It is quite challenging for young students to learn English as a second language. To alleviate this, supporting teaching methods can be used within English learning classes. Teachers play a significant role in students' learning process. They have the responsibility to provide students appropriate learning experiences and support. In other words, teachers are the ‘scaffolding’ who help students expand their learning boundaries and by creating a supportive educational environment, they motivate students and facilitate learning process. In bilingual classes, codeswitching is considered a helpful teaching and learning method. Code-switching and scaffolding guide enable learners to work within their zone of proximal development, the support which allows students to effectively participate in the learning task. This paper investigates how codeswitching can be an asset to English language learning among young learners in Beijing, China. It explores learners’ attitudes toward code-switching where it is allowed and encouraged due to free code-switching use in classroom. A qualitative approach has been adopted and two methods used for gathering the data; questionnaire surveys and observations within English teaching online sessions. A total of twenty-one young Chinese students and ten educators participated in the study. It was found that younger participants expressed more positive attitudes regarding codeswitching as the language barriers decreased when students could code-switch freely within a lesson. In addition, the findings illustrate how code-switching contributes to a better understanding of actual language usage in classroom.
This essay explores the view on gender in Roald Dahl’s Matilda and The Witches. From a queer perspective, the essay examines the message residing in the intermedial space of the text-image relationship. Analysing several character’s gender performances from both books, the conclusion found that Dahl, in these books, favours assigning queer descriptors to bad characters, and heteronormative descriptors to good characters. Furthermore, the analysis points out several examples of the illustrations and text contradicting as well as amplifying each other.
Linguistic landscape is a discipline that studies signage in a landscape. It is a growing field within linguistics and numerous studies have been made worldwide on the prevalence of signs. Both the language used on signs and the actors behind the signs are of interest for the study of linguistic landscape. The actors are divided between institutional ones, i.e., top-down signs and private ones, i.e. bottom-up signs. Here I present a study of the prevalence of English signs in the city center of Gothenburg. The study focuses on the prevalence of English including English mixed with other languages on top-down signs and bottom-up signs. By photographing signs, mapping and then dividing them into different categories this study shows both the spread of English signs and which domains of society that use English the most. Previous studies show that English is one of the most used languages on signs within the commercial realm in different countries of the world, the category known as bottom-up signage. This study agrees with previous research that English is the most prevalent in the commercial domain. The distribution is visualized on a map, which highlights the different regions and the density of signage in these areas. The results show that English is the most prevalent in the sphere of commerce in the city center of Gothenburg.
Learning a second language (L2) has become a crucial need for the citizens of this globalized world, since there are constant opportunities for intercultural communication in their daily lives. However, L2 acquisition is a lengthy, complex process. Not only learners, but teachers make errors in the classroom. This study examines and compares the attitudes and opinions that both teachers and students of English as a Second Language (ESL) in Spain have towards errors in the classroom. Two online questionnaires were created and sent out: one of them aimed at students and the other aimed at teachers. Answers were analyzed and compared to discern whether the attitudes towards errors in the L2 classroom are positive or negative.
Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur människor med erfarenhet av långvarig psykisk ohälsa upplevt att de blivit påverkade av professionellas bemötande och att särskilt undersöka vad i bemötandet som kan ha haft en befrämjande eller hindrande effekt på deras återhämtningsprocess. Datainsamlingsmetoden var semistrukturerade intervjuer med sex informanter. Urvalet av informanter gjordes genom att först kontakta frivilligorganisationer för människor med långvarig psykisk ohälsa och därefter bland organisationernas medlemmar söka informanter som när intervjuerna gjordes definierade sig som återhämtade, inte hade vårdats inneliggande det senaste året, var mellan 20 och 64 år och hade minst två års erfarenhet av psykisk ohälsa. Metoden för dataanalys var en tematisk analys där ett teoretiskt ramverk som innehöll de mikrosociologiska begreppen interaktionsritual, läkande relationer, den skyddande makten, den förtryckande makten, mikroaggressioner och mikroaffirmationer användes. Uppsatsens resultat visade att professionellas bemötande har haft betydelse för informanternas återhämtningsprocess framförallt genom att påverka deras självkänsla positivt eller negativt. Hur självkänslan påverkas berodde främst på hur makt kommer till uttryck i bemötandet. Informanternas självkänsla påverkade sedan deras känsla av hopp och förmåga till att agera i sin egen återhämtningsprocess.
With the derogatory political discourse by Donald Trump calling the Covid-19 pandemic the “China Virus,” and the “Wuhan Flu” there has been perceived increase in stigmatization, and discrimination towards Asian diaspora abroad. Shocking events have occurred in regard to Asian hate where within the US a Thai man was fatally assaulted in San Francisco (Fuller 2021); in the UK a Singaporean student was physically assaulted (Rawlinson and Quinn 2020); and in Sweden a couple were physically assaulted on the Stockholm metro to name a few (The Local 2020). Within this backdrop of discrimination towards Asians abroad, there has also been limited academic research on the stigmatization of Asians in Sweden during Covid-19 outside the work of Jansson and Ihijji (2021). This thesis aims to add to existing research by telling the stories of those who self-identify as Asian who have experienced stigmatization during Covid-19, observe how the concept of passing as (white) Swedish is relevant to the case, and to find potential solutions to end Asian stigmatization within the Swedish context from the perspective of the interviewees. Therefore, ten in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted, and then analyzed through a grounded theory approach with some elements of thematic analysis. The results found that stigmatization of self-identified Asians was found with varying degrees of severity ranging from physical violence, avoidance in public, to coughing when passing by. Passing as (white) Swedish was observed to how stigma was avoided, and lastly some solutions to end Asian stigmatization was addressing passivity, avoiding gaslighting, and (re)education.
