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  • Other research product . 2022
    Open Access Greek
    Authors: 
    HELLENIC STATISTICAL AUTHORITY;
    Publisher: Διεύθυνση Στατιστικής Πληροφόρησης και Εκδόσεων
    Country: Greece

    www.statistics.gr Το δημοσίευμα Η Ελληνική Οικονομία στοχεύει να παρουσιάσει τα πιο πρό- σφατα και σημαντικά οικονομικά στοιχεία για την Ελλάδα με τρόπο σαφή και εμπεριστατωμένο. Το δημοσίευμα, γραμμένο στην ελληνική και αγγλική γλώσσα, απευθύνεται σε χρήστες που αναζητούν επικαιροποιημένα στοιχεία, όσον αφορά στις τελευταίες οικονομικές εξελίξεις, καθώς και πιο μακροπρόθε- σμες οικονομικές τάσεις. Παρέχει πληροφορίες για τους κύριους οικονομικούς δείκτες, καθώς και στατιστικές χρονοσειρές που καταρτίζονται, κυρίως, από την Ελληνική Στατιστική Αρχή (ΕΛΣΤΑΤ).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Council of the European Union;
    Publisher: Publications Office of the European Union
    Country: Greece

    14436/22 COR 1 15381/22 Delegations will find in the annex the Council resolution on the EU Work Plan for Culture 2023- 2026, as approved by the Council (Education, Youth, Culture and Sport) at its meeting on 29 November 2022

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jacques Delors Institute; Eisl, Andreas;
    Publisher: Anne- Julia Manaranche
    Country: Greece

    Research fellow The document may be reproduced in part or in full on the dual condition that its meaning is not distorted and that the source is mentioned • The views expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the publisher • The Jacques Delors Institute cannot be held responsible for the use which any third party may make of the document • Original version • Edited by Anne- Julia Manaranche This policy brief has two main objectives. First, it analyses the key elements of the recent European Commission proposal to reform the European fiscal framework. It highlights a switch in the overall logic of the Stability and Growth pact (SGP), an attempt to increase national ownership of European fiscal rule requirements, and the inclusion of an incentive structure for public invest- ment and reforms. Second, the blogpost raises several issues of particular relevance for the forthcoming political negotiations on a reformed SGP. Due to the European fiscal framework’s high degree of complexity and technicality, if focuses on three key aspects of the Commission’s reform proposal. This includes (1) open questions regarding the actual minimum fiscal consolidation require- ments imposed on member states, (2) challenges of the new fiscal-structural plans for democratic choice, and (3) the poten- tial inadequacy of the incentive structure to ensure sufficient public investment in light of the climate crisis. The blogpost will conclude with some final remarks on the forthcoming negotiations.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    European Commission;
    Publisher: European Commission
    Country: Greece

    SWD(2022) 503 final The new Government has announced several reforms related to the Czech justice system, some of which follow up on efforts of the previous Government. A planned reform of disciplinary proceedings against judges aims to introduce the possibility to appeal and a new reform of the prosecution service is under preparation, introducing, among others, changes relating to the term of office and dismissal of the Prosecutor General. Both initiatives aim to further strengthen the independence of the justice system. An amendment of the selection procedure for judges has entered into force. Efforts to improve the digitalisation of justice, including publication of judgments and preparation of a digital file management system, progress slowly. Efficiency of proceedings has improved in the administrative justice system. The legal and institutional framework to address corruption is broadly in place, and the new Government has prioritised some anti-corruption measures. The Government is drafting a new Anti-Corruption Strategy to be implemented as of 2023 but concerns exist over the effective and consistent implementation of all measures in the current strategy and action plan. Several planned reforms were not adopted before the end of the parliamentary term in 2021, including on lobbying, whistleblowing, the Supreme Audit Office mandate, and a code of conduct for members of Parliament. The new Government has announced its intention to continue to fight corruption, including through pending legislative reforms on conflicts of interest and whistleblower protection. Cases of high-level corruption remain a concern, in particular in a context of delayed proceedings. In addition, the use of presidential pardoning power in a high level corruption case led to public debate. Ethics rules for both chambers of the Parliament remain lacking. Rules on revolving doors for members of Government, Parliament and civil service remain limited. An evaluation of the legislation on political party financing is planned. Constitutional rules guarantee freedom of expression and the right to information. Rules to enhance transparency of beneficial ownership of media outlets enacted in 2021 still require full implementation and concerns persist with regard to the lack of full ownership transparency as well as conflict of interests. The independence of the Czech media regulator is expected to be further enhanced, while political controversies affecting Czech public service television have led to calls to overhaul the Czech Television Act given that the current system does not prevent the political majority in the Chamber of Deputies, via political influence over the Councils, from securing the dismissal of a Director-General. Unlike the case with most sectors of the economy, the media sector did not benefit from any specific support scheme to counter the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. There have been no developments with regard to state advertising and access to information. Support for the needs of journalists and their working conditions is missing while harassment of journalists remains part of the political landscape

