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467 Research products, page 1 of 47

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  • Other research product . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tueller, Peter;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    There are many environments on Earth that are so remote that they are inhospitable to humans and conventional sensing equipment. Yet, these environments can hold information of ecological and cultural significance that cannot be gathered anywhere else. Current methods of gathering information in these environments give an important window, but utilizing modern sensors to capture 3D information can allow us to interpret existing data and understand the environments in new and unique ways. This thesis will demonstrate how 3D capture can improve data collection and interpretation in three separate remote environments. First, I will show how Synthetic Aperture Sonar on autonomous underwater vehicles paired with optimized feature detectors can improve target detection and seafloor recognition. Next, I will show how RGBD cameras, photogrammetry, and LIDAR can be used in isolated Guatemalan archaeological excavations to visualize and contextualize ancient sites in relation to each other and to our broader understanding of Mayan history. Finally, I will demonstrate the effectiveness and potential of RGBD cameras for fish stock assessment through detection and length and biomass measurement in open waters and in aquaculture.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jannke, Helen Anne;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    Eastern Mediterranean archaeological sites record intensified marine resource use among coastal hunter-gatherer groups in the Upper Mesolithic (~10.5-8.5 ka (1)) and into the Early Neolithic, followed by a decline in fishing effort as the widespread use of agriculture and pastoralism was established in the Neolithic (~8.5-4 ka (2)). We used a fish microfossil record of teeth, bones, scales, and otoliths deposited in an Aegean deep-sea sediment core to show that pelagic fish availability may have played a role in shaping this dietary evolution. We found elevated deposition of pelagic fish remains during what broadly corresponds to the Mesolithic and Early Neolithic periods, with fish fossil abundance increasing 12-fold starting around ~10 ka. The abundance of fish remains then declines in the open ocean during the Middle-Late Neolithic, with fish fossils decreasing 6-fold after ~6 ka. Our findings reveal that fish were abundant when Mesolithic and Early Neolithic coastal hunter-gatherer groups were exploiting them more heavily, and diminished as human fish use declined and widespread agriculture was established in the Neolithic. We infer that environmental changes in fish availability altered the costs and benefits of the different subsistence strategies, with fishing being a productive strategy during the Upper Mesolithic, and reliance on domesticated resources becoming increasingly advantageous as fish availability declined into the Neolithic. We argue that Early Holocene environmental changes influenced not only the uppermost marine trophic levels, but also the choices and economies of early humans, ultimately favoring the development of agriculture in the Neolithic.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Smyth, Hannah;
    Publisher: University College London UCL

    Research guide and teaching tool for the analysis of digital archives and digital resources in the humanities. Developed from the author's doctoral research and for the postgraduate classes 'Digital resources in the humanities' (Digital Humanities) and 'Concepts and Contexts' (Archives and Records Management) at UCL.

  • Other research product . 2022
    Open Access Indonesian
    Authors: 
    Akmal, S. (Safarov); Mamlakat, K. (Kadirova);
    Publisher: Novateur Publication
    Country: Indonesia

    This article discusses the policy of collectivization in agriculture. It also analyzes the rapid growth of cotton fields as a result of collectivization.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Melton, Mallory Anne;
    Publisher: eScholarship, University of California
    Country: United States

