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  • Research software
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  • 2012-2021
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  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Murphy, James;
    Publisher: Technological University Dublin
    Country: Ireland

    The School of Culinary Arts and Food Technology, TU Dublin, Winter Newsletter captured the many events, research, awards, significant contributions, special civic, community and sustainability activities which the students and staff members of the school have successfully completed up to the Winter period of 2021. The successful completion of these activities would not be possible without the active and on-going support of the 'INSPIRED' friends of Culinary Arts (school supporters) and our school's industry association supporters. We thank you all, consider getting involved in our New Campus (Central Quad, Grangegorman, Dublin 7). Take care and stay safe !!

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tratch, Maiah;
    Country: Canada

    The Cabeço da Arruda archaeological site, located in the Muge Valley (Central Portugal), is a shell-midden burial site situated in the Mesolithic period (8,500 to 6,900 cal BP). Previous research on the valley has neglected to properly document and systematize the roughly 150 burials recovered from this site which have been curated in the Museo Geológico Museum in Lisbon since the 1930s. My research focused on systematizing the burials at this museum, identifying the individuals whose boney segments preserved in a mud-based cement (breccia), and reconstructing the burial rituals associated with body position and grave environment features using an archaeothanatological method. This allowed me to address the questions: (1) Are there identifiable burial dispositional patterns at Cabeço da Arruda?; and (2) Through comparison of the similarities and differences in dispositional patterns and mortuary practices between the three main sites in the valley (Cabeço da Arruda, Cabeço da Amoreira, and Moita do Sebastião), are there identifiable characteristics throughout the entirety of the Muge Mesolithic? I determined that the most common burial disposition at Cabeço da Arruda was dorsal decubitus with a hyper-flexed lower limb which was positioned over the thorax. The most common grave features were for the body to be interred in an oval, concave pit with lateral space and external wrappings constricting the upper limb and thorax. These patterns constitute burial rituals because their repetition, with minimal individual variation, is indicative of prescribed behaviours occurring during the internment phase. When including osteobiographical data into these interpretations, no statistical pattern was identified for age (neonates, nonadults, adults) or sex (female or male) across the burial ritual data. These interpretations were consistent with the frequencies of previous burial dispositional patterns from the valley indicating that there were consistent rituals within the valley during the Mesolithic.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nesca, Marcello;
    Country: Canada

    Introduction: Routinely collected electronic health data (RCEHD), can be comprised of structured, semi-structured, or unstructured information. Electronic medical records (EMRs), one type of RCEHD, often contain unstructured text data (UTD), which are typically prepared for analysis (i.e., preprocessed) and analyzed using natural language processing (NLP) techniques. At present, there are few studies about the specific types of NLP methods used to preprocess UTD to address data quality issues prior to analysis or modelling. Purpose & Objectives: The purpose was to examine preprocessing methods for UTD and evaluate the quality of UTD in EMRs. The objectives were to: 1) systematically document current research and practices for preprocessing UTD to describe or improve its quality, and 2) apply data quality indicators identified from current research and practices to UTD in EMRs from the Manitoba Primary Care Research Network and describe the quality of these data. Methods: Objective 1 involved a scoping review. Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest, and EBSCOhost were searched for literature on current research and practices to prepare UTD for analysis, up to and including 2021. For objective 2, a case study was undertaken where data quality indicators and preprocessing methods identified in the scoping review were applied to UTD from EMRs. Results: 41 articles were included in the scoping review for objective 1; over 50% were published between 2016 and 2021 and over 90% were empirical research articles. Data quality indicator topics for UTD in EMRs included misspelled words, security, word variability, sources of noise, quality of annotations, ambiguous abbreviations, and manual annotations. For objective 2, we selected 193,206 clinical encounter notes from EMRs between 1985 and 2020. Overall, the clinical encounter notes contained an average (standard deviation [SD]) of 27.3 (27.0) stop words, 25.7 (27.8) punctuation symbols, 12.1 (11.1) spelling errors, and 2.9 (2.6) special characters. The average (SD) length of a clinical encounter note was 555.8 (551.1) characters, and 71.5 (59.7) words. Lexical diversity, had a mean (SD) of 86.2 (11.9). Conclusion: This study identified multiple data quality indicators that have been used to preprocess UTD in published literature and demonstrated their application to real-world data.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Petram, Lodewijk; van den Broek, Job; van der Veen, Miriam; Oosterhuis, Joost; Kruizinga, Samuël; Schoenmaker, Ben;
    Publisher: DANS EASY
    Country: Netherlands

