Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
4,131 Research products, page 1 of 414

  • Other research products
  • Other ORP type
  • English
  • COVID-19

10
arrow_drop_down
Date (most recent)
arrow_drop_down
  • Embargo English
    Authors: 
    Meza Miranda, Eliana Romina; Parra Soto, Solange Liliana; Durán Agüero, Samuel; Gómez, Georgina; Carpio Arias, Valeria; Ríos Castillo, Israel; Murillo, Ana Gabriela; Araneda, Jacqueline; Morales, Gladys; Cavagnari, Brian M.; +6 more
    Country: Argentina

    Abstract: Introduction: Short sleep, physical inactivity, and being locked up are risk factors for weight gain. Objective: We evaluated weight gain according to sex, age, hours of sleep and physical activity in university students from 10 Latin American countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Cross-sectional and multicenter study (n = 4880). Results: The average age was 22.5 ± 4.4 years. 60.2% were currently locked up. 73.6% were women, 48.2% increased their body weight, 66% reported insufficient sleep hours, and 65.9% were inactive. Women gained more weight than men (73.2%) and younger students gained more weight (85.1%). Those who had insufficient sleep hours gained most weight (67.6%). Inactive participants gained most weight (74.7%). Students who have insufficient sleep are 21% more likely to have changes in body weight compared to students who have optimal sleep. Conclusion: The increase in body weight and its risk factors during confinement should be considered as emerging from public health.

  • Embargo English
    Authors: 
    Otero Losada, Matilde; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Alami, Abdallah; Crispo, James A.; Mattison, Donald; Capani, Francisco; Goetz, Christopher; Krewski, Daniel; Pérez Lloret, Santiago;
    Country: Argentina

