyzed. The influence of geographical factors such as the presence of large rivers and fertile lands on the formation and prosperity of the settlements, and the relations between sedentary, rural, and nomadic communities were examined. It was thus revealed that proximity to commercial roads and access to water resources and pasture were the main determinants in the distribution model of Achaemenid settlements. Rich pastures for nomads, the potential for irrigated agriculture for settlers, and access to communication routes provided advantages for both lifestyles (Alizadeh, 1979). The socio-political control and settlement pattern organized by the central political power in the Late Elamite Period continued in the Achaemenid period as well. Therefore, the settlement pattern is more associated with roads. When the location of the settlements and their distance to each other are examined, it is seen that the frequency of settlements on the Susa-Persepolis Royal Road is very high. Settlements are located on the road within short distances of each other, which shows that the road is a determining factor on settlements in the region due to its socio-economic advantages. During the Achaemenid period, as in the previous period, while settlements continued their development on the slopes of the mountains and on the edge of the plain, they were mainly concentrated in the center of the plain. During this period, the size of the settlements increased, which is indicative of population growth on the Ramhormoz plain during the Achaemenid period. İran’ın güney ve güneybatısındaki Ramhormoz bölgesi ve onun geniş ölçekli coğrafyası bugünkü modern Huzistan’nın kuzey dağlık kısmına kadar uzanmaktadır. Bölge 1948 yılına kadar arkeolojik açıdan dikkati çekmemekteydi. Halbuki bu bölge Akhaimenid döneminde Susa-Persepolis yolu üzerinde yer alması oldukça büyük öneme sahiptir. Wright ve Carter’in 1969 yılında gerçekleştirdiği yüzey araştırmaları sonucunda bu bölgenin güneybatı İran’ın ovalık ve dağlık kısımları arasında bağlantının olduğunu göstermektedir. Yeni arkeolojik veriler ve başkanlığımda gerçekleştirilen yüzey araştırmasıyla Ramhormoz ovasındaki Akhaimenid yerleşim karakteri tekrar analiz edilmiştir. Büyük nehirlerin ve verimli tarımsal araziler gibi coğrafi faktörler ile yerleşik, kırsal ve göçebe topluluklar arasındaki ilişkilerin iskana etkisi sorgulanmaya çalışılmıştır. Akhaimenid yerleşimlerinin dağılım modelinde ticari yollara yakınlık, su kaynaklarına ve meraya erişimin belirleyici olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Göçebeler için zengin meralar, yerleşikler için sulu tarım potansiyeli ve iletişim yollarına erişim, her iki yaşam biçimi için de avantaj sağlamıştır. Geç Elam Dönemi’ndeki sosyo-politik kontrol ve yerleşme modeli Akhaimenid döneminde de devam etmiştir. Yerleşim örüntüsü daha çok yollarla ilişkilidir. Yerleşmelerin konumlarını ve birbirilerine göre mesafelerini göz önüne aldığımızda Susa-Persepolis Kral Yolu güzergahındaki yerleşme sıklığının da fazla olduğu ortaya çıkar. Yol üzerinde kısa mesafelerle yerleşmeler konumlanmıştır. Bu da yolun sosyo-ekonomik avantajları nedeniyle bölgedeki iskân anlayışında belirleyici olduğunu gösterir. Akhaimenid döneminde, önceki dönemde olduğu gibi, dağların yamaçlarında ve ova kenarında yerleşmeler devam ederken, ana odağı ovanın merkezindedir. Bu dönemde, yerleşimlerin büyüklüğü artmıştır ve bu da Akhaimenid döneminde Ramhormoz ovasında nüfus artışının göstergesidir.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Sabahattin Erdoğan; Mikail Erçek; Yunus Çiftçi; Hanifi Biber; Hakan Yılmaz; Gulan Ayaz;
    Publisher: Istanbul University

    Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi, dağlık bir bölge oluşu ya da iklimsel elverişsizliğine rağmen önemli bir güzergâh veya önemli bir mesken konumunda olmuştur. Tarih öncesi çağlardan beri sürekli yerleşim görmüş, çoğu büyük kültürün, krallığın ve devletin odak noktası olmayı başarmıştır. Özellikle Kalkolitik Çağ sonlarında başladığı düşünülen büyük göçler ve bunun devamında gelen kültürler bölgeyi anayurtları gibi kullanmaya devam etmiştir. Aynı şekilde Muş Bölgesi içinde geçerli olan bu göç dalgaları sadece yüzey araştırmaları ile belirlenirken, Tepeköy Höyük kazıları ile bu veriler belgelenmiştir. Tepeköy, Muş Bölgesinde yapılan tabakalı ilk höyük kazısı olması açısından önemlidir. Höyükte yapılan kazılar sonucu; Orta Çağ, Demir Çağ ve Tunç Çağı tabakalarına ulaşılmıştır. Özellikle Erken Tunç Çağı (ETÇ) ve Orta Tunç Çağı (OTÇ) kültürlerinin çok iyi izlenebildiği yerleşimde hem mimari hem de buluntular açısından zengin özellikler görülebilmektedir. Demir Çağlarının Erken ve Orta Demir (Urartu) Dönemleri’ne ait veriler sunması açısından da oldukça önemli bir höyüktür. Erken Transkafkasya Kültürü ile başlayan ve günümüze kadar sürekli kullanılan höyük hem Muş Bölgesi hem de Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi tarihi için çok önemli veriler sağlamaktadır. Tabakalanması, mimari öğeleri ve diğer buluntu grupları ile birlikte birçok soruya cevap vermektedir The Eastern Anatolia Region has been an important route or an important residence despite being a mountainous region and with its climatic challenges. It has been inhabited continuously since prehistoric times and managed to become the focal point of many great cultures, kingdoms, and states. Specifically, the great migrations thought to have started at the end of the Chalcolithic Age and the subsequent cultures continued to use the region as their homeland. These migration waves, in the Muş Region, have previously been documented by only limited research. Now, more data have been collected with the Tepeköy Mound excavations. Tepeköy is an important mound as it is the first layered mound excavation in the Muş Region. The excavations Medieval, Iron Age and Bronze Age layers where some rich features of the architecture and objects could be seen. It provides data on the Early and Middle Iron (Urartian) periods of the Iron Ages. Mound, which started with the Early Transcaucasian Culture and used continuously until today, provides crucial data for the history of both the Muş Region and the Eastern Anatolia Region. Being a unique center with its stratification, architectural elements and other finds, the mound may answer many questions on the history of the region and transcaucasian migrations

  • Publication . Article . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Michael J. May; Efrat Kantor; Nissim Zror;
    Publisher: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)

    Digitizing cemeteries and gravestones aids cultural preservation, genealogical search, dark tourism, and historical analysis. CemoMemo, an app and associated website, enables bottom-up crowd-sourced digitization of cemeteries, categorizing and indexing of gravestone data and metadata, and offering powerful full-text and numerical search. To date, CemoMemo has nearly 5,000 graves from over 130 cemeteries in 10 countries with the majority being Jewish graves in Israel and the USA. We detail CemoMemo's deployment and component models, technical attributes, and user models. CemoMemo went through two design iterations and architectures. We detail its initial architecture and the reasons that led to the change in architecture. To show its utility, we use CemoMemo's data for a historical analysis of two Jewish cemeteries from a similar period, eliciting cultural and ethnological difference between them. We present lessons learned from developing and operating CemoMemo for over 1 year and point to future directions of development.