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    European Commission;
    Publisher: European Commission
    Country: Greece

    2022 Rule of Law Report The rule of law situation in the European Union In addition to recalling the commitments made under the national Recovery and Resilience Plan relating to certain aspects of the justice system, it is recommended to Belgium.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    European Commission;
    Publisher: European Commission
    Country: Greece

    SWD(2022) 502 final RECOMMENDATIONS In addition to recalling the commitments made under the national Recovery and Resilience Plan relating to certain aspects of the justice system and the anti-corruption framework and the remaining commitments under the Cooperation and Verification Mechanism, it is recommended to Bulgaria to: • Ensure timely ordinary competitions for promotion to avoid long-term secondment of judges to fill in vacant positions, taking into account European standards on secondment of judges. • Advance with the legislative amendments aiming at improving the functioning of the Inspectorate to the Supreme Judicial Council and avoiding the risk of political influence, in particular by involving judicial bodies in the selection of its members. • Take steps to adapt the composition of the Supreme Judicial Council, taking into account European standards on Councils for the Judiciary. • Continue the implementation of measures to improve the integrity of the specific sectors of the public administration, including measures tailored to the police and the judiciary. • Ensure that the institutional reforms of the Anti-Corruption Commission and the specialised judicial authorities lead to an improved effectiveness of investigations and a robust track-record of prosecution and final judgments in high-level corruption cases. • Improve transparency in the allocation of state advertising, in particular with regard to state advertising contracted through intermediaries, such as media agencies. Reforms in Bulgaria in the area of justice and anti-corruption were first followed by the Commission under the Cooperation and Verification Mechanism (CVM) and are currently monitored under the Rule of Law Mechanism. The Government has committed, in the context of the Bulgarian Recovery and Resilience Plan, to establish an effective mechanism for the accountability and criminal liability of the Prosecutor General and his/her deputies, as well as a judicial review of prosecutorial decisions not to open an investigation. This would address longstanding concerns referred in the previous editions of the Rule of Law Report and in the CVM. There are increasing concerns related to the functioning of the Supreme Judicial Council and the need to address its composition is all the more important. Concerns related to the Inspectorate to the Supreme Judicial Council remain. The absence of regular competition for the promotion of magistrates, combined with an extensive use of secondments, risks to affect the independence of magistrates. A legislative reform has abolished the specialised judicial authorities, while providing for the reappointment of the relevant magistrates to ordinary courts and prosecution offices, with safeguards to protect judicial independence and procedural rights. Challenges remain in the area of digitalisation of justice. Administrative justice continues to perform well in terms of efficiency.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    European Commission;
    Publisher: European Commission
    Country: Greece