    Abstract: Background: Information on neurological and psychiatric adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) with COVID-19 vaccines is limited. Research design & methods: We examined and compared neurological and psychiatric AEFIS reports related to BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and ChAdOx1 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) COVID-19 vaccines and recorded in the United Kingdom Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency between 9 December 2020 and 30 June 2021. Results: As of 30 June 2021, 46.1 million doses of ChAdOx1 and 30.3 million doses of BNT162b2 had been administered. The most frequently reported AEFI was headache with 1,686 and 575 cases per million doses of ChAdOx1 and BNT162b2, respectively. AEFIs more frequently reported after CHAdOx1 compared with BNT162b2 vaccination were Guillain-Barré syndrome (OR, 95% CI = 2.53, 1.82–3.51), freezing (6.66, 3.12–14.22), cluster headache (1.53, 1.28–1.84), migraine (1.23,1.17–1.30), postural dizziness (1.24,1.13–1.37), tremor (2.86, 2.68–3.05), headache (1.40, 1.38–1.43), paresthesia (1.11, 1.06–1.16), delirium (1.85, 1.45–2.36), hallucination (2.20, 1.82–2.66), poor quality sleep (1.53, 1.26–1.85), and nervousness (1.54, 1.26–1.89) Reactions less frequently reported with ChAdOx1 than with BNT162b2 were Bell’s palsy (0.47, 0.41–0.55), anosmia (0.58, 0.47–0.71), facial paralysis (0.35, 0.29– 0.41), dysgeusia (0.68, 0.62–0.73), presyncope (0.48, 0.42–0.55), syncope (0.63, 0.58–0.67), and anxiety (0.75 (0.67–0.85). Conclusion: Neurological and psychiatric AEFIs were relatively infrequent, but each vaccine was associated with a distinctive toxic profile. Plain Language Summary We examined reports on adverse neurological and psychiatric effects following immunization with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and ChAdOx1 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) for COVID-19 to the United Kingdom Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency between 9 December 2020 and 30 June 2021. Adverse effects following immunization (AEFIs) were relatively infrequent. Compared to BNT162b2, Guillain-Barré syndrome, freezing phenomenon, cluster headache, migraine, postural dizziness, tremor, headache, paresthesia, delirium, hallucination, poor quality sleep, and nervousness were more frequently reported for ChAdOx1. Reactions less frequently reported for ChAdOx1 than for BNT162b2 were Bell’s palsy, anosmia, facial paralysis, dysgeusia, presyncope, syncope, and anxiety.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Estupiñán-Romero, Francisco; Van Goethem, Nina; Meurisse, Marjan; González-Galindo, Javier; Bernal-Delgado, Enrique;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    This publication corresponds to the Common Data Model (CDM) specification of the Baseline Use Case proposed in T.5.2 (WP5) in the BY-COVID project on “SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine(s) effectiveness in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection.” Research Question: “How effective have the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination programmes been in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infections?” Intervention (exposure): COVID-19 vaccine(s) Outcome: SARS-CoV-2 infection Subgroup analysis: Vaccination schedule (type of vaccine) Study Design: An observational retrospective longitudinal study to assess the effectiveness of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infections using routinely collected social, health and care data from several countries. A causal model was established using Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs) to map domain knowledge, theories and assumptions about the causal relationship between exposure and outcome. The DAG developed for the research question of interest is shown below. Cohort definition: All people eligible to be vaccinated (from 5 to 115 years old, included) or with, at least, one dose of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (any of the available brands) having or not a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Inclusion criteria: All people vaccinated with at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine (any available brands) in an area of residence. Any person eligible to be vaccinated (from 5 to 115 years old, included) with a positive diagnosis (irrespective of the type of test) for SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) during the period of study. Exclusion criteria: People not eligible for the vaccine (from 0 to 4 years old, included) Study period: From the date of the first documented SARS-CoV-2 infection in each country to the most recent date in which data is available at the time of analysis. Roughly from 01-03-2020 to 30-06-2022, depending on the country. Files included in this publication: Causal model (responding to the research question) SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectiveness causal model v.1.0.0 (HTML) - Interactive report showcasing the structural causal model (DAG) to answer the research question SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectiveness causal model v.1.0.0 (QMD) - Quarto RMarkdown script to produce the structural causal model Common data model specification (following the causal model) SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectiveness data model specification (XLXS) - Human-readable version (Excel) SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectiveness data model specification dataspice (HTML) - Human-readable version (interactive report) SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectiveness data model specification dataspice (JSON) - Machine-readable version Synthetic dataset (complying with the common data model specifications) SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectiveness synthetic dataset (CSV) [UTF-8, pipe | separated, N~650,000 registries] SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectiveness synthetic dataset EDA (HTML) - Interactive report of the exploratory data analysis (EDA) of the synthetic dataset SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectiveness synthetic dataset EDA (JSON) - Machine-readable version of the exploratory data analysis (EDA) of the synthetic dataset SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectiveness synthetic dataset generation script (IPYNB) - Jupyter notebook with Python scripting and commenting to generate the synthetic dataset #### Baseline Use Case: SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectiveness assessment - Common Data Model Specification v.1.1.0 change log #### Updated Causal model to eliminate the consideration of 'vaccination_schedule_cd' as a mediator Adjusted the study period to be consistent with the Study Protocol Updated 'sex_cd' as a required variable Added 'chronic_liver_disease_bl' as a comorbidity at the individual level Updated 'socecon_lvl_cd' at the area level as a recommended variable Added crosswalks for the definition of 'chronic_liver_disease_bl' in a separate sheet Updated the 'vaccination_schedule_cd' reference to the 'Vaccine' node in the updated DAG Updated the description of the 'confirmed_case_dt' and 'previous_infection_dt' variables to clarify the definition and the need for a single registry per person

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2023
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Martinez-Bravo, Monica; Sanz Alonso, Carlos;
    Publisher: Banco de España
    Country: Spain