  • Authors: 
    Diego F. García-Molina; Samuel López-Lago; Rafael E. Hidalgo-Fernández; Paula Triviño-Tarradas;
    Publisher: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)

    Technological advancements have a great impact on the dissemination and understanding of the cultural heritage reality due to innovative techniques. These innovations are based on high-precision and high-resolution technologies that allow for the geometric documentation of any object within the fields of history and the arts. Through these techniques, new proposals may be studied and objects can be placed in any historical context. Three-dimensional (3D) digitization allows one to obtain a digital 3D model, which can be handled virtually and recreated at any historical period, enabling the conservation and safeguarding of cultural heritage. Society currently demands new visualization techniques that allow interacting with architectural and artistic heritage, which have been applied in numerous virtual reconstructions of historical sites or singular archaeological pieces. This project allowed us to geometrically document a reused piece with two surfaces (shield and columns) and a plaque of the city of Merida using a structured light scanner from a theoretical-practical perspective. The 3D virtual reconstruction of the pieces was accomplished within this study. The generation of QR codes enabled the interactive display of the heritage pieces. Likewise, a proposal was made to reuse the aforementioned pieces through virtual archaeology. The initial hypothesis is based on the possible existence of a Visigothic niche as an original form. This research reports significant advances in the conservation and exploitation of cultural heritage.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Tushar Saini; Vijay Arora; Susheel Sharma; Deepak B Kumar; Vipul Parmar; Saurbh Sharma;
    Publisher: Forensicwayout

    Suicide is a critical mental health problem, and during this COVID-19 pandemic, various mental health problems have arisen, leading to an increased tendency for suicides. It is difficult to believe if we lose someone due to suicide, especially if he/she is a popular figure in society, as it does not affect the family and friends of that person but also brings a sense of loss to the community. Copycat suicide is defined as duplication or copycat of another suicide that the person attempting suicide knows about either from the local knowledge or on account of depicting the original suicide on television and in other media.1 Werther effect defines as a popular term for an increase in suicide rates that follow media coverage of suicides or are inspired by reading about others suicides or are linked to a friend or family member who committed suicide.2 In June 2020, a renowned Bollywood actor Sushant Singh Rajput was found dead, hanging from the ceiling fan at his house in Bandra, Mumbai, and the alleged manner of death was ruled to have been suicide.3 For around 3 months, all the media was covering this news. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of media coverage of this case (i.e., Werther effect) on the increase in the cases of suicides by hanging (i.e., Copycat suicides) in the rural areas of Himachal Pradesh. Out of 249 medico-legal autopsies in 2020 during the period from June 14 to December 31, there were 28 cases of hanging which constitutes 11.24%, and if we compare it with 2018 and 2019, there were a total of 278 and 253 cases during this period, and amongst these cases, only 13 and 15 cases respectively of hanging were reported which constitutes 4.67 and 5.14%. This study shows that there is about 2 times increase in hanging cases after the death of this renowned actor. In June 2020, just after his death, there is a drastic increase in hanging cases, constituting 24%. Male predominance is more than females as males constitute 75% of cases, which is more than the females, which constitute only 25% of cases. The age group of 21-30 years shows more predominance as compared to the other age groups.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    NANCY PATRICIA TIERRA TIERRA; Claudia Patricia Maldonado-Erazo; José Álvarez-García; María de la Cruz Del Río-Rama;
    Publisher: Land
    Country: Spain

    Indigenous communities express their concern about the weakening and low appreciation of their millenary and ancestral manifestations and knowledge, due to society’s accelerated globalization. This fact has caused intergenerational transmission to be minimal, resulting in a gradual cultural erosion and loss of collective memory of human groups. The purpose of this study is to safeguard of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) of the Amazonian Kichwa nationality through identification and records of cultural manifestations. The analysis corresponds to a descriptive process of all the information collected, which was built from the development of multiple processes of cultural revitalization that correspond to in-depth interviews with community leaders and participatory workshops with all members of the community. During the process, an increase in the exchange of knowledge was observed, in addition to constant cultural insurgency in which the peoples maintain themselves in order to safeguard their cultures.