    The War dummies data set provides structured data on organized armed confrontations with Dutch involvement between 1566 and 1812. The data structure and content align with two well-known data sets with modern (i.e. post 1815) conflict data: the Inter-State War Database of the Correlates of War Project and the Georeferenced Event Dataset (GED) of the Uppsala Conflict Data Program. The War dummies data are based on three volumes of the book series Militaire geschiedenis van Nederland (published under the auspices of the Dutch Institute for Military History – NIMH) that cover the early-modern. They are suited for quantitative analyses of organized armed confrontations with Dutch involvement, and can be readily applied in statistical analyses.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Seifert, Vanessa A;
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | MetaScience (771509)

    [No abstract]

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Zapata Rozo, Andrés Felipe;
    Publisher: Universidad del Rosario
    Country: Colombia

    Las redes sociales son una rica fuente de datos y han sido utilizadas para promover u organizar ciberdelitos que afectan al mundo real. Por ello, las fuerzas del orden se interesan por la información crucial que puede obtenerse de estas fuentes. La cantidad de información y el lenguaje informal que se utiliza para difundir la información hace que el Procesamiento del Lenguaje Natural (PLN) sea una excelente herramienta para realizar análisis sobre las publicaciones en las redes sociales. Por ello, en esta propuesta se integra una arquitectura con tres modelos de PLN para proporcionar un análisis exhaustivo de fuentes abiertas como los medios sociales. Este análisis extrae entidades del texto, identifica clusters de usuarios y su respectiva polaridad, finalmente todos los resultados se relacionan en una base de datos gráfica. Esta arquitectura se puso a prueba utilizando datos de un escenario real para determinar su viabilidad.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Loignon, Guillaume;
    Publisher: Université de Montréal
    Country: Canada

    Le manque d'intégration des sciences cognitives et de la psychométrie est régulièrement déploré – et ignoré. En mesure et évaluation de la lecture, une manifestation de ce problème est l’évitement théorique concernant les sources de difficulté linguistiques et les processus cognitifs associés à la compréhension de texte. Pour faciliter le rapprochement souhaité entre sciences cognitives et psychométrie, nous proposons d’adopter une approche computationnelle. En considérant les procédures informatiques comme des représentations simplifiées et partielles de théories cognitivistes, une approche computationnelle facilite l’intégration d’éléments théoriques en psychométrie, ainsi que l’élaboration de théories en psychologie cognitive. La présente thèse étudie la contribution d’une approche computationnelle à la mesure de deux facettes de la complexité linguistique, abordées à travers des perspectives complémentaires. La complexité intrinsèque du texte est abordée du point de vue du traitement automatique du langage naturel, avec pour objectif d'identifier et de mesurer les attributs (caractéristiques mesurables) qui modélisent le mieux la difficulté du texte. L'article 1 présente ALSI (pour Analyseur Lexico-syntaxique intégré), un nouvel outil de traitement automatisé du langage naturel qui extrait une variété d'attributs linguistiques, principalement issus de la recherche en psycholinguistique et en linguistique computationnelle. Nous évaluons ensuite le potentiel des attributs pour estimer la difficulté du texte. L'article 2 emploie ALSI et des méthodes d’apprentissage statistique pour estimer la difficulté de textes scolaires québécois. Dans le second volet de la thèse, la complexité associée aux processus de lecture est abordée sous l'angle de l'oculométrie, qui permet de faire des inférences quant à la charge cognitive et aux stratégies d’allocation de l’attention visuelle en lecture. L'article 3 décrit une méthodologie d'analyse des enregistrements d’oculométrie mobile à l'aide de techniques de vision par ordinateur (une branche de l'intelligence artificielle); cette méthodologie est ensuite testée sur des données de simulation. L'article 4 déploie la même méthodologie dans le cadre d’une expérience pilote d’oculométrie comparant les processus de lecture de novices et d'experts répondant à un test de compréhension du texte argumentatif. Dans l’ensemble, nos travaux montrent qu’il est possible d’obtenir des résultats probants en combinant des apports théoriques à une approche computationnelle mobilisant des techniques d’apprentissage statistique. Les outils créés ou perfectionnés dans le cadre de cette thèse constituent une avancée significative dans le développement des technologies numériques en mesure et évaluation de la lecture, avec des retombées à anticiper en contexte scolaire comme en recherche. The lack of integration of cognitive science and psychometrics is commonly deplored - and ignored. In the assessment of reading, one manifestation of this problem is a theoretical avoidance regarding sources of text difficulty and cognitive processes underlying text comprehension. To facilitate the desired integration of cognitive science and psychometrics, we adopt a computational approach. By considering computational procedures as simplified and partial representations of cognitivist models, a computational approach facilitates the integration of theoretical elements in psychometrics, as well as the development of theories in cognitive psychology. This thesis studies the contribution of a computational perspective to the measurement of two facets of linguistic complexity, using complementary perspectives. Intrinsic text complexity is approached from the perspective of natural language processing, with the goal of identifying and measuring text features that best model text difficulty. Paper 1 introduces ISLA (Integrated Lexico-Syntactic Analyzer), a new natural language processing tool that extracts a variety of linguistic features from French text, primarily taken from research in psycholinguistics and computational linguistics. We then evaluate the features’ potential to estimate text difficulty. Paper 2 uses ISLA and statistical learning methods to estimate difficulty of texts used in primary and secondary education in Quebec. In the second part of the thesis, complexity associated with reading processes is addressed using eye-tracking, which allows inferences to be made about cognitive load and visual attention allocation strategies in reading. Paper 3 describes a methodology for analyzing mobile eye-tracking recordings using computer vision techniques (a branch of artificial intelligence); this methodology is then tested on simulated data. Paper 4 deploys the same methodology in the context of an eye-tracking pilot experiment comparing reading processes in novices and experts during an argumentative text comprehension test. Overall, our work demonstrates that it is possible to obtain convincing results by combining theoretical contributions with a computational approach using statistical learning techniques. The tools created or perfected in the context of this thesis constitute a significant advance in the development of digital technologies for the measurement and evaluation of reading, with easy-to-identify applications in both academic and research contexts.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ponzanesi, Sandra; LS Gender and Postcolonial Studies; ICON - Gender Studies;
    Country: Netherlands