    SWD(2022) 501 final RECOMMENDATIONS In addition to recalling the commitments made under the national Recovery and Resilience Plan relating to certain aspects of the justice system, it is recommended to Belgium to: • Continue measures to provide adequate human and financial resources for the justice system as a whole, taking into account European standards on resources for the justice system. • Complete the legislative reform on lobbying, establishing a framework including a transparency register and a legislative footprint, covering both members of Parliament and Government. • Strengthen the integrity framework, including by adopting a Code of Conduct covering all members of ministerial private offices, rules on gifts and benefits for members of Parliament and Government and rules on revolving doors for government and their private offices. • Strengthen the framework for access to official documents, in particular by improving request and appeal processes and by limiting the grounds for rejection of disclosure requests, taking into account European standards on access to official documents Concrete and comprehensive initiatives are ongoing to increase significantly the level of digitalisation of the Belgian justice system by 2026. Further steps are being taken towards the transfer of judicial management powers from the executive to the judiciary. The High Council for Justice continues its efforts to improve the independence, quality, and efficiency of the justice system, in particular by conducting audits and issuing opinions on draft legislation. The lack of human and financial resources remains a challenge for the justice system, but significant investments and initiatives aim to address this. A persistent lack of court data still hampers progress on the efficiency of justice, but initiatives are ongoing to remedy this issue. While additional human resources are being granted to help address backlogs, particularly lengthy delays reported in certain courts remain a source of concern. Although aspects related to corruption are included in the national security strategy and different action plans, as well as multiple coordination platforms, Belgium has no specific overarching anti-corruption strategy. The situation at the Central Office for the Repression of Corruption has improved, including in terms of results in high-level corruption cases, however, its resources continue to be overall limited. Generally, there is good compliance with the requirement to declare assets and mandates, however, the verification and transparency of such declarations remains an issue of concern. The system to report potential foreign bribery cases is in place but obstacles to the successful prosecution of such cases include the statute of limitations, a lack of prioritisation of cases, and difficulties to obtain evidence. Mainstreaming integrity rules in the police is a challenge, with each police zone having its own rules. A broad integrity policy for Ministers, their Cabinets and as well as members of Parliament remains lacking and existing codes of conduct continue to have gaps. There are no clear and consistent rules in place on how to deal with gifts and benefits for Parliament and Government. Initial steps were taken towards a reform of the legislative framework regarding lobbying, and a reform of the legislation on whistleblowing is ongoing. Gaps continue to exist in the rules on revolving doors, in particular relating to their scope and to a lack of transitory measures. A robust legal framework and independent media regulators continue to ensure media pluralism. Specific safeguards for the governance and the operational and editorial independence of the public service broadcasters guarantee their autonomy and impartiality. The media markets of the three linguistic Communities remain highly concentrated. Recent legislation introducing new refusal grounds, and delays in treating public document requests might affect the right to access public documents. Cases of physical or verbal abuse as well as online and offline threats are an increasing source of concern for journalists. While there are sporadic reports about police officers seizing and erasing journalistic material, recent jurisprudence has brought clarity about the possibility for journalists to film police interventions and courts enforce robust legal safeguards. The Council of State and the Constitutional Court, as well as other independent institutions with an important role in the system of checks and balances, face some challenges regarding resources, but certain steps are being taken to address this. The pandemic law that provided a new legal basis for pandemic emergency measures was deactivated in March 2022, and the Constitutional Court will rule on its constitutionality. Civil society is being regularly involved in Government initiatives, but a certain narrowing of the civil society landscape has been reported. A citizen consultation process was held on the preparation of a future State reform.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ioannidis, Alexander; European Commission;
    Publisher: Publications Office of the European Union
    Country: Greece