    La pandemia de COVID-19 llegó en un contexto de creciente polarización política y desconfianza en las instituciones políticas en muchos países. ¿Pudieron las deficiencias en la gestión de la pandemia erosionar la confianza en las instituciones públicas? ¿Interfirió la ideología de los ciudadanos en la forma en que procesaban la información sobre el desempeño de los Gobiernos? Para investigar ambas cuestiones, en noviembre de 2020 llevamos a cabo en España un experimento online prerregistrado. A los encuestados del grupo de tratamiento les proporcionamos información sobre el número de rastreadores de contactos en su comunidad autónoma, una política clave bajo el control de los Gobiernos autonómicos. Encontramos que las personas sobrestiman en gran medida el número de rastreadores de su región. Cuando proporcionamos el número real de rastreadores, encontramos lo siguiente: una pérdida de la confianza en los Gobiernos; una reducción en la voluntad de financiar instituciones públicas, y una disminución de la aceptación de la vacuna contra el COVID-19. También encontramos que los individuos cambian endógenamente su atribución de responsabilidades al recibir el tratamiento. En las regiones donde los Gobiernos regionales y central están gobernados por diferentes partidos, los simpatizantes del Gobierno regional reaccionan a las malas noticias sobre la gestión del Gobierno atribuyendo una mayor responsabilidad al Gobierno central. A esto lo llamamos «efecto de blame-shifting». En estas regiones, la información negativa no se traduce en una menor intención de voto para el Gobierno regional. Estos resultados sugieren que la rendición de cuentas puede ser particularmente difícil en entornos con alta polarización política y donde las áreas de responsabilidad no están claramente delimitadas. The COVID-19 pandemic took place against the backdrop of growing political polarization and distrust in political institutions in many countries. Did deficiencies in government performance further erode trust in public institutions? Did citizens’ ideology interfere with the way they processed information on government performance? To investigate these two questions, we conducted a pre-registered online experiment in Spain in November 2020. Respondents in the treatment group were provided information on the number of contact tracers in their region, a key policy variable under the control of regional governments. We find that individuals greatly over-estimate the number of contact tracers in their region. When we provide the actual number of contact tracers, we find a decline in trust in governments, a reduction in willingness to fund public institutions and a decrease in COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. We also find that individuals endogenously change their attribution of responsibilities when receiving the treatment. In regions where the regional and central governments are controlled by different parties, sympathizers of the regional incumbent react to the negative news on performance by attributing greater responsibility for it to the central government. We call this the blame shifting effect. In those regions, the negative information does not translate into lower voting intentions for the regional incumbent government. These results suggest that the exercise of political accountability may be particularly difficult in settings with high political polarization and areas of responsibility that are not clearly delineated.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2023
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Burriel Llombart, Pablo; Kataryniuk, Iván; Moreno Pérez, Carlos; Viani, Francesca;
    Publisher: Banco de España
    Country: Spain

    En este trabajo se desarrolla un nuevo indicador mensual de cuellos de botella en las cadenas de suministro utilizando artículos de prensa. El índice de cuellos de botella de oferta (SBI, por sus siglas en inglés) proporciona una narración coherente de los problemas de suministro relacionados con las guerras, las catástrofes naturales, las huelgas y, más recientemente, la pandemia ocasionada por el COVID-19. Las innovaciones en el SBI tienen importantes implicaciones macroeconómicas: un aumento del SBI actúa como un shock de costes, disminuyendo la producción industrial y el empleo, y presionando al alza los precios, lo que dificulta la actuación de la política monetaria. We develop a new monthly indicator of supply bottlenecks using newspaper articles. The supply bottlenecks index (SBI) provides a consistent narrative of supply issues related to wars, natural disasters, strikes and, most recently, the COVID-19 pandemic. Innovations in the SBI have important macroeconomic implications: an increase in the SBI functions as a cost-push shock, decreasing industrial production and employment, and pushing prices up, so that monetary policy faces important trade-offs.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2023
    English
    Authors: 
    Du, Zhanwei; Luo, Wei; Sippy, Rachel; Wang, Lin;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: United Kingdom

    Peer reviewed: True Infectious diseases, such as COVID-19 [...].

  • English
    Authors: 
    Chen, Dongxuan; Lau, Yiu-Chung; Xu, Xiao-Ke; Wang, Lin; Du, Zhanwei; Tsang, Tim K.; Wu, Peng; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Wallinga, Jacco; Cowling, Benjamin J.; +1 more
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group UK
    Country: United Kingdom
  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2023
    Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Shorey, Shefaly; Jarašiūnaitė-Fedosejeva, Gabija; Akik, Burcu Kömürcü; Holopainen, Annaleena; Isbir, Gozde Gokce; Chua, Jing Shi; Wayt, Carly; Downe, Soo; Lalor, Joan;
    Country: Netherlands