Making substrates is a craft which made up a big part of the gardener’s profession up until the middle of the 18th century. Many of the necessary components often involved resources that were accessible in the garden. Today, both the knowledge surrounding and the craft within mixing substrates has largely been forgotten, and very few gardeners dedicate time to do so. In present time the manufacturing of substrates is done by specialized companies in factories. This thesis aims to enlighten and research substrates from a cultural history- and craftmanship perspective, done with local resources, through analysis of a practical experiment, interviews and a study of accessible literature. In my practical experiment I gathered components and mixed two different substrates, one of them based on a recipe from 1912, and the other composed in collaboration with Pauliina Jonsson from Jordbruksverket. These were then compared with a peatmoss-based substrate bought from Hasselfors Garden. The two selfmade substrates were based on components such as leafmold, gardencompost, sand and soil. Salad plants were then planted into each of the three substrates in a large growing container, where they were closely monitored until harvest. Subtrate analysis was taken from each of the substrates and a reflection of harvest results, properties and deviations in the craftmanship needed for each of the substrates were made. Uppsats för avläggande av filosofie kandidatexamen med huvudområdet kulturvård med inriktning mot trädgårdens hantverk 2021, 180 hp
This study aimed to investigate boys’ and girls’ experience of sexual harassment, especially in terms of perceived discomfort, and whether there is an association to their general psychological well-being (i.e., emotional problems and self-esteem). Online questionnaires were filled out by 968 Swedish fifth-grade students. Findings showed that girls reported significantly higher levels of discomfort related to sexual harassment than boys. Students who reported a high degree of discomfort reported higher levels of emotional problems and lower selfesteem compared to those who reported low or no discomfort. Victims of crossgender harassment were underrepresented in the no discomfort-group. Our results suggest that level of perceived discomfort in relation to peer sexual harassment could be a mediating factor between peer sexual harassment and psychological wellbeing among children, highlighting the need to investigate this further.
Sepsis is a life-threatening syndrome triggered by an infection. Despite international guidelines, sepsis management varies between sites. This unwanted practice variation may affect negatively the quality of care but enables theoretically retrospective studies for finding optimal treatment strategies. The goal of the present master thesis was to find a relevant way to model practice variation in the management of sepsis-induced circulatory failure. Sepsis patients were retrieved from the eICU critical care database. Nine treatments and nine relevant covariates were selected from domain knowledge. Practice variation was successively investigated in four intensive care units and four hospitals respectively. Missing values were imputed using forward filling, linear interpolation and the Multiple Imputation by Chained Equations algorithm. For each analysis, two logistic regression models were successively trained and calibrated. The first model yielded propensity estimates for being treated in a particular site given covariates. The second model was trained on the subset of patients having a reasonable probability of being treated in all the sites and yielded propensity estimates for being treated with a particular treatment. Practice variation was first defined as the expected difference in propensity for treatment between two sites and then characterized for a given patient with given covariates as the distance between the likelihood to get a certain treatment in a certain site s and the expectation of the likelihood to get the same treatment over all the sites with the assumption that this patient had the same likelihood of being treated in s as he had in the actual data. A pairwise comparisons of propensity for treatments between sites revealed variations up to 12.5%. At a patient level, practice variation distributions showed a similar positively skewed distribution for both analyses and revealed variations up to 5.8%. We demonstrated the feasibility of modeling practice variation among distinct sites in the management of sepsis-induced circulatory failure using retrospective data. The significance of this variation should be further evaluated by investigating which treatment policies are associated with a better outcome.
I have examined the subject of evaluation and audits on sustainable social development in global value chains. I have investigated the risk of reliable evaluations and audits losing their validity when adjusting quality values into measurable quantified ones that may distort the perception of reality and change. My material consists of three ‘Communication on Progress’-reports. I have used previous literature on the subject, an ‘idea analytic framework’ for my analysis, the ‘Theory on Management and Power-With’ by Mary Parker Follett, the theory of ‘Non Decision’ by Peter Bachrach and Morton S. Baratz, and Tania Murray Li’s concept ‘rendering technical’. It has become clear to me that companies are expressing a dedication to take a more comprehensive social responsibility in the global value chain, but that the challenge is extensive. They therefore largely entrust this task to external actors, who might provide deceptive data that will endanger the operation of long term sustainability. In conclusion, I believe in the undertaking of MNC to conduct a more sustainable business, but that the toolkit needs to be reviewed.