    JEL Classification: L33, Q40 Acknowledgements: The author would like to thank Carlo Viviani (SG-RECOVER) and Markela Stamati (DG ENER) for the useful comments and information and the Country Unit for Greece of DG ECFIN and especially the members who contributed for this publication: Platon Derdemezis, Fotini Dionyssopoulou, Sotirios Giannoulis, Julia Lendvai and Vasilis Nikitas. Contact: Alexander Ioannidis, European Commission, Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs, alexander.ioannidis@ec.europa.eu doi:10.2765/961088 KC-BD-22-003-EN-N This paper summarises the approach taken by the Commission during the Economic Adjustment Programmes to address reforms to Greece’s energy market. It will argue that it was necessary address the sector as part of the programme, and to make energy-related reforms part of the conditionality applied to post-programme surveillance, underlined bv the Eurogroup commitments. The paper will explain how the Greek energy sector looked at the outset of the programme, which problems were seen as priorities to be tackled, and how such reform efforts developed. With a lack of competition and poorly functioning markets, necessary investments were not taking place, particularly in the context of the EU’s ambitious climate and energy goals. The paper will aim to show that over the years, the programmes were effective in contributing to real structural improvements in the energy markets. Today, the Greek energy sector is greener and more open to competition. Such reforms, with a focus on developing the renewable energy sector, proved to be aligned with the general direction of EU policy, shown by events after the programme such as the European Green Deal and the COVID recovery package, the Recovery and Resilience Facility, which put an emphasis on sustainable investments. The state of the energy sector has an impact on a country’s growth and competitiveness, both in its own right and for sectors that heavily rely on energy inputs. From a social aspect, energy poverty is an important issue to consider. Before entering the macroeconomic adjustment programmes, the Greek energy market was much less developed than that of its EU peers, not as open to competition and lacking investment. Given the importance of energy markets to the wider economy, it was found that a reform programme should also place focus on this area. With this in mind, this paper will argue that the programme was right to put efforts into a systematic reform of the Greek energy market. It will argue that those reforms, sometimes implemented in a different manner to how they were originally envisaged, made good progress, which helped the energy market from both an economic and environmental/climate perspective, with benefits for wider society.

  • Open Access Greek
    Publisher: Πανεπιστήμιο Πειραιώς
    Country: Greece

    Στο πλαίσιο αυτής της προπτυχιακής διατριβής αναδεικνύονται οι επωφελείς πτυχές των Παραγωγικών Συστημάτων με Βιομηχανικά Κελιά (ΣΠΒΚ), καθώς παρουσιάζεται η εννοιολογική βάση των συστημάτων και η μαθηματική έκφραση αυτής. Επίσης, στην εργασία παρουσιάζεται η έννοια των μεταμορφωτικών κελιών, η οποία αποτελεί νεωτερικό στοιχείο στην σχετική βιβλιογραφία. Αρχικώς, αναφέρονται θεμελιώδεις αρχές που διέπουν τα προαναφερθέντα συστήματα και τα πλεονεκτήματα που χαρακτηρίζουν αυτά έναντι των κλασικότερων συστημάτων παραγωγής. Εν συνεχεία, δομείται εννοιολογικά η πράξη της εφαρμογής των παραγωγικών συστημάτων με βιομηχανικά κελιά. Τα δομικά στοιχεία της υλοποίησης των ΣΠΒΚ αποτελούν ο σχεδιασμός των κελιών, η μορφοποίηση, η διασφάλιση της ποιότητάς τους και η αξιοπιστία τους κατά την περίοδο λειτουργίας τους. Αφού γίνει εκτενής περιγραφή της υπαρχούσης βιβλιογραφίας, έπειτα παρουσιάζεται ένα μαθηματικό μοντέλο, το οποίο δημιουργήθηκε στο πλαίσιο της παρούσης διατριβής και λαμβάνει υπόψιν μεταβλητές σχετικές με την Διαμόρφωση των Κελιών (CF), την Διάταξη των Ομαδοποιημένων Μερών (GL) και τον Χρονοπρογραμματισμό Αποπεράτωσης των Λειτουργιών των Εξαρτημάτων (GS), ενώ μερικά αριθμητικά παραδείγματα μικρής κλίμακας συμβάλλουν στην πληρότητα της παρουσίασης του μοντέλου. Τελικώς, η εργασία κλείνει με την παρουσίαση των μεταμορφωτικών κελιών. Τα κελιά αυτά χαρακτηρίζονται από την ιδιότητα του δαπέδου, στο οποίο βρίσκονται, να μετασχηματίζεται και να υιοθετεί γεωμετρίες ορθογωνίου παραλληλογράμμου και τριγώνου, μέσω των κατάλληλων εσωτερικών τομών που πραγματοποιούνται στην αρχική γεωμετρία του δαπέδου των εκάστοτε εγκαταστάσεων. Επιπλέον, τα Θεωρήματα 5.2 και 5.3, τα οποία αναπτύχθηκαν στην παρούσα εργασία αποτελούν την επεξηγηματική βάση των γεωμετρικών μετασχηματισμών που παρουσιάζονται. In the context of this undergraduate thesis, the beneficial aspects of Cellular Manufacturing Systems (CMS) are highlighted, as the conceptual basis of the CMSs and its mathematical expression are presented. Also, the work introduces the concept of Metamorphic Cells, which is a new element in the relevant literature. Initially, the fundamental principles that dominate the aforementioned systems and the advantages that characterize them, over the classic production systems, are mentioned. Subsequently, the act of implementing CMS is conceptually structured. The structural elements of the implementation of CMSs are the design of the cells, their formation, their quality assurance and their reliability during their operation period. After an extensive description of the existing literature, a mathematical model, which takes into account variables related to Cell Formation (CF), Group Layout (GL) and Group Scheduling (GS) is presented, while some small-scale numerical examples contribute to the completeness of the model’s presentation. Finally, the dissertation ends with the presentation of the metamorphic cells. These cells are characterized by the property of the floor, on which they are located, to be transformed and adopt rectangular and triangular geometries. These geometric transformations are achieved because of appropriate internal cuts of initial floor’s geometry. In addition, Theorems 5.2 and 5.3, which were developed in this work, form the explanatory basis of the geometric transformations presented.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nikitas, Vasilis; Vasilopoulou, Vasiliki;
    Publisher: European Commisiom
    Country: Greece