    Background: Even when maternity care facilities are available, some women will choose to give birth unassisted by a professional (freebirth). This became more apparent during the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as women were increasingly concerned they would contract the virus in health care facilities. Several studies have identified the factors that influence women to seek alternative places of birth to hospitals, but research focusing specifically on freebirth is limited. Methods: Eight databases were searched from their respective inception dates to April 2022 for studies related to freebirth. Data from the studies were charted and a thematic analysis was subsequently conducted. Results: Four themes were identified based on findings from the 25 included studies: (1) Geographical and socio-demographic determinants influencing freebirth, (2) Reasons for choosing freebirth, (3) Factors hindering freebirth, and (4) Preparation for and varied experiences of freebirth. Discussion: More women chose to give birth unassisted in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) compared with high-income countries (HICs). Overall, motivation for freebirth included previous negative birth experiences with health care professionals, a desire to adhere to their birth-related beliefs, and fear of contracting the COVID-19 virus. Included studies reported that study participants were often met with negative responses when they revealed that they were planning to freebirth. Most women in the included studies had positive freebirth experiences. Future research should explore the different motivators of freebirth present in LMICs or HICs to help inform effective policies that may improve birth experiences while maintaining safety.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aguilar-Bretones, Muriel; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Koopmans, Marion P.G.; van Nierop, Gijsbert P.;
    Country: Netherlands

    Infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and vaccinations targeting the spike protein (S) offer protective immunity against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This immunity may further be shaped by cross-reactivity with common cold coronaviruses. Mutations arising in S that are associated with altered intrinsic virus properties and immune escape result in the continued circulation of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Potentially, vaccine updates will be required to protect against future variants of concern, as for influenza. To offer potent protection against future variants, these second-generation vaccines may need to redirect immunity to epitopes associated with immune escape and not merely boost immunity toward conserved domains in preimmune individuals. For influenza, efficacy of repeated vaccination is hampered by original antigenic sin, an attribute of immune memory that leads to greater induction of antibodies specific to the first-encountered variant of an immunogen compared with subsequent variants. In this Review, recent findings on original antigenic sin are discussed in the context of SARS-CoV-2 evolution. Unanswered questions and future directions are highlighted, with an emphasis on the impact on disease outcome and vaccine design.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2023
    English
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing
    Country: Germany

    This book provides insights from research and practice in how organizations were able to sustain resilience in their global supply chains during the COVID-19 pandemic and to advance the understanding of supply chain risk management. The chapters highlight the lessons learned, insist on new models for resilience, suggest improved supply chain risk methodologies and bridge the gap between research and practice. It helps readers acquire greater knowledge, strategic approaches, new methods, and practical tools for ensuring global supply chain resilience.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
4,131 Research products, page 1 of 414
  • Embargo English
    Authors: 
    Meza Miranda, Eliana Romina; Parra Soto, Solange Liliana; Durán Agüero, Samuel; Gómez, Georgina; Carpio Arias, Valeria; Ríos Castillo, Israel; Murillo, Ana Gabriela; Araneda, Jacqueline; Morales, Gladys; Cavagnari, Brian M.; +6 more
    Country: Argentina

    Abstract: Introduction: Short sleep, physical inactivity, and being locked up are risk factors for weight gain. Objective: We evaluated weight gain according to sex, age, hours of sleep and physical activity in university students from 10 Latin American countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Cross-sectional and multicenter study (n = 4880). Results: The average age was 22.5 ± 4.4 years. 60.2% were currently locked up. 73.6% were women, 48.2% increased their body weight, 66% reported insufficient sleep hours, and 65.9% were inactive. Women gained more weight than men (73.2%) and younger students gained more weight (85.1%). Those who had insufficient sleep hours gained most weight (67.6%). Inactive participants gained most weight (74.7%). Students who have insufficient sleep are 21% more likely to have changes in body weight compared to students who have optimal sleep. Conclusion: The increase in body weight and its risk factors during confinement should be considered as emerging from public health.

  • Embargo English
    Authors: 
    Otero Losada, Matilde; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Alami, Abdallah; Crispo, James A.; Mattison, Donald; Capani, Francisco; Goetz, Christopher; Krewski, Daniel; Pérez Lloret, Santiago;
    Country: Argentina