  • Open Access Ukrainian
    Publisher: Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts

    The purpose of the research is to reveal the peculiarities of the digital collections functioning in the field of cultural heritage. Research methodology is based on the application of a systematic approach to the digitization issue’s study of cultural heritage sites and museum practice. The scientific novelty of the obtained results is the issue’s actualization of the functioning of digital collections of cultural heritage in the cultural context, the statement of the digital canon expansion in the field of cultural heritage. Conclusions. It is emphasized that the discrepancy between the scale of digitized content and the real number of non-digitized and unpublished works of culture and art raises important questions about who decides which works will be published, will enter the scientific and educational circulation, will expand the digital canon and will serve as a source of inspiration for the general public. Thus, the range of problems in the development of digital collections and digital content aggregators in the field of cultural heritage becomes evident. Digital publishing platforms should be seen as primary sources that reflect the cultural, political and social issues of the modern era and reveal ontological and epistemic gaps in the perception of cultural, ethnic and social affiliation. The analysis of conceptual and methodological approaches to the development of modern digital technologies in the field of cultural heritage, which defined the digital turn for all modern cultural processes, allows us to understand the basic patterns and trends associated with recording, analysis and transmission of cultural heritage at the present stage. Critical analysis of digital infrastructures enables the cultural study of the digital turn in the field of cultural heritage in order to identify the possibilities and limitations of digital technologies in the analysis, publication and dissemination of textual and visual materials, demonstrating works of culture and art. Цель статьи – раскрыть особенности функционирования цифровых коллекций в сфере культурного наследия. Методология исследования основывается на применении системного подхода к разработке проблемы оцифровки объектов культурного наследия и музейной практики. Научная новизна полученных результатов заключается в актуализации проблемы функционирования цифровых коллекций культурного наследия в культурологическом контексте, констатации расширения цифрового канона в сфере культурного наследия. Выводы. Отмечено, что несоответствие масштаба оцифрованного контента реальному количеству неоцифрованных и неопубликованных произведений культуры и искусства поднимает важные вопросы о том, кто решает, какие произведения будут опубликованы, войдут в научный и образовательный оборот, расширят цифровой канон и будут служить источником вдохновения для широкой публики. Становится очевидным спектр проблем развития цифровых коллекций и агрегаторов цифрового контента в сфере культурного наследия. Цифровые публикационные платформы должны восприниматься как первичные источники, отражающие культурные, политические и социальные проблемы современной эпохи и выявляющие онтологические и эпистемические пробелы в восприятии культурной, этнической и социальной принадлежности. Анализ концептуальных и методологических подходов к развитию современных цифровых технологий в сфере культурного наследия, определивших цифровой поворот для всех современных культурных процессов, позволяет понять основные закономерности и тенденции, связанные с фиксацией, анализом и трансляцией культурного наследия на современном этапе. Критический анализ цифровых инфраструктур делает возможным культурологическое исследование цифрового поворота в сфере культурного наследия, чтобы выяснить возможности и ограничения цифровых технологий при анализе, публикации и распространении текстовых и визуальных материалов, демонстрирующих произведения культуры и искусства. Мета статті – розкрити особливості функціонування цифрових колекцій у сфері культурної спадщини. Методологія дослідження ґрунтується на застосуванні системного підходу до опрацювання проблеми оцифрування об’єктів культурної спадщини та музейної практики. Наукова новизна одержаних результатів полягає в актуалізації проблеми функціонування цифрових колекцій культурної спадщини в культурологічному контексті, констатації розширення цифрового канону у сфері культурної спадщини. Висновки. Наголошено, що невідповідність масштабу оцифрованого контенту реальній кількості неоцифрованих і неопублікованих творів культури та мистецтва порушує важливі питання про те, хто вирішує, які твори будуть опубліковані, увійдуть у науковий та освітній обіг, розширять цифровий канон і слугуватимуть джерелом натхнення для широкої публіки. Стає очевидним діапазон проблем розвитку цифрових колекцій та агрегаторів цифрового контенту у сфері культурної спадщини. Цифрові публікаційні платформи мають сприйматися як первинні джерела, що відображають культурницькі, політичні та соціальні проблеми сучасної епохи і виявляють онтологічні й епістемічні прогалини в сприйнятті культурної, етнічної та соціальної приналежності. Аналіз концептуальних і методологічних підходів до розвитку сучасних цифрових технологій у сфері культурної спадщини, що визначили цифровий поворот для всіх сучасних культурних процесів, дає змогу зрозуміти основні закономірності й тенденції, пов’язані з фіксацією, аналізом і трансляцією культурної спадщини на сучасному етапі. Критичний аналіз цифрових інфраструктур уможливлює культурологічне дослідження цифрового повороту у сфері культурної спадщини, для того щоб з’ясувати можливості й обмеження цифрових технологій під час аналізу, публікації та поширення текстових і візуальних матеріалів, що демонструють твори культури та мистецтва.