    The aim of this special issue is to gauge the impact of postcolonial intellectuals in contemporary Europe from a comparative and multidisciplinary perspective. This is achieved by challenging the divide between public and private, inclusion and exclusion, and citizens and migrants, thereby creating counterpublics where sexual, ethnic, religious and other minorities stake their claims and play out their actions. For this purpose, the special issue will not review the standard figures in the postcolonial debate but focus on the ways in which intellectual labour is performed by critics as well as by artists, activists and writers, in order to recognize the impact of ‘intellectual engagements’ in the public sphere in their less visible and recognized manifestations as well.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Brideau, Rachel;
    Publisher: Université de Montréal
    Country: Canada

    Depuis les dernières années, les études démographiques montrent un vieillissement manifeste de la population nord-américaine, alors que les personnes âgées font les frais de nombreux stéréotypes et préjugés qui participent à leur marginalisation de la société. Nous postulons qu’une « culture gérontophobique » se développe et que les comportements âgistes sont intériorisés par les individus. Au sein de cette culture gérontophobique valorisant la jeunesse, la rapidité, l’efficacité, le refus et le rejet de la vieillesse et des « vieux », plusieurs options s’offrent aux personnes âgées; se conformer aux idéaux de jeunesse et de paraitre de la société actuelle ou les contester en assumant pleinement leur âge et leur corps. Ce mémoire est une étude des séries Society Portraits de Cindy Sherman et Pretty Ribbons de Donigan Cumming qui explorent différemment la représentation de l’âge et l’enjeu de la gérontophobie dans leur série photographique respective. Les études gérontologiques culturelles de Julia Twigg et Wendy Martin, les études féministes de Kathleen Woodward, Michelle Meagher et Judith Butler, ainsi que les théories photographiques d’Anca Cristofovici et Olivier Lugon, vont nous servir à l’analyse de ces deux attitudes opposées face à la vieillesse féminine, victime d’un double standard. Ce double standard dénoncé par Susan Sontag et les études gérontologiques féministes positionne les femmes âgées dans une impasse puisqu’elles sont aux prises avec les préjugés sexistes en plus d’être constamment sous la pression des apparences et de l’âgisme. Dans l’histoire de l’art et le régime des images artistiques, nous constatons un récent mouvement de revalorisation de la vieillesse et de l’expérience des personnes âgées et vieillissantes. De nombreux artistes cherchent à changer les perceptions négatives à l’égard de la vieillesse et remettent en question les préjugés gérontophobes qu’on leur porte. Ce mémoire vise à analyser en détail les images de Sherman et Cumming avant de se clore par une étude comparative de leur série et démontrer comment ce mouvement de revalorisation et de déconstruction des stéréotypes prend forme dans les images photographiques contemporaines. In recent years, demographic studies have shown a clear aging of the North American population, while seniors face many stereotypes and prejudices that contribute to their marginalization from society. We postulate that a "gerontophobic culture" is developing and that ageist behaviors are internalized by individuals. Within this gerontophobic culture, which values youth, rapidity, efficiency, and the refusal and rejection of old age and "old people", several options are available to older people: conform to the ideals of youth and appearance of today's society or challenge them by fully assuming their age and their body. This dissertation is a study of Cindy Sherman's Society Portraits and Donigan Cumming's Pretty Ribbons series that differently explore the representation of age and the issue of gerontophobia in their respective photographic series. The cultural gerontological studies of Julia Twigg and Wendy Martin, the feminist studies of Kathleen Woodward, Michelle Meagher and Judith Butler, as well as the photographic theories of Anca