    JEL Classification: H11, H83. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank Luis Garcia Lombardero and Martin Hallet (Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs) for the useful comments and information and the Country Unit for Greece of Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs, and especially the members who contributed for this publication: Platon Derdemezis, Fotini Dionyssopoulou, Sotirios Giannoulis, Julia Lendvai, Milan Lisicky and Vassilis Maroulis. Contact: Vasilis Nikitas, vasilis.nikitas@ec.europa.eu, and Vasiliki Vasilopoulou, vasiliki.vasilopoulou@ ec.europa.eu, European Commission, Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs DISCUSSION PAPER 167 This paper summarises the approach taken by the European Commission during the Economic Adjustment Programmes (2010 to 2018) to address reforms to Greece’s public administration. It will argue that it was necessary to address this structural reform area as part of the programmes as well as post-programme surveillance. The paper will explain the challenges the public administration was faced with at the outset of the programme, as a number of macroeconomic imbalances that the Greek economy had accumulated prior to the financial crisis can demonstrably be linked to the weaknesses of the public administration. A reform of the public administration was therefore urgently needed and formed a key element of all three programmes. The benchmarking of structural policies revealed that Greece was underperforming relative to the EU average in many policy domains. Therefore, Greece needed to review the overall functioning and capacity of its public sector as well as addressing its public sector wage bill, which was well above the Eurozone average.