  • Open Access Ukrainian
    Authors: 
    Volynetc Viktoriia;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    The purpose of the research is to reveal the peculiarities of the digital collections functioning in the field of cultural heritage. Research methodology is based on the application of a systematic approach to the digitization issue’s study of cultural heritage sites and museum practice. The scientific novelty of the obtained results is the issue’s actualization of the functioning of digital collections of cultural heritage in the cultural context, the statement of the digital canon expansion in the field of cultural heritage. Conclusions. It is emphasized that the discrepancy between the scale of digitized content and the real number of non-digitized and unpublished works of culture and art raises important questions about who decides which works will be published, will enter the scientific and educational circulation, will expand the digital canon and will serve as a source of inspiration for the general public. Thus, the range of problems in the development of digital collections and digital content aggregators in the field of cultural heritage becomes evident. Digital publishing platforms should be seen as primary sources that reflect the cultural, political and social issues of the modern era and reveal ontological and epistemic gaps in the perception of cultural, ethnic and social affiliation. The analysis of conceptual and methodological approaches to the development of modern digital technologies in the field of cultural heritage, which defined the digital turn for all modern cultural processes, allows us to understand the basic patterns and trends associated with recording, analysis and transmission of cultural heritage at the present stage. Critical analysis of digital infrastructures enables the cultural study of the digital turn in the field of cultural heritage in order to identify the possibilities and limitations of digital technologies in the analysis, publication and dissemination of textual and visual materials, demonstrating works of culture and art.

  • Restricted French
    Authors: 
    Paping, Richard; Delleaux, Fulgence; Hermans, Michel;
    Publisher: Presses universitaires de Namur

    The article analyses systematically the very detailed information from a large collection of about forty (partly privately owned) farm accounts for the Dutch province of Groningen (the Netherlands) in the period 1762-1862, shedding more light on the development of the agricultural productivity and the standard-of-living in the second half of the eighteenth and the first half of the nineteenth century. The resulting estimates are compared with official statistics available from 1817 onwards. The article shows that old farm accounts – if available in a substantial amount – can be an excellent source to uncover rural economic developments in the pre-statistical area. According to the analysis of these farm accounts, the rather rapid population growth in the period studied resulted in a stagnating or even falling agricultural production per capita - somewhat in line with Mathusian views - in the capitalistic Groningen clay region, despite all kinds of innovations of farmers to make use of the abundantly available cheap labour from the end of the eighteenth century to about 1860. In the same period, local consumption of agricultural products per capita stagnated or even deteriorated. Improving terms of trade, ensured that from 1825 real regional income per capita was increasing, though this improvement was not spent on an increase in the consumption of foodstuffs, but on imported (luxury) industrial goods. It can be concluded that higher food prices from 1830 were indeed an important incentive to attract more agricultural products to the world market, where they were needed to satisfy the increasing demand in industrializing and urbanizing countries outside the Netherlands from the end of the eighteenth century onwards. The figures based on farm accounts for Groningen, a region characterised by very modern and innovative farmers, suggest that productivity growth in agriculture in this first phase of European industrialisation, urbanisation, modernisation and population growth might indeed seriously have lagged behind compared to the industry and service sectors. Consequently, higher real incomes were often accompanied by falling standards-of-living concerning food-intake, as in other parts of the western world in the first half of the nineteenth century. Although suggested otherwise in the literature, this is not really a paradox but actually the logical consequence of diverging developments in industry (and services) on the one hand, and agriculture on the other, that lead to diverging price developments.

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