Cristofovici and Olivier Lugon, will be used to analyze these two opposing attitudes towards old age for women who are victims of a double standard. This double standard, denounced by Susan Sontag and feminist gerontological studies, places older women in an impasse, as they are confronted with sexist prejudices, in addition to being constantly under the pressure of appearances and the cult of youth. In the history of art and the regime of artistic images, we see a recent movement to revalue old age and the experience of older and aging people. Many artists are seeking to change negative perceptions of old age and challenge gerontophobic assumptions about it. This thesis aims to analyze Sherman’s and Cumming's images in detail, ending with a comparative study of their series seeking to demonstrate how this movement to revalue and deconstruct stereotypes is taking shape in contemporary photographic images.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Open Access Dutch; Flemish
    Authors: 
    van Dijk, Suzan; Dirks, Simon B.;
    Country: Netherlands
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25,617 Research products, page 1 of 2,562
  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Murphy, James;
    Publisher: Technological University Dublin
    Country: Ireland

    The School of Culinary Arts and Food Technology, TU Dublin, Winter Newsletter captured the many events, research, awards, significant contributions, special civic, community and sustainability activities which the students and staff members of the school have successfully completed up to the Winter period of 2021. The successful completion of these activities would not be possible without the active and on-going support of the 'INSPIRED' friends of Culinary Arts (school supporters) and our school's industry association supporters. We thank you all, consider getting involved in our New Campus (Central Quad, Grangegorman, Dublin 7). Take care and stay safe !!

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tratch, Maiah;
    Country: Canada

    The Cabeço da Arruda archaeological site, located in the Muge Valley (Central Portugal), is a shell-midden burial site situated in the Mesolithic period (8,500 to 6,900 cal BP). Previous research on the valley has neglected to properly document and systematize the roughly 150 burials recovered from this site which have been curated in the Museo Geológico Museum in Lisbon since the 1930s. My research focused on systematizing the burials at this museum, identifying the individuals whose boney segments preserved in a mud-based cement (breccia), and reconstructing the burial rituals associated with body position and grave environment features using an archaeothanatological method. This allowed me to address the questions: (1) Are there identifiable burial dispositional patterns at Cabeço da Arruda?; and (2) Through comparison of the similarities and differences in dispositional patterns and mortuary practices between the three main sites in the valley (Cabeço da Arruda, Cabeço da Amoreira, and Moita do Sebastião), are there identifiable characteristics throughout the entirety of the Muge Mesolithic? I determined that the most common burial disposition at Cabeço da Arruda was dorsal decubitus with a hyper-flexed lower limb which was positioned over the thorax. The most common grave features were for the body to be interred in an oval, concave pit with lateral space and external wrappings constricting the upper limb and thorax. These patterns constitute burial rituals because their repetition, with minimal individual variation, is indicative of prescribed behaviours occurring during the internment phase. When including osteobiographical data into these interpretations, no statistical pattern was identified for age (neonates, nonadults, adults) or sex (female or male) across the burial ritual data. These interpretations were consistent with the frequencies of previous burial dispositional patterns from the valley indicating that there were consistent rituals within the valley during the Mesolithic.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nesca, Marcello;
    Country: Canada

