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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hagelskjær, Vita;
    Publisher: Syddansk Universitet. Det Sundhedsvidenskabelige Fakultet
    Country: Denmark

    Bakgrund: Det er velkendt at en række kroniske tilstande kan medføre nedsat evne til at varetage gøremål i hverdagen relateret til egenomsorg og huslige gøremål, også kaldet almindelig daglig levevis (ADL), og der er behov for at udvikle og evaluere interventionsprogrammer, der adresserer sådanne problemer. Med afsæt i Britiske Medicinske Forskningsråds vejledning (MRC guiden) for udvikling og evaluering af komplekse interventioner, blev den første version af det ergoterapeutiske program (ABLE 1.0) udviklet med det formål at forbedre ADL-evnen blandt personer med kroniske tilstande. ABLE inkorporerer viden baseret på eksisterende evidens, klinisk ekspertise hos ergoterapeuter og klienters erfaringer og behov. ABLE er et 8-ugers, struktureret og individualiseret forløb, som leveres i klientens hjem som en del af kommunal rehabiliteringspraksis. Forløbet består af 5-8 sessioner, og består af vurdering af ADL-evne, målsætning, intervention baseret på en kompensatorisk tilgang og afsluttes med revurdering af ADL evne. Desuden er programmet udviklet til at kunne anvendes på tværs af alder, køn og diagnoser, dvs. generisk. Et feasibility studie viste, at ABLE 1.0 var gennemførbar med hensyn til indhold og levering, med mindre justeringer af interventionsmanualen og procedurer for rekruttering. Det blev derfor anbefalet at gennemføre et pilot studie før planlægning og gennemførelse af evalueringsstudier. Formålet med denne afhandling var derfor at evaluere de resterende feasibility-aspekter forud for et randomiseret kontrolleret forsøg (RCT), inklusive revidering af ABLE 1.0, og at gennemføre effekt og proces evaluering af ABLE 2.0.Metoder: MRC guiden blev anvendt som ramme. Revidering af ABLE 1.0 omfattede gennemførelse af en kognitiv debriefing med deltagelse af fem ergoterapeuter, med henblik på at identificere uklarheder i ABLE manualens opbygning og indhold, som potentielt kunne føre til forvirring eller misforståelser. Derudover omfattede det inkorporering af opdaterede versioner af teoretiske modeller i programmet.Pilot studiet var designet som et randomiseret kontrolleret studie med to parallelle grupper. Planen var at inkludere 20 personer med én eller flere kroniske tilstande, som oplevede problemer med udførelse af ADL opgaver, i perioden fra december 2019 til april 2020. Følgende progressionskriterier blev anvendt for at vurdere gennemførbarheden at et RCT studie: (i) rekruttering (50 % opfyldte inklusionskriterierne) og fastholdelse (80 %), (ii) randomisering (80 % accepterede randomisering og proceduren blev udført som planlagt), (iii) gennemførbarhed og accept i praksis (100 % fulgte manualen), (iv) resultatmålinger (80 % af deltagerne leverede relevante og fuldt besvarede spørgeskemaer) og (v) sædvanlig ergoterapi (udtræk af nødvendig information fra klientjournaler var vellykket).Den efterfølgende effektevaluering havde et RCT design med blindede testere og forskere. Hjemmeboende klienter med kroniske tilstande og ADL problemer blev randomiseret og allokeret til ABLE 2.0 eller sædvanlig ergoterapi. Data blev indsamlet ved baseline (uge 0), efter endt intervention (uge 10) og ved followup (uge 26). Co-primære outcomes var selvrapporteret ADL evne, målt med ADL-Interviewet (ADL-I Udførelse) og observeret motorisk ADL evne målt med Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) ved primært endpoint 10 uger efter baseline. Sekundære outcomes var selvrapporteret ADL evne, målt med ADL-I Udførelse, og observeret motorisk ADL evne, målt med AMPS, ved sekundære endpoint 26 uger efter baseline; og selvrapporteret tilfredshed med ADL evne, målt med ADL-I Tilfredshed, og observeret procesmæssig ADL evne, målt med AMPS, ved primært og sekundært endpoint. Eksplorative outcomes var aktivitetsbalance målt med Occupational Balance Questionnaire (OBQ11), oplevede forandringer målt med Client-Weighted-Problems Questionnaire (CWP-Q) og generelt helbred målt med det første spørgsmål i the MOS 36- item Short Form Survey Instrument (SF36-SF1) ved primært og sekundært endpoint. Alle outcomes blev analyseret i Intention-To-Treat analyser efterfulgt af sensitivitetsanalyser i form af Per-Protocol analyser ved hjælp af analyser af kovarians (ANCOVA) over tid mellem grupper som repeated measures. ADL-I Udførelse ved baseline blev brugt som kovariat.Procesevalueringen var designet som en realistisk evaluering. Ved hjælp af en programteori blev hypoteser om hvordan kontekstuelle faktorer og mekanismer i interventionsprogrammet kunne lede til bestemte outcomes, i