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  • Other research product . 2022
    Open Access Greek
    Authors: 
    HELLENIC STATISTICAL AUTHORITY;
    Publisher: Διεύθυνση Στατιστικής Πληροφόρησης και Εκδόσεων
    Country: Greece

    www.statistics.gr Το δημοσίευμα Η Ελληνική Οικονομία στοχεύει να παρουσιάσει τα πιο πρό- σφατα και σημαντικά οικονομικά στοιχεία για την Ελλάδα με τρόπο σαφή και εμπεριστατωμένο. Το δημοσίευμα, γραμμένο στην ελληνική και αγγλική γλώσσα, απευθύνεται σε χρήστες που αναζητούν επικαιροποιημένα στοιχεία, όσον αφορά στις τελευταίες οικονομικές εξελίξεις, καθώς και πιο μακροπρόθε- σμες οικονομικές τάσεις. Παρέχει πληροφορίες για τους κύριους οικονομικούς δείκτες, καθώς και στατιστικές χρονοσειρές που καταρτίζονται, κυρίως, από την Ελληνική Στατιστική Αρχή (ΕΛΣΤΑΤ).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Council of the European Union;
    Publisher: Publications Office of the European Union
    Country: Greece

    14436/22 COR 1 15381/22 Delegations will find in the annex the Council resolution on the EU Work Plan for Culture 2023- 2026, as approved by the Council (Education, Youth, Culture and Sport) at its meeting on 29 November 2022

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jacques Delors Institute; Eisl, Andreas;
    Publisher: Anne- Julia Manaranche
    Country: Greece

    Research fellow The document may be reproduced in part or in full on the dual condition that its meaning is not distorted and that the source is mentioned • The views expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the publisher • The Jacques Delors Institute cannot be held responsible for the use which any third party may make of the document • Original version • Edited by Anne- Julia Manaranche This policy brief has two main objectives. First, it analyses the key elements of the recent European Commission proposal to reform the European fiscal framework. It highlights a switch in the overall logic of the Stability and Growth pact (SGP), an attempt to increase national ownership of European fiscal rule requirements, and the inclusion of an incentive structure for public invest- ment and reforms. Second, the blogpost raises several issues of particular relevance for the forthcoming political negotiations on a reformed SGP. Due to the European fiscal framework’s high degree of complexity and technicality, if focuses on three key aspects of the Commission’s reform proposal. This includes (1) open questions regarding the actual minimum fiscal consolidation require- ments imposed on member states, (2) challenges of the new fiscal-structural plans for democratic choice, and (3) the poten- tial inadequacy of the incentive structure to ensure sufficient public investment in light of the climate crisis. The blogpost will conclude with some final remarks on the forthcoming negotiations.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    European Commission;
    Publisher: European Commission
    Country: Greece

    SWD(2022) 503 final The new Government has announced several reforms related to the Czech justice system, some of which follow up on efforts of the previous Government. A planned reform of disciplinary proceedings against judges aims to introduce the possibility to appeal and a new reform of the prosecution service is under preparation, introducing, among others, changes relating to the term of office and dismissal of the Prosecutor General. Both initiatives aim to further strengthen the independence of the justice system. An amendment of the selection procedure for judges has entered into force. Efforts to improve the digitalisation of justice, including publication of judgments and preparation of a digital file management system, progress slowly. Efficiency of proceedings has improved in the administrative justice system. The legal and institutional framework to address corruption is broadly in place, and the new Government has prioritised some anti-corruption measures. The Government is drafting a new Anti-Corruption Strategy to be implemented as of 2023 but concerns exist over the effective and consistent implementation of all measures in the current strategy and action plan. Several planned reforms were not adopted before the end of the parliamentary term in 2021, including on lobbying, whistleblowing, the Supreme Audit Office mandate, and a code of conduct for members of Parliament. The new Government has announced its intention to continue to fight corruption, including through pending legislative reforms on conflicts of interest and whistleblower protection. Cases of high-level corruption remain a concern, in particular in a context of delayed proceedings. In addition, the use of presidential pardoning power in a high level corruption case led to public debate. Ethics rules for both chambers of the Parliament remain lacking. Rules on revolving doors for members of Government, Parliament and civil service remain limited. An evaluation of the legislation on political party financing is planned. Constitutional rules guarantee freedom of expression and the right to information. Rules to enhance transparency of beneficial ownership of media outlets enacted in 2021 still require full implementation and concerns persist with regard to the lack of full ownership transparency as well as conflict of interests. The independence of the Czech media regulator is expected to be further enhanced, while political controversies affecting Czech public service television have led to calls to overhaul the Czech Television Act given that the current system does not prevent the political majority in the Chamber of Deputies, via political influence over the Councils, from securing the dismissal of a Director-General. Unlike the case with most sectors of the economy, the media sector did not benefit from any specific support scheme to counter the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. There have been no developments with regard to state advertising and access to information. Support for the needs of journalists and their working conditions is missing while harassment of journalists remains part of the political landscape