    Introduction: Routinely collected electronic health data (RCEHD), can be comprised of structured, semi-structured, or unstructured information. Electronic medical records (EMRs), one type of RCEHD, often contain unstructured text data (UTD), which are typically prepared for analysis (i.e., preprocessed) and analyzed using natural language processing (NLP) techniques. At present, there are few studies about the specific types of NLP methods used to preprocess UTD to address data quality issues prior to analysis or modelling. Purpose & Objectives: The purpose was to examine preprocessing methods for UTD and evaluate the quality of UTD in EMRs. The objectives were to: 1) systematically document current research and practices for preprocessing UTD to describe or improve its quality, and 2) apply data quality indicators identified from current research and practices to UTD in EMRs from the Manitoba Primary Care Research Network and describe the quality of these data. Methods: Objective 1 involved a scoping review. Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest, and EBSCOhost were searched for literature on current research and practices to prepare UTD for analysis, up to and including 2021. For objective 2, a case study was undertaken where data quality indicators and preprocessing methods identified in the scoping review were applied to UTD from EMRs. Results: 41 articles were included in the scoping review for objective 1; over 50% were published between 2016 and 2021 and over 90% were empirical research articles. Data quality indicator topics for UTD in EMRs included misspelled words, security, word variability, sources of noise, quality of annotations, ambiguous abbreviations, and manual annotations. For objective 2, we selected 193,206 clinical encounter notes from EMRs between 1985 and 2020. Overall, the clinical encounter notes contained an average (standard deviation [SD]) of 27.3 (27.0) stop words, 25.7 (27.8) punctuation symbols, 12.1 (11.1) spelling errors, and 2.9 (2.6) special characters. The average (SD) length of a clinical encounter note was 555.8 (551.1) characters, and 71.5 (59.7) words. Lexical diversity, had a mean (SD) of 86.2 (11.9). Conclusion: This study identified multiple data quality indicators that have been used to preprocess UTD in published literature and demonstrated their application to real-world data.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Petram, Lodewijk; van den Broek, Job; van der Veen, Miriam; Oosterhuis, Joost; Kruizinga, Samuël; Schoenmaker, Ben;
    Publisher: DANS EASY
    Country: Netherlands

    The War dummies data set provides structured data on organized armed confrontations with Dutch involvement between 1566 and 1812. The data structure and content align with two well-known data sets with modern (i.e. post 1815) conflict data: the Inter-State War Database of the Correlates of War Project and the Georeferenced Event Dataset (GED) of the Uppsala Conflict Data Program. The War dummies data are based on three volumes of the book series Militaire geschiedenis van Nederland (published under the auspices of the Dutch Institute for Military History – NIMH) that cover the early-modern. They are suited for quantitative analyses of organized armed confrontations with Dutch involvement, and can be readily applied in statistical analyses.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Seifert, Vanessa A;
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | MetaScience (771509)

    [No abstract]

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Zapata Rozo, Andrés Felipe;
    Publisher: Universidad del Rosario
    Country: Colombia

    Las redes sociales son una rica fuente de datos y han sido utilizadas para promover u organizar ciberdelitos que afectan al mundo real. Por ello, las fuerzas del orden se interesan por la información crucial que puede obtenerse de estas fuentes. La cantidad de información y el lenguaje informal que se utiliza para difundir la información hace que el Procesamiento del Lenguaje Natural (PLN) sea una excelente herramienta para realizar análisis sobre las publicaciones en las redes sociales. Por ello, en esta propuesta se integra una arquitectura con tres modelos de PLN para proporcionar un análisis exhaustivo de fuentes abiertas como los medios sociales. Este análisis extrae entidades del texto, identifica clusters de usuarios y su respectiva polaridad, finalmente todos los resultados se relacionan en una base de datos gráfica. Esta arquitectura se puso a prueba utilizando datos de un escenario real para determinar su viabilidad.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Loignon, Guillaume;
    Publisher: Université de Montréal
    Country: Canada