såkaldte CMO konfigurationer, beskrevet. Procesevalueringen var baseret på kvalitative data fra interview med 8 klienter, som havde modtaget ABLE 2.0, og de tre ergoterapeuter, der havde leveret det. Desuden blev der indsamlet kvantitative data ved hjælp af registreringsskemaer, som blev udfyldt af de klienter der modtog programmet og de tre ergoterapeuter der leverede det. Resultater: Baseret på data fra kognitiv debriefing og opdateret teori blev manualen revideret, hvilket resulterede i ABLE 2.0. På grund af Covid-19 pandemien blev pilot studiet afbrudt i marts 2020, hvilket resulterede i et begrænset datasæt, som dog blev vurderet til at være tilstrækkeligt til at besvare studiets spørgsmål: (i) 18 ud af 37 som opfyldte inklusionskriterierne (48,6 %) blev rekrutteret; alle inkluderede (n = 6) forblev i programmet (100 %); (ii) 18 accepterede randomisering (100 %), og proceduren var effektiv; (iii) ABLE blev leveret som beskrevet i manualen (100%); (iv) 92,3-100 % af deltagerne gav relevante og fuldstændige svar i to af tre spørgeskemaer; og (v) information om sædvanlig ergoterapi var tilgængelig i syv ud af ni aspekter.I effektevalueringens ITT analyser af primære outcomes fandt vi ingen statistisk signifikante eller klinisk relevante forskelle mellem grupper i gennemsnitlige forandringer i selvrapporteret (ADL-I Udførelse) (-0.16; 95 % CI: -0.38 to 0.06) eller observeret (AMPS) (-0.1; 95 % CI: -0.3 to 0.1) ADL evne fra baseline til uge 10. Ved sekundært endpoint 26 uger efter baseline, fandt vi en statistisk signifikant og klinisk relevant forskel i motorisk ADL evne (AMPS) (LS mean change = -0.3; 95% CI = -0.5 to -0.1) mellem grupperne. Dette fund blev bekræftet i sensitivitetsanalysen (LS mean change = -0.4; 95% CI = -0.7 to -0.1).Procesevalueringen bekræftede overordnet set programteorien og tilføjede informationer om centrale mekanismer associeret med de positive resultater af ABLE 2.0: Aktiv involvering af klienten i problemløsningsprocessen, en velfungerende samarbejdsrelation, gensidig tillid og vejledning i en aktivitetsbaseret proces med brug af kompenserende tiltag. En række kontekstuelle faktorer, herunder understøttende ledelse, visitationsprocedurer der understøttede problemløsningsprocessen, levering i klientens hjem, ergoterapeuter med gode færdigheder, og klienter, der følte sig klar til forandringer, kunne aktivere mekanismerne.Konklusioner: På baggrund af studiernes resultater kan det konkluderes, at ABLE 2.0 havde effekt i forhold til at opnå forbedringer i observeret motorisk ADL evne, det vil sige nedsat anstrengelse i form af klodsethed, fysisk udmattelse og træthed, blandt personer med kroniske tilstande. De opnåede langsigtede effekter på den observerede motoriske ADL evne tilskrives den systematiske tilgang til problemløsningsprocessen, at interventionen leveres i hjemmet og brugen af kompenserende tiltag. Slutteligt, fordi klienternes observerede ADL evne ved baseline var den eneste identificerede forskel mellem de klienter, der opnåede forbedret ADL evne og de der ikke gjorde, og ABLE 2.0 således var effektiv på tværs af køn, alder og diagnoser, understøtter resultaterne ideen om et generisk program. Konklusionerne danner grundlag for at anbefale iværksættelse af forskningsaktiviteter, der sigter mod implementering af ABLE interventionsprogrammet i kommunal rehabiliteringspraksis. Background: Problems related to performance of activities of daily living (ADL) tasks is associated with chronic conditions stressing a need to develop and evaluate intervention programmes addressing such problems. Guided by the United Kingdom Medical Research Council’s (MRC) guidance on how to develop and evaluate complex interventions, the first version of the occupational therapy program (ABLE 1.0) was developed, aiming at enhancing ADL ability among persons with chronic conditions. ABLE incorporates knowledge based on existing evidence, clinical expertise of occupational therapists, and clients’ experiences and needs. ABLE is a structured eight-week, generic, homebased, adaptational program, including five to eight individualised sessions, developed to be delivered in the client’s home as part of community-based rehabilitation services. Following development of the programme, a feasibility study was conducted, showing that ABLE 1.0 was feasible in terms of content and delivery with minor adjustments to the intervention manual and recruitment procedures. Hence, pilot testing of the remaining uncertainties was recommended before proceeding to the evaluation phase. The aim of this doctoral thesis was to evaluate the remaining feasibility aspects prior to a randomised controlled trial (RCT), including minor revision of ABLE 1.0, and to conduct effectiveness and process