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    European Commission;
    Publisher: European Commission
    Country: Greece

    2022 Rule of Law Report The rule of law situation in the European Union In addition to recalling the commitments made under the national Recovery and Resilience Plan relating to certain aspects of the justice system, it is recommended to Belgium.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    European Commission;
    Publisher: European Commission
    Country: Greece

    SWD(2022) 502 final RECOMMENDATIONS In addition to recalling the commitments made under the national Recovery and Resilience Plan relating to certain aspects of the justice system and the anti-corruption framework and the remaining commitments under the Cooperation and Verification Mechanism, it is recommended to Bulgaria to: • Ensure timely ordinary competitions for promotion to avoid long-term secondment of judges to fill in vacant positions, taking into account European standards on secondment of judges. • Advance with the legislative amendments aiming at improving the functioning of the Inspectorate to the Supreme Judicial Council and avoiding the risk of political influence, in particular by involving judicial bodies in the selection of its members. • Take steps to adapt the composition of the Supreme Judicial Council, taking into account European standards on Councils for the Judiciary. • Continue the implementation of measures to improve the integrity of the specific sectors of the public administration, including measures tailored to the police and the judiciary. • Ensure that the institutional reforms of the Anti-Corruption Commission and the specialised judicial authorities lead to an improved effectiveness of investigations and a robust track-record of prosecution and final judgments in high-level corruption cases. • Improve transparency in the allocation of state advertising, in particular with regard to state advertising contracted through intermediaries, such as media agencies. Reforms in Bulgaria in the area of justice and anti-corruption were first followed by the Commission under the Cooperation and Verification Mechanism (CVM) and are currently monitored under the Rule of Law Mechanism. The Government has committed, in the context of the Bulgarian Recovery and Resilience Plan, to establish an effective mechanism for the accountability and criminal liability of the Prosecutor General and his/her deputies, as well as a judicial review of prosecutorial decisions not to open an investigation. This would address longstanding concerns referred in the previous editions of the Rule of Law Report and in the CVM. There are increasing concerns related to the functioning of the Supreme Judicial Council and the need to address its composition is all the more important. Concerns related to the Inspectorate to the Supreme Judicial Council remain. The absence of regular competition for the promotion of magistrates, combined with an extensive use of secondments, risks to affect the independence of magistrates. A legislative reform has abolished the specialised judicial authorities, while providing for the reappointment of the relevant magistrates to ordinary courts and prosecution offices, with safeguards to protect judicial independence and procedural rights. Challenges remain in the area of digitalisation of justice. Administrative justice continues to perform well in terms of efficiency.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    European Commission;
    Publisher: European Commission
    Country: Greece