    Le manque d'intégration des sciences cognitives et de la psychométrie est régulièrement déploré – et ignoré. En mesure et évaluation de la lecture, une manifestation de ce problème est l’évitement théorique concernant les sources de difficulté linguistiques et les processus cognitifs associés à la compréhension de texte. Pour faciliter le rapprochement souhaité entre sciences cognitives et psychométrie, nous proposons d’adopter une approche computationnelle. En considérant les procédures informatiques comme des représentations simplifiées et partielles de théories cognitivistes, une approche computationnelle facilite l’intégration d’éléments théoriques en psychométrie, ainsi que l’élaboration de théories en psychologie cognitive. La présente thèse étudie la contribution d’une approche computationnelle à la mesure de deux facettes de la complexité linguistique, abordées à travers des perspectives complémentaires. La complexité intrinsèque du texte est abordée du point de vue du traitement automatique du langage naturel, avec pour objectif d'identifier et de mesurer les attributs (caractéristiques mesurables) qui modélisent le mieux la difficulté du texte. L'article 1 présente ALSI (pour Analyseur Lexico-syntaxique intégré), un nouvel outil de traitement automatisé du langage naturel qui extrait une variété d'attributs linguistiques, principalement issus de la recherche en psycholinguistique et en linguistique computationnelle. Nous évaluons ensuite le potentiel des attributs pour estimer la difficulté du texte. L'article 2 emploie ALSI et des méthodes d’apprentissage statistique pour estimer la difficulté de textes scolaires québécois. Dans le second volet de la thèse, la complexité associée aux processus de lecture est abordée sous l'angle de l'oculométrie, qui permet de faire des inférences quant à la charge cognitive et aux stratégies d’allocation de l’attention visuelle en lecture. L'article 3 décrit une méthodologie d'analyse des enregistrements d’oculométrie mobile à l'aide de techniques de vision par ordinateur (une branche de l'intelligence artificielle); cette méthodologie est ensuite testée sur des données de simulation. L'article 4 déploie la même méthodologie dans le cadre d’une expérience pilote d’oculométrie comparant les processus de lecture de novices et d'experts répondant à un test de compréhension du texte argumentatif. Dans l’ensemble, nos travaux montrent qu’il est possible d’obtenir des résultats probants en combinant des apports théoriques à une approche computationnelle mobilisant des techniques d’apprentissage statistique. Les outils créés ou perfectionnés dans le cadre de cette thèse constituent une avancée significative dans le développement des technologies numériques en mesure et évaluation de la lecture, avec des retombées à anticiper en contexte scolaire comme en recherche. The lack of integration of cognitive science and psychometrics is commonly deplored - and ignored. In the assessment of reading, one manifestation of this problem is a theoretical avoidance regarding sources of text difficulty and cognitive processes underlying text comprehension. To facilitate the desired integration of cognitive science and psychometrics, we adopt a computational approach. By considering computational procedures as simplified and partial representations of cognitivist models, a computational approach facilitates the integration of theoretical elements in psychometrics, as well as the development of theories in cognitive psychology. This thesis studies the contribution of a computational perspective to the measurement of two facets of linguistic complexity, using complementary perspectives. Intrinsic text complexity is approached from the perspective of natural language processing, with the goal of identifying and measuring text features that best model text difficulty. Paper 1 introduces ISLA (Integrated Lexico-Syntactic Analyzer), a new natural language processing tool that extracts a variety of linguistic features from French text, primarily taken from research in psycholinguistics and computational linguistics. We then evaluate the features’ potential to estimate text difficulty. Paper 2 uses ISLA and statistical learning methods to estimate difficulty of texts used in primary and secondary education in Quebec. In the second part of the thesis, complexity associated with reading processes is addressed using eye-tracking, which allows inferences to be made about cognitive load and visual attention allocation strategies in reading. Paper 3 describes a methodology for analyzing mobile eye-tracking recordings using computer vision techniques (a branch of artificial intelligence); this methodology is then tested on simulated data. Paper 4 deploys the same methodology in the context of an eye-tracking pilot experiment comparing reading processes in novices and experts during an argumentative text comprehension test. Overall, our work demonstrates that it is possible to obtain convincing results by combining theoretical contributions with a computational approach using statistical learning techniques. The tools created or perfected in the context of this thesis constitute a significant advance in the development of digital technologies for the measurement and evaluation of reading, with easy-to-identify applications in both academic and research contexts.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ponzanesi, Sandra; LS Gender and Postcolonial Studies; ICON - Gender Studies;
    Country: Netherlands