evaluation of ABLE 2.0.Methods: The MRC framework for developing and evaluating complex interventions was applied. Revision of ABLE 1.0 included conduction of a cognitive debriefing including n=5 occupational therapists to identify any aspect of the ABLE manual leading to confusion or misunderstanding. Further, relevant updates of theoretical models incorporated in ABLE 1.0 were implemented.The pilot study was designed as a two-armed parallel RCT, planning a recruitment strategy including 20 persons with one or more chronic conditions and experiencing problems performing ADL tasks. The pilot study period was scheduled from December 2019 to April 2020. The following progression criteria were used to determine if a future full-scale RCT was feasible: (i) recruitment (50% met the eligibility criteria) and retention (80%), (ii) randomisation (80% accepted randomisation, procedure was executed as planned), (iii) adherence to programme (100% followed the treatment protocol), (iv) outcome measurements (80% of the participants delivered relevantly and fully answered questionnaires), and (v) usual occupational therapy (extraction of needed information was successful).The subsequent effectiveness evaluation was designed as a RCT with blinded assessors and investigators. Home-dwelling persons with chronic conditions experiencing ADL task performance problems were randomly allocated to ABLE 2.0 or usual occupational therapy. Data were collected at baseline (week 0), post intervention (week 10) and at follow-up (week 26). Coprimary outcomes were self-reported ADL ability (ADL-Interview (ADL-I) performance) and observed ADL motor ability (Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS)) at primary endpoint (week 10). Secondary outcomes were self-reported ADL ability (ADL-I performance), observed ADL motor ability (AMPS) at secondary endpoint (week 26) and perceived satisfaction with ADL ability (ADL-I satisfaction); and observed ADL process ability (AMPS) at primary and secondary endpoint. Explorative outcomes were occupational balance (Occupational Balance Questionnaire); perceived change (Client Weighted Problems Questionnaire) and general health (first question of the MOS 36-item Short Form Survey Instrument) at primary and secondary endpoint. All outcomes were analysed using the principles of Intention-To-Treat (ITT) analyses followed by sensitivity analyses in terms of Per Protocol (PP) analyses, applying analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with time by programme as repeated measures. ADL-I at baseline was included as covariate. In the process evaluation a realist evaluation approach was applied. A programme theory (ABLE 2.0 initial programme theory) was constructed expressing how contexts (C) and mechanisms (M) in the intervention programme were hypothesised to lead to certain outcomes (O), in so-called CMO configurations. The process evaluation was based on qualitative interview data from a sub-group of clients (n=8) and the occupational therapists delivering the programme (n=3), supplied by quantitative data from registration forms, filled in by clients receiving (n=38) and OTs delivering (n=3) ABLE 2.0.Results: Based on data from the cognitive debriefing and updated theory the manual was revised resulting in ABLE 2.0. Due to the Covid-19 pandemic the pilot study was interrupted in March 2020, resulting in limited but sufficient data to answer most of the study questions. (i) Eighteen of 37 eligible persons (48.6%) were recruited; of those treated (n = 6), all remained in the programme (100%); (ii) 18 accepted randomisation (100%), and procedure was effective; (iii) ABLE was delivered with adherence (100%); (iv) 92.3–100% of the participants gave relevant and complete answers in two of three questionnaires; and (v) the needed information on usual occupational therapy was extractable in seven of nine aspects.In the effectiveness evaluation ITT analysis of primary outcomes identified no statistically significant nor clinically relevant difference between group mean changes on self-reported, i.e. ADL-I performance (-0.16; 95 % CI: - 0.38 to 0.06) and observed ADL ability, i.e. AMPS ADL motor ability (-0.1; 95 % CI: -0.3 to 0.1) from baseline to week 10. However, at the secondary endpoint (week 26) a statistically significant and clinically relevant difference was found in AMPS ADL motor ability (LS mean change = -0.3; 95% CI = -0.5 to -0.1) between groups. This was confirmed in the sensitivity analysis (LS mean change = -0.4; 95% CI = -0.7 to -0.1).The process evaluation overall confirmed the initial programme theory, adding information on core mechanisms associated with the positive effects of the ABLE 2.0. These included active involvement of the