    Abstract: Background: Information on neurological and psychiatric adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) with COVID-19 vaccines is limited. Research design & methods: We examined and compared neurological and psychiatric AEFIS reports related to BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and ChAdOx1 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) COVID-19 vaccines and recorded in the United Kingdom Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency between 9 December 2020 and 30 June 2021. Results: As of 30 June 2021, 46.1 million doses of ChAdOx1 and 30.3 million doses of BNT162b2 had been administered. The most frequently reported AEFI was headache with 1,686 and 575 cases per million doses of ChAdOx1 and BNT162b2, respectively. AEFIs more frequently reported after CHAdOx1 compared with BNT162b2 vaccination were Guillain-Barré syndrome (OR, 95% CI = 2.53, 1.82–3.51), freezing (6.66, 3.12–14.22), cluster headache (1.53, 1.28–1.84), migraine (1.23,1.17–1.30), postural dizziness (1.24,1.13–1.37), tremor (2.86, 2.68–3.05), headache (1.40, 1.38–1.43), paresthesia (1.11, 1.06–1.16), delirium (1.85, 1.45–2.36), hallucination (2.20, 1.82–2.66), poor quality sleep (1.53, 1.26–1.85), and nervousness (1.54, 1.26–1.89) Reactions less frequently reported with ChAdOx1 than with BNT162b2 were Bell’s palsy (0.47, 0.41–0.55), anosmia (0.58, 0.47–0.71), facial paralysis (0.35, 0.29– 0.41), dysgeusia (0.68, 0.62–0.73), presyncope (0.48, 0.42–0.55), syncope (0.63, 0.58–0.67), and anxiety (0.75 (0.67–0.85). Conclusion: Neurological and psychiatric AEFIs were relatively infrequent, but each vaccine was associated with a distinctive toxic profile. Plain Language Summary We examined reports on adverse neurological and psychiatric effects following immunization with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and ChAdOx1 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) for COVID-19 to the United Kingdom Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency between 9 December 2020 and 30 June 2021. Adverse effects following immunization (AEFIs) were relatively infrequent. Compared to BNT162b2, Guillain-Barré syndrome, freezing phenomenon, cluster headache, migraine, postural dizziness, tremor, headache, paresthesia, delirium, hallucination, poor quality sleep, and nervousness were more frequently reported for ChAdOx1. Reactions less frequently reported for ChAdOx1 than for BNT162b2 were Bell’s palsy, anosmia, facial paralysis, dysgeusia, presyncope, syncope, and anxiety.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Estupiñán-Romero, Francisco; Van Goethem, Nina; Meurisse, Marjan; González-Galindo, Javier; Bernal-Delgado, Enrique;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    This publication corresponds to the Common Data Model (CDM) specification of the Baseline Use Case proposed in T.5.2 (WP5) in the BY-COVID project on “SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine(s) effectiveness in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection.” Research Question: “How effective have the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination programmes been in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infections?” Intervention (exposure): COVID-19 vaccine(s) Outcome: SARS-CoV-2 infection Subgroup analysis: Vaccination schedule (type of vaccine) Study Design: An observational retrospective longitudinal study to assess the effectiveness of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infections using routinely collected social, health and care data from several countries. A causal model was established using Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs) to map domain knowledge, theories and assumptions about the causal relationship between exposure and outcome. The DAG developed for the research question of interest is shown below. Cohort definition: All people eligible to be vaccinated (from 5 to 115 years old, included) or with, at least, one dose of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (any of the available brands) having or not a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Inclusion criteria: All people vaccinated with at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine (any available brands) in an area of residence. Any person eligible to be vaccinated (from 5 to 115 years old, included) with a positive diagnosis (irrespective of the type of test) for SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) during the period of study. Exclusion criteria: People not eligible for the vaccine (from 0 to 4 years old, included) Study period: From the date of the first documented SARS-CoV-2 infection in each country to the most recent date in which data is available at the time of analysis. Roughly from 01-03-2020 to 30-06-2022, depending on the country. Files included in this publication: Causal model (responding to the research question) SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectiveness causal model v.1.0.0 (HTML) - Interactive report showcasing the structural causal model (DAG) to answer the research question SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectiveness causal model v.1.0.0 (QMD) - Quarto RMarkdown script to produce the structural causal model Common data model specification (following the causal model) SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectiveness data model specification (XLXS) - Human-readable version (Excel) SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectiveness data model specification dataspice (HTML) - Human-readable version (interactive report) SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectiveness data model specification dataspice (JSON) - Machine-readable version Synthetic dataset (complying with the common data model specifications) SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectiveness synthetic dataset (CSV) [UTF-8, pipe | separated, N~650,000 registries] SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectiveness synthetic dataset EDA (HTML) - Interactive report of the exploratory data analysis (EDA) of the synthetic dataset SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectiveness synthetic dataset EDA (JSON) - Machine-readable version of the exploratory data analysis (EDA) of the synthetic dataset SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectiveness synthetic dataset generation script (IPYNB) - Jupyter notebook with Python scripting and commenting to generate the synthetic dataset #### Baseline Use Case: SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectiveness assessment - Common Data Model Specification v.1.1.0 change log #### Updated Causal model to eliminate the consideration of 'vaccination_schedule_cd' as a mediator Adjusted the study period to be consistent with the Study Protocol Updated 'sex_cd' as a required variable Added 'chronic_liver_disease_bl' as a comorbidity at the individual level Updated 'socecon_lvl_cd' at the area level as a recommended variable Added crosswalks for the definition of 'chronic_liver_disease_bl' in a separate sheet Updated the 'vaccination_schedule_cd' reference to the 'Vaccine' node in the updated DAG Updated the description of the 'confirmed_case_dt' and 'previous_infection_dt' variables to clarify the definition and the need for a single registry per person

