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196 Research products, page 1 of 20

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Coussement, Alexia; van Berckel Smit, Floris;
    Publisher: ECHER Blog
    Countries: Netherlands, Belgium
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Economisch publiek recht; RENFORCE / Regulering en handhaving;
    Publisher: SSRN

    Agencification phenomenon in the EU has led to concerns about controls over EU agencies’ actions. As the quantity and ‘quality’, i.e., strength of de jure powers, of EU agencies have grown in the last decades, so does the system of control over agencies show its development. The controls over all EU agencies with the de jure decision-making powers as well as the European Central Bank within the Single Supervisory Mechanism have been supported with the establishment of Boards of Appeal, which count 9 entities. Like with the agencification phenomenon however, the establishment and characteristics of the Boards vary greatly from agency to agency without clear indications as to why the differences (should) exist and what exact role and how much discretion (should) be given to the Boards. As this unclarities put the legitimacy of the system of controls of EU agencies under pressure, an attempt to build a common system of review of agency action by the Boards seems desirable. To contribute to this ultimate goal of our study, this chapter offers a historical overview of agencification and review of agency action in the EU, rationales behind the creation of agencies’ appeal bodies and an attempt of classification of different boards to enhance comprehension and development of a common system of review of agency action. For learning purposes, we look at the system of administrative review in the US. We base our analysis on relevant secondary legislation, such as agencies’ founding acts, rules of procedure, case-law in the EU and in the US and relevant academic literature.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Evans, Antony M.; Rosenbusch, Hannes; Zeelenberg, Marcel;

    Prosociality (measured with economic games) is correlated with individual differences in psychological constructs (measured with self-report scales). We review how methods from natural language processing, a subfield of computer science focused on processing natural text, can be applied to understand the semantic content of scales measuring psychological constructs correlated with prosociality. Methods for clustering language and assessing similarity between text documents can be used to assess the novelty (or redundancy) of new scales, to understand the overlap among different psychological constructs, and to compare different measures of the same construct. These examples illustrate how natural language processing methods can augment traditional survey- and game-based approaches to studying individual differences in prosociality.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hollander, Hella; Wright, Holly; Geser, Guntram; Ronzino, Paola; Bassett, Sheena; Massara, Flavia; Doorn, P.K.;
    Publisher: ARIADNEplus

    This interim report, “Policies and Good Practices for FAIR Data Management” describes the activities carried out by the different partners during the first 2 and a half years of the ARIADNEplus project, as well as the results achieved through the work package on the following topics: • Support the creation of FAIR data in the archaeological sector • Define and spread guidelines to good practices in archaeological data management • Adapt standard quality criteria for datasets and data to the archaeological case, and support their implementation among users.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Quik, Cindy; Walstra, Sanne; van Beek, Roy; van der Velde, Ype; Candel, Jasper; Van der Linden, Marjolein; Kubiak-Martens, Lucy; Swindles, Greame; Makaske, Bart; Koudijs, Romy; +1 more
    Publisher: Wageningen University & Research