client in the problem-solving process, a collaborative working relationship, mutual confidence, and a consultative occupation-based process using adaptational strategies. Several contextual factors were required to activate the desired mechanisms in terms of supportive management, referral procedures encouraging the problem-solving process, delivery in the client’s home, skilled OTs, and clients feeling ready for making changes.Conclusions: Based on the results it was concluded that the ABLE 2.0 was effective in improving observed ADL motor ability, reflecting a decreased level of effort in terms of clumsiness, physical effort, and fatigue among persons with chronic conditions. Sustainability of the improvements in ADL motor ability was obtained based on delivering the individualised systematic problem-solving process in the home of the client and by using adaptational strategies. Finally, because baseline ADL ability was identified as the only area were persons who benefitted differed from those who did not, and the ABLE 2.0 otherwise was effective across age, gender and diagnoses, the idea of developing a generic programme was supported. Based on the conclusions it is recommended to proceed to planning of research activities aiming at implementing the ABLE intervention programme in clinical communitybased rehabilitation settings.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    James, Laura;
    Country: Denmark

    It is clear that the pandemic has had a dramatic impact on tourism regions in the short term. Europe has seen a drop of 77% in international visitor numbers in 2021 compared to pre-pandemic, and the UNWTO estimates that 100-120 million jobs are at risk globally. But what will the longer-term impacts be? This blog considers whether tourism regions will bounce back to old development paths after the pandemic or whether it will prove to be a transformative moment, triggering the establishment of new development trajectories. It draws on research, funded by the Regional Studies Association ‘Pandemics, Cities, Regions & Industry Small Grant Scheme’, which has investigated the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on tourism regions and how destination organisations have reacted.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Mellupe, Renata;
    Publisher: Syddansk Universitet. Det Samfundsvidenskabelige Fakultet
    Country: Denmark

    Forskning i, hvordan stressfaktorer i forbindelse med udfordringer og hindringer påvirker performance, er vokset stærkt frem i litteraturen om organisatorisk stress. Vores forståelse af de mekanismer, som kan forklare disse effekter, er dog stadig begrænset. Denne artikelbaserede afhandling, som tager afsæt i udfordrings-/hindrings stressmodellen og transaktionsteori omkring stress, behandler i tre forskningsartikler spørgsmålet om, hvordan stressfaktorer påvirker performance ved at undersøge underliggende kognitive mekanismer og faktorer, som er relateret til disse effekter. Den første artikel har fokus på, hvordan udfordrings- og hindringsvurdering bidrager til vores forståelse af sammenhængen mellem stressfaktorer og performance. Artiklen præsenterer en oversigt over empiriske resultater, og stiller de studier, som måler vurderinger og de studier, der ikke tager vurderinger med i betragtning op overfor hinanden. Den konkluderer, at måling af vurderinger giver et mere detaljeret billede af sammenhængene mellem stressfaktorer og performancerelaterede resultater. Den anden artikel beskriver et præregistreret eksperimentelt studie, som har undersøgt virkningen af stressfaktorens styrke (opgavesværhedsgrad) på udfordrings-/hindringsvurderinger og performance af en krævende kognitiv opgave. Studiet fandt en ikke-lineære effekt af opgavesværhedsgrad på udfordringsvurderinger, mens effekten på hindringsvurderinger var lineær. Samtidig bekræfter det hindringsvurderingens medierende rolle i sammenhængen mellem opgavesværhedsgrad og performance. Den tredje artikel beskriver to studier. Studie 1 er et præregistreret eksperiment, som udforsker, hvilken rolle tidligere erfaringer og feedback spiller i det dynamiske stressforløb. Artiklen fokuserer især på, hvordan opgaveperformance, vist som en sideløbende performance feedback (dvs. simultan præsentation af opadgående social sammenligning og objektiv feedback) medierer ændringer i udfordrings- og hindringsvurderinger. Studie 1 underbygger delvist dets hypoteser om indirekte effekter. Studie 2 bygger på Studie 1 og anvender derudover eye-tracking til at undersøge sammenhængene mellem udfordrings-/hindringsvurderinger og opmærksomhed på de to nævnte aspekter af sideløbende feedback for at kaste lys på hvilke opmærksomhedsprocesser, der ligger bag de effekter, der