    SWD(2022) 501 final RECOMMENDATIONS In addition to recalling the commitments made under the national Recovery and Resilience Plan relating to certain aspects of the justice system, it is recommended to Belgium to: • Continue measures to provide adequate human and financial resources for the justice system as a whole, taking into account European standards on resources for the justice system. • Complete the legislative reform on lobbying, establishing a framework including a transparency register and a legislative footprint, covering both members of Parliament and Government. • Strengthen the integrity framework, including by adopting a Code of Conduct covering all members of ministerial private offices, rules on gifts and benefits for members of Parliament and Government and rules on revolving doors for government and their private offices. • Strengthen the framework for access to official documents, in particular by improving request and appeal processes and by limiting the grounds for rejection of disclosure requests, taking into account European standards on access to official documents Concrete and comprehensive initiatives are ongoing to increase significantly the level of digitalisation of the Belgian justice system by 2026. Further steps are being taken towards the transfer of judicial management powers from the executive to the judiciary. The High Council for Justice continues its efforts to improve the independence, quality, and efficiency of the justice system, in particular by conducting audits and issuing opinions on draft legislation. The lack of human and financial resources remains a challenge for the justice system, but significant investments and initiatives aim to address this. A persistent lack of court data still hampers progress on the efficiency of justice, but initiatives are ongoing to remedy this issue. While additional human resources are being granted to help address backlogs, particularly lengthy delays reported in certain courts remain a source of concern. Although aspects related to corruption are included in the national security strategy and different action plans, as well as multiple coordination platforms, Belgium has no specific overarching anti-corruption strategy. The situation at the Central Office for the Repression of Corruption has improved, including in terms of results in high-level corruption cases, however, its resources continue to be overall limited. Generally, there is good compliance with the requirement to declare assets and mandates, however, the verification and transparency of such declarations remains an issue of concern. The system to report potential foreign bribery cases is in place but obstacles to the successful prosecution of such cases include the statute of limitations, a lack of prioritisation of cases, and difficulties to obtain evidence. Mainstreaming integrity rules in the police is a challenge, with each police zone having its own rules. A broad integrity policy for Ministers, their Cabinets and as well as members of Parliament remains lacking and existing codes of conduct continue to have gaps. There are no clear and consistent rules in place on how to deal with gifts and benefits for Parliament and Government. Initial steps were taken towards a reform of the legislative framework regarding lobbying, and a reform of the legislation on whistleblowing is ongoing. Gaps continue to exist in the rules on revolving doors, in particular relating to their scope and to a lack of transitory measures. A robust legal framework and independent media regulators continue to ensure media pluralism. Specific safeguards for the governance and the operational and editorial independence of the public service broadcasters guarantee their autonomy and impartiality. The media markets of the three linguistic Communities remain highly concentrated. Recent legislation introducing new refusal grounds, and delays in treating public document requests might affect the right to access public documents. Cases of physical or verbal abuse as well as online and offline threats are an increasing source of concern for journalists. While there are sporadic reports about police officers seizing and erasing journalistic material, recent jurisprudence has brought clarity about the possibility for journalists to film police interventions and courts enforce robust legal safeguards. The Council of State and the Constitutional Court, as well as other independent institutions with an important role in the system of checks and balances, face some challenges regarding resources, but certain steps are being taken to address this. The pandemic law that provided a new legal basis for pandemic emergency measures was deactivated in March 2022, and the Constitutional Court will rule on its constitutionality. Civil society is being regularly involved in Government initiatives, but a certain narrowing of the civil society landscape has been reported. A citizen consultation process was held on the preparation of a future State reform.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ioannidis, Alexander; European Commission;
    Publisher: Publications Office of the European Union
    Country: Greece

    JEL Classification: L33, Q40 Acknowledgements: The author would like to thank Carlo Viviani (SG-RECOVER) and Markela Stamati (DG ENER) for the useful comments and information and the Country Unit for Greece of DG ECFIN and especially the members who contributed for this publication: Platon Derdemezis, Fotini Dionyssopoulou, Sotirios Giannoulis, Julia Lendvai and Vasilis Nikitas. Contact: Alexander Ioannidis, European Commission, Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs, alexander.ioannidis@ec.europa.eu doi:10.2765/961088 KC-BD-22-003-EN-N This paper summarises the approach taken by the Commission during the Economic Adjustment Programmes to address reforms to Greece’s energy market. It will argue that it was necessary address the sector as part of the programme, and to make energy-related reforms part of the conditionality applied to post-programme surveillance, underlined bv the Eurogroup commitments. The paper will explain how the Greek energy sector looked at the outset of the programme, which problems were seen as priorities to be tackled, and how such reform efforts developed. With a lack of competition and poorly functioning markets, necessary investments were not taking