    Attributing the start of peat growth to an absolute timescale requires dating the bottom of peat deposits overlying mineral sediment, often called the basal peat. Peat initiation is reflected in the stratigraphy as a gradual transition from mineral sediment to increasingly organic material, up to where it is called peat. So far, varying criteria have been used to define basal peat, resulting in divergent approaches to date peat initiation. The lack of a universally applicable and quantitative definition, combined with multiple concerns that have been raised previously regarding the radiocarbon dating of peat, may result in apparent ages that are either too old or too young for the timing of peat initiation. Here, we aim to formulate updated recommendations for dating peat initiation. We provide a conceptual framework that supports the use of the organic matter (OM) gradient for a quantitative and reproducible definition of the mineral-to-peat transition (i.e., the stratigraphical range reflecting the timespan of the peat initiation process) and the layer defined as basal peat (i.e., the stratigraphical layer that is defined as the bottom of a peat deposit). Selection of dating samples is often challenging due to poor preservation of plant macrofossils in basal peat, and the representativity of humic and humin dates for the age of basal peat is uncertain. We therefore analyse the mineral-to-peat transition based on three highly detailed sequences of radiocarbon dates, including dates of plant macrofossils and the humic and humin fractions obtained from bulk samples. Our case study peatland in the Netherlands currently harbours a bog vegetation, but biostratigraphical analyses show that during peat initiation the vegetation was mesotrophic. Results show that plant macrofossils provide the most accurate age in the mineral-to-peat transition and are therefore recommendable to use for 14C dating basal peat. If these are unattainable, the humic fraction provides the best alternative and is interpreted as a terminus-ante-quem for peat initiation. The potential large age difference between dates of plant macrofossils and humic or humin dates (up to ~1700 years between macrofossil and humic ages, and with even larger differences for humins) suggests that studies reusing existing bulk dates of basal peat should take great care in data interpretation. The potentially long timespan of the peat initiation process (with medians of ~1000, ~1300 and ~1500 years within our case study peatland) demonstrates that choices regarding sampling size and resolution need to be well substantiated. We summarise our findings as a set of recommendations for dating basal peats, and advocate the widespread use of OM determination to obtain a low-cost, quantitative and reproducible definition of basal peat that eases intercomparison of studies.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    van Daalen, Sjoerd; van der Beek, Jelle; Sass-Klaassen, Ute; Jansma, Esther;
    Publisher: DataverseNL

    Dendrochronological Research Project

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Petram, Lodewijk; van den Broek, Job; van der Veen, Miriam; Oosterhuis, Joost; Kruizinga, Samuël; Schoenmaker, Ben;
    Publisher: DANS EASY

    The War dummies data set provides structured data on organized armed confrontations with Dutch involvement between 1566 and 1812. The data structure and content align with two well-known data sets with modern (i.e. post 1815) conflict data: the Inter-State War Database of the Correlates of War Project and the Georeferenced Event Dataset (GED) of the Uppsala Conflict Data Program. The War dummies data are based on three volumes of the book series Militaire geschiedenis van Nederland (published under the auspices of the Dutch Institute for Military History – NIMH) that cover the early-modern. They are suited for quantitative analyses of organized armed confrontations with Dutch involvement, and can be readily applied in statistical analyses.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ponzanesi, Sandra; LS Gender and Postcolonial Studies; ICON - Gender Studies;

    The aim of this special issue is to gauge the impact of postcolonial intellectuals in contemporary Europe from a comparative and multidisciplinary perspective. This is achieved by challenging the divide between public and private, inclusion and exclusion, and citizens and migrants, thereby creating counterpublics where sexual, ethnic, religious and other minorities stake their claims and play out their actions. For this purpose, the special issue will not review the standard figures in the postcolonial debate but focus on the ways in which intellectual labour is performed by critics as well as by artists, activists and writers, in order to recognize the impact of ‘intellectual engagements’ in the public sphere in their less visible and recognized manifestations as well.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Open Access Dutch; Flemish
    Authors: 
    van Dijk, Suzan; Dirks, Simon B.;
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Arnoult, Sophie; Petram, Lodewijk; Vossen, Piek; Dagaetano-Ortlieb, Stefania; Kazantseva, Anna; Reiter, Nils; Szpakowicz, Stan;
    Publisher: Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL)

    Pretrained language models like BERT have advanced the state of the art for many NLP tasks. For resource-rich languages, one has the choice between a number of language-specific models, while multilingual models are also worth considering. These models are well known for their crosslingual performance, but have also shown competitive in-language performance on some tasks. We consider monolingual and multilingual models from the perspective of historical texts, and in particular for texts enriched with editorial notes: how do language models deal with the historical and editorial content in these texts? We present a new Named Entity Recognition dataset for Dutch based on 17th and 18th century United East India Company (VOC) reports extended with modern editorial notes. Our experiments with multilingual and Dutch pretrained language models confirm the crosslingual abilities of multilingual models while showing that all language models can leverage mixed-variant data. In particular, language models successfully incorporate notes for the prediction of entities in historical texts. We also find that multilingual models outperform monolingual models on our data, but that this superiority is linked to the task at hand: multilingual models lose their advantage when confronted with more semantical tasks.

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