blev fundet i Studie 1. Studie 2 er i øjeblikket i gang med dataindsamling og er ikke afsluttet på grund af COVID-19-inducerede restriktioner på laboratoriet. Denne afhandlings overordnede resultater anbefaler en gentænkning af den nuværende forståelsesramme for udfordrings-/hindrings stressmodellen ved at åbne for en mere kompleks konceptualisering af sammenhængen mellem stressfaktorer og performance i organisationer. Research on the effects of challenge and hindrance stressors on performance is burgeoning in organizational stress literature. Nevertheless, our understanding of the mechanisms explaining these effects is still limited. Grounded in the challenge-hindrance stressor framework and the transactional theory of stress, this article-based dissertation addresses the question of how stressors produce their effects on performance by investigating the underlying cognitive mechanisms and factors associated with these effects in three research papers. Specifically, to understand how challenge and hindrance appraisals contribute to our understanding of the stressor-performance link, the first paper presents a review of the empirical findings that contrasts the studies that measure appraisals with those that do not consider appraisals. It finds that measurement of appraisals offers more refined picture of the relationships between the stressors and performance-related outcomes. The second paper conducts a pre-registered experimental study to investigate the effects of the magnitude of a stressor (task difficulty) on challenge and hindrance appraisals and performance in a demanding cognitive task. It finds the non-linear effects of task difficulty on challenge appraisals, while the effects on hindrance appraisals were linear. In addition, it provides support for the mediating role of the hindrance appraisals in the task difficulty-performance relationships. The third paper consists of two studies. Study 1 carries out a pre-registered experiment to explore the role of prior experience and feedback in the dynamic stress process. Specifically, it examines how task performance, provided as in-task concurrent feedback, i.e., simultaneous presentation of upward social comparison and objective feedback, mediates change in challenge and hindrance appraisals. Study 1 finds partial support for the hypothesized effects. Study 2 examines the underlying effects found in Study 1 and employs eye-tracking to explore the associations between challenge and hindrance appraisals and attentional focus on the two elements of the in-task concurrent feedback to shed light on attentional processes. Study 2 is currently in the process of data collection and is not completed due to COVID-19 induced restrictions on the laboratory. The overall results of this dissertation encourage rethinking the existing state of the challenge-hindrance stressor framework by inviting a more complex conceptualization of the stressor-performance association in organizations.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aburto, José Manuel; Schöley, Jonas; Kashnitsky, Ilya; Kashyap, Ridhi;
    Country: Denmark
  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Holm, Pætur Mikal; Grønne, Dorte Thalund; Roos, Ewa M.; Skou, Søren Thorgaard;
    Publisher: ClinicalTrials.gov
    Country: Denmark

    Due to enforced social distancing as a direct consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, many on-site health care services are unavailable. This study seeks to investigate the comparative effectiveness of an alternative on-line delivery model of exercise and education compared to on-site delivery in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Due to the extraordinary events of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, finding alternative delivery-models of treatment has come to the forefront of public health services worldwide. Consequently, on-line treatment is rapidly becoming an integral part of public health service. For patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), where non-pharmacological and non-surgical treatment is considered first-line treatment, on-line delivered exercise has already shown promise and may be a viable treatment option, especially when traditional on-site exercise delivery models are unavailable. However, further studies are needed to clarify the relative effectiveness of on-line exercise and education when compared to on-site exercise and education programs.This study aims to evaluate the effects of on-line exercise and education in knee OA compared to a cohort of similar knee OA patients completing the same exercise and education program through on-site delivery.This study includes two cohorts of knee OA patients receiving the same exercise