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2023
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Martinez-Bravo, Monica; Sanz Alonso, Carlos;
    Publisher: Banco de España
    Country: Spain

    La pandemia de COVID-19 llegó en un contexto de creciente polarización política y desconfianza en las instituciones políticas en muchos países. ¿Pudieron las deficiencias en la gestión de la pandemia erosionar la confianza en las instituciones públicas? ¿Interfirió la ideología de los ciudadanos en la forma en que procesaban la información sobre el desempeño de los Gobiernos? Para investigar ambas cuestiones, en noviembre de 2020 llevamos a cabo en España un experimento online prerregistrado. A los encuestados del grupo de tratamiento les proporcionamos información sobre el número de rastreadores de contactos en su comunidad autónoma, una política clave bajo el control de los Gobiernos autonómicos. Encontramos que las personas sobrestiman en gran medida el número de rastreadores de su región. Cuando proporcionamos el número real de rastreadores, encontramos lo siguiente: una pérdida de la confianza en los Gobiernos; una reducción en la voluntad de financiar instituciones públicas, y una disminución de la aceptación de la vacuna contra el COVID-19. También encontramos que los individuos cambian endógenamente su atribución de responsabilidades al recibir el tratamiento. En las regiones donde los Gobiernos regionales y central están gobernados por diferentes partidos, los simpatizantes del Gobierno regional reaccionan a las malas noticias sobre la gestión del Gobierno atribuyendo una mayor responsabilidad al Gobierno central. A esto lo llamamos «efecto de blame-shifting». En estas regiones, la información negativa no se traduce en una menor intención de voto para el Gobierno regional. Estos resultados sugieren que la rendición de cuentas puede ser particularmente difícil en entornos con alta polarización política y donde las áreas de responsabilidad no están claramente delimitadas. The COVID-19 pandemic took place against the backdrop of growing political polarization and distrust in political institutions in many countries. Did deficiencies in government performance further erode trust in public institutions? Did citizens’ ideology interfere with the way they processed information on government performance? To investigate these two questions, we conducted a pre-registered online experiment in Spain in November 2020. Respondents in the treatment group were provided information on the number of contact tracers in their region, a key policy variable under the control of regional governments. We find that individuals greatly over-estimate the number of contact tracers in their region. When we provide the actual number of contact tracers, we find a decline in trust in governments, a reduction in willingness to fund public institutions and a decrease in COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. We also find that individuals endogenously change their attribution of responsibilities when receiving the treatment. In regions where the regional and central governments are controlled by different parties, sympathizers of the regional incumbent react to the negative news on performance by attributing greater responsibility for it to the central government. We call this the blame shifting effect. In those regions, the negative information does not translate into lower voting intentions for the regional incumbent government. These results suggest that the exercise of political accountability may be particularly difficult in settings with high political polarization and areas of responsibility that are not clearly delineated.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2023
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Burriel Llombart, Pablo; Kataryniuk, Iván; Moreno Pérez, Carlos; Viani, Francesca;
    Publisher: Banco de España
    Country: Spain