    The aim of this special issue is to gauge the impact of postcolonial intellectuals in contemporary Europe from a comparative and multidisciplinary perspective. This is achieved by challenging the divide between public and private, inclusion and exclusion, and citizens and migrants, thereby creating counterpublics where sexual, ethnic, religious and other minorities stake their claims and play out their actions. For this purpose, the special issue will not review the standard figures in the postcolonial debate but focus on the ways in which intellectual labour is performed by critics as well as by artists, activists and writers, in order to recognize the impact of ‘intellectual engagements’ in the public sphere in their less visible and recognized manifestations as well.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Brideau, Rachel;
    Publisher: Université de Montréal
    Country: Canada

    Depuis les dernières années, les études démographiques montrent un vieillissement manifeste de la population nord-américaine, alors que les personnes âgées font les frais de nombreux stéréotypes et préjugés qui participent à leur marginalisation de la société. Nous postulons qu’une « culture gérontophobique » se développe et que les comportements âgistes sont intériorisés par les individus. Au sein de cette culture gérontophobique valorisant la jeunesse, la rapidité, l’efficacité, le refus et le rejet de la vieillesse et des « vieux », plusieurs options s’offrent aux personnes âgées; se conformer aux idéaux de jeunesse et de paraitre de la société actuelle ou les contester en assumant pleinement leur âge et leur corps. Ce mémoire est une étude des séries Society Portraits de Cindy Sherman et Pretty Ribbons de Donigan Cumming qui explorent différemment la représentation de l’âge et l’enjeu de la gérontophobie dans leur série photographique respective. Les études gérontologiques culturelles de Julia Twigg et Wendy Martin, les études féministes de Kathleen Woodward, Michelle Meagher et Judith Butler, ainsi que les théories photographiques d’Anca Cristofovici et Olivier Lugon, vont nous servir à l’analyse de ces deux attitudes opposées face à la vieillesse féminine, victime d’un double standard. Ce double standard dénoncé par Susan Sontag et les études gérontologiques féministes positionne les femmes âgées dans une impasse puisqu’elles sont aux prises avec les préjugés sexistes en plus d’être constamment sous la pression des apparences et de l’âgisme. Dans l’histoire de l’art et le régime des images artistiques, nous constatons un récent mouvement de revalorisation de la vieillesse et de l’expérience des personnes âgées et vieillissantes. De nombreux artistes cherchent à changer les perceptions négatives à l’égard de la vieillesse et remettent en question les préjugés gérontophobes qu’on leur porte. Ce mémoire vise à analyser en détail les images de Sherman et Cumming avant de se clore par une étude comparative de leur série et démontrer comment ce mouvement de revalorisation et de déconstruction des stéréotypes prend forme dans les images photographiques contemporaines. In recent years, demographic studies have shown a clear aging of the North American population, while seniors face many stereotypes and prejudices that contribute to their marginalization from society. We postulate that a "gerontophobic culture" is developing and that ageist behaviors are internalized by individuals. Within this gerontophobic culture, which values youth, rapidity, efficiency, and the refusal and rejection of old age and "old people", several options are available to older people: conform to the ideals of youth and appearance of today's society or challenge them by fully assuming their age and their body. This dissertation is a study of Cindy Sherman's Society Portraits and Donigan Cumming's Pretty Ribbons series that differently explore the representation of age and the issue of gerontophobia in their respective photographic series. The cultural gerontological studies of Julia Twigg and Wendy Martin, the feminist studies of Kathleen Woodward, Michelle Meagher and Judith Butler, as well as the photographic theories of Anca Cristofovici and Olivier Lugon, will be used to analyze these two opposing attitudes towards old age for women who are victims of a double standard. This double standard, denounced by Susan Sontag and feminist gerontological studies, places older women in an impasse, as they are confronted with sexist prejudices, in addition to being constantly under the pressure of appearances and the cult of youth. In the history of art and the regime of artistic images, we see a recent movement to revalue old age and the experience of older and aging people. Many artists are seeking to change negative perceptions of old age and challenge gerontophobic assumptions about it. This thesis aims to analyze Sherman’s and Cumming's images in detail, ending with a comparative study of their series seeking to demonstrate how this movement to revalue and deconstruct stereotypes is taking shape in contemporary photographic images.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Open Access Dutch; Flemish
    Authors: 
    van Dijk, Suzan; Dirks, Simon B.;
    Country: Netherlands
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