    The emergence of an incipient city represents not only a moment in time, but also the beginnings of a social experiment. Aggregated living introduced new challenges such as the need to feed more mouths than ever before. Yet studying responses to these challenges becomes difficult in the case of early cities as excavations of these contexts do not provide adequate temporal and/or spatial resolution to assess change over time. This dissertation examines subsistence strategies at the archaeological site of La Blanca (900-500 BCE), a Middle Preclassic period incipient city on the Pacific coast of Guatemala with a long history of household excavations. I analyze macrobotanical and microbotanical plant remains from La Blanca to assess both the types of foods used to feed inhabitants and the distribution of intra-site food processing activities across time and space. The analysis of plant remains can provide unique insights into social differentiation in comparison to other commonly used indices, such as the distribution of prestige goods. I rely on Pierre Bourdieu’s theoretical construct of social fields to disentangle the study of economic ranking based on prestige goods from economic activities pursued by households. Rather than grouping households by elite or commoner status first and then comparing plant remains second, I look to the plant data first to assess their own non-binary insights into social relations. My research uses Exploratory Data Analysis to investigate spatial and temporal patterning. I integrate a wide variety of techniques including paleoethnobotanical methods (macrobotanical, starch granule, and phytolith analysis), spatial statistics, and Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates to conduct intra-site and inter-site comparisons of plant data from the La Blanca site. My results present novel perspectives on subsistence planning in early cities and long-term changes in the regional subsistence practices of Pacific Mexico and Guatemala during the Preclassic period. Spatial statistics reveal that domestic contexts at La Blanca are clustered, identifying five neighborhoods and one additional area with a more complex use history. Comparisons of botanical remains from these six locales indicate that their uses changed over time. Moreover, temporal comparisons illustrate that diversification played a key role in meeting subsistence needs during the Conchas D subphase, the most populous period of the early city’s occupation. Inter-site comparisons with other Early and Middle Preclassic sites on the Pacific Coast indicate that, contrary to expectations, maize intensification predated the initial urbanization of the region. La Blanca also represents the highest taxonomic diversity of the sequence, revealing that diversification is more characteristic of early urbanism on the Pacific Coast than previously considered. Analysis of plant use as a social field does not provide strong evidence of differences in household subsistence strategies by economic ranking, but instead highlights key differences by spatial cluster that are more indicative of early efforts at city planning.

  • Open Access English

    JavaScript code used in the geospatial analysis searching for Paititi. The code, coupled with the provided data, allows studying the distribution of morphometric characteristics of terrain for specified point samples by making a chart and exporting the derived terrain products as GeoTiffs. In theory, it can bring insights on where to look for ancient settlements of Inca and other Andean cultures. You must run the code inside the Google Earth Engine, a free-to-use cloud computing platform for processing satellite imagery and other Earth observation data. It requires you to have a Google account and a related Earth Engine account. To successfully apply this code, you also need to have basic experience with coding and GIS. Please, read the README.md file for more details. Links Paititi Research Google Earth Engine GitHub Repository

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pasternak, Gil;
    Country: United Kingdom

    This special issue of the journal Photography & Culture (volume 14, issue 3) calls for the development of research into the various local and global political circumstances that have influenced the absorption of historical photographs into the realm of digital heritage, alongside the study of the digital photographic heritagization practices triggered by this very process. Presenting case studies from Australia, Britain, Israel, Palestine, Russia and South Africa, it analyses how historical photographs, digital heritage, and cultural conflicts have become interlocked in multiple countries around the globe since the post-Cold War rising prevalence of digital technology, global interconnectedness, and liberal democracy. These related conditions, it is suggested, have informed the growing digital heritagization of historical photographs and the methods used for their digitization, safeguarding and dissemination. Therefore, as a whole, the special issue argues that the confluence of historical photographs and digital heritage must not be understood as a mere response to technological progress but as an articulation of politically-charged aspirations to capitalize on the common association of photographs with the past, to administer approaches to differing cultural values in a time of imposing liberal-democratic politics of consensus.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Barreau, Jean-Baptiste; Leroy Du Cardonnoy, Eric; Laroche, Florent; Madeleine, Sophie; Mathieu, Véronique; Granier, Xavier; Mora, Pascal; Pouyet, Thomas; Chayani, Mehdi;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Specification Writing Guide; This document follows up the release of the recommendation of the Consortium 3D for the Humanities available in open access on the HAL platform in 2018. These first recommendations were mostly included into the guide “Guide pour la rédaction d’un cahier des charges de numérisation en 3D” published by the French Ministry of Culture in the context of the National program to digitize and to valorize cultural content.

  • Open Access Slovenian
    Publisher: Biotehniška fakulteta, VTOZD za gozdarstvo
    Country: Slovenia
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Fiz, Ignacio; Cuesta, Rosa; Subias, Eva; Martin, Pere Manel;
    Country: Spain

    This article presents the first results obtained from the use of high-resolution images from the SAR-X sensor of the PAZ satellite platform. These are in result of the application of various radar image-treatment techniques, with which we wanted to carry out a non-invasive exploration of areas of the archaeological site of Clunia (Burgos, Spain). These areas were analyzed and contrasted with other sources from high-resolution multispectral images (TripleSat), or from digital surface models obtained from Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data from the National Plan for Aerial Orthophotography (PNOA), and treated with image enhancement functions (Relief Visualization Tools (RVT)). Moreover, they were compared with multispectral images created from the Infrared Red Blue (IRRB) data contained in the same LiDAR points.

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