    En este trabajo se desarrolla un nuevo indicador mensual de cuellos de botella en las cadenas de suministro utilizando artículos de prensa. El índice de cuellos de botella de oferta (SBI, por sus siglas en inglés) proporciona una narración coherente de los problemas de suministro relacionados con las guerras, las catástrofes naturales, las huelgas y, más recientemente, la pandemia ocasionada por el COVID-19. Las innovaciones en el SBI tienen importantes implicaciones macroeconómicas: un aumento del SBI actúa como un shock de costes, disminuyendo la producción industrial y el empleo, y presionando al alza los precios, lo que dificulta la actuación de la política monetaria. We develop a new monthly indicator of supply bottlenecks using newspaper articles. The supply bottlenecks index (SBI) provides a consistent narrative of supply issues related to wars, natural disasters, strikes and, most recently, the COVID-19 pandemic. Innovations in the SBI have important macroeconomic implications: an increase in the SBI functions as a cost-push shock, decreasing industrial production and employment, and pushing prices up, so that monetary policy faces important trade-offs.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2023
    English
    Authors: 
    Du, Zhanwei; Luo, Wei; Sippy, Rachel; Wang, Lin;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: United Kingdom

    Peer reviewed: True Infectious diseases, such as COVID-19 [...].

  • English
    Authors: 
    Chen, Dongxuan; Lau, Yiu-Chung; Xu, Xiao-Ke; Wang, Lin; Du, Zhanwei; Tsang, Tim K.; Wu, Peng; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Wallinga, Jacco; Cowling, Benjamin J.; +1 more
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group UK
    Country: United Kingdom
  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2023
    Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Shorey, Shefaly; Jarašiūnaitė-Fedosejeva, Gabija; Akik, Burcu Kömürcü; Holopainen, Annaleena; Isbir, Gozde Gokce; Chua, Jing Shi; Wayt, Carly; Downe, Soo; Lalor, Joan;
    Country: Netherlands

    Background: Even when maternity care facilities are available, some women will choose to give birth unassisted by a professional (freebirth). This became more apparent during the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as women were increasingly concerned they would contract the virus in health care facilities. Several studies have identified the factors that influence women to seek alternative places of birth to hospitals, but research focusing specifically on freebirth is limited. Methods: Eight databases were searched from their respective inception dates to April 2022 for studies related to freebirth. Data from the studies were charted and a thematic analysis was subsequently conducted. Results: Four themes were identified based on findings from the 25 included studies: (1) Geographical and socio-demographic determinants influencing freebirth, (2) Reasons for choosing freebirth, (3) Factors hindering freebirth, and (4) Preparation for and varied experiences of freebirth. Discussion: More women chose to give birth unassisted in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) compared with high-income countries (HICs). Overall, motivation for freebirth included previous negative birth experiences with health care professionals, a desire to adhere to their birth-related beliefs, and fear of contracting the COVID-19 virus. Included studies reported that study participants were often met with negative responses when they revealed that they were planning to freebirth. Most women in the included studies had positive freebirth experiences. Future research should explore the different motivators of freebirth present in LMICs or HICs to help inform effective policies that may improve birth experiences while maintaining safety.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aguilar-Bretones, Muriel; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Koopmans, Marion P.G.; van Nierop, Gijsbert P.;
    Country: Netherlands

    Infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and vaccinations targeting the spike protein (S) offer protective immunity against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This immunity may further be shaped by cross-reactivity with common cold coronaviruses. Mutations arising in S that are associated with altered intrinsic virus properties and immune escape result in the continued circulation of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Potentially, vaccine updates will be required to protect against future variants of concern, as for influenza. To offer potent protection against future variants, these second-generation vaccines may need to redirect immunity to epitopes associated with immune escape and not merely boost immunity toward conserved domains in preimmune individuals. For influenza, efficacy of repeated vaccination is hampered by original antigenic sin, an attribute of immune memory that leads to greater induction of antibodies specific to the first-encountered variant of an immunogen compared with subsequent variants. In this Review, recent findings on original antigenic sin are discussed in the context of SARS-CoV-2 evolution. Unanswered questions and future directions are highlighted, with an emphasis on the impact on disease outcome and vaccine design.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2023
    English
    Publisher: Springer International Publishing
    Country: Germany

    This book provides insights from research and practice in how organizations were able to sustain resilience in their global supply chains during the COVID-19 pandemic and to advance the understanding of supply chain risk management. The chapters highlight the lessons learned, insist on new models for resilience, suggest improved supply chain risk methodologies and bridge the gap between research and practice. It helps readers acquire greater knowledge, strategic approaches, new methods, and practical tools for ensuring global supply chain resilience.

Send a message
How can we help?
We usually respond in a few hours.