and education program through different delivery models (on-line vs. on-site). The on-line cohort is a new treatment delivery initiative, born out of the COVID-19 enforced shutdown of all non-critical on-site health care. The on-site cohort is comprised of knee OA patients from a patient registry, collecting outcome data as part of the exercise and education program.The exercise and education program is called Good Life with osteoArthritis in Denmark (GLA:D), and consists of two to three disease-specific educational sessions and 12 neuromuscular exercise sessions (NEMEX-TJR). GLA:D originates from Denmark and has currently been implemented in Australia, Canada, China, Switzerland and New Zealand.This study will primarily compare outcomes of pain, function and quality of life between the two different treatment delivery models and will provide important insights in effectiveness of alternative delivery models of recommended first-line care for patients with knee OA.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Levin, Andrew; Owusu-Boaitey, Nana; Pugh, Sierra; Fosdick, Bailey K.; Zwi, Anthony B.; Malani, Anup; Soman, Satej; Besançon, Lonni; Kashnitsky, Ilya; Ganesh, Sachin; +8 more
    Country: Denmark
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Beaulieu-Brossard, Philippe; Dufort, Philippe; Olafson, Nadine;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | DESIGN (800560)

    Nadine Olafson, Philippe Beaulieu-Brossard & Philippe Dufort For several defence & security professionals, recent COVID-19 and climate change driven challenges are confirming that new methodologies are required for augmenting traditional problem-solving capabilities. Among these, design for defence & security purposes (also known as military design) is gaining traction across NATO members, partners and beyond. By design, we mean the philosophy & tools that a leader and his team can mobilize to create something needed but that does not yet exist in order to re-imagine a situation and ultimately change it into a better one. Yet, developing design capabilities to gain a cognitive advantage is not easy apart for the few who have access to a graduate military education programme. This blog seeks to compensate for this by sharing a review of eight online self-learning resources that are accessible in terms of both content and price.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Jørgensen, Morten W. N.; Høiby, Niels; Ziock, Hans-Joachim; Rasmussen, Steen;
    Publisher: medrxiv
    Country: Denmark

    We model and simulate the COVID-19 infection andhealthcare dynamics in Denmark from the onset till March 5,2021. The simulation is matched and calibrated to hospitaland death data as well as antibody population measurement.In this work we focus on comparing the time evolution of theestimated infection level with the daily identified infected individuals based on the national testing and contact tracingprogram. We find that the national testing program on average identifies 1/3 of the infected individuals July 1, 2020 -March 5, 2021. Our investigations indicate the current program does not have a proper balance between random probing, focused contact tracing, and testing prioritization. Toomuch of the program operates as a semi-random daily sampling of part of the population. We propose a policy with afocus on local infection tracing and interventions.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bembom, Elsbeth; Bruin, Randy;
    Country: Denmark

    In this blog post, we explore the tourism encounters between Arctic tourism entrepreneurs and domestic tourists in times of the Covid-19 pandemic. What stories about local culture and everyday life are told to the domestic visitors and how are local communities coping with new forms of tourism development?

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bohlbro, Anders Solitander; Møller Jensen, Andreas; Damerow, Sabine;
    Country: Denmark

    In the Covid-19 pandemic, it seems that African countries have been largely spared from the devastating effects observed elsewhere. Working and living in Guinea-Bissau, one of the poorest and most fragile countries in the world located in West Africa, we wonder: How can the world know that there are only few Covid-19 cases in a country where the health system is weak and access to Covid-19 tests very limited? How can the world know that there is a low Covid-19 mortality in a country without a reliable civil registration and vital statistic system? In this article, we explore the (too) many unknowns of Covid-19 in Guinea-Bissau. The article was chosen as the 1st place winner of the 2020 Eye on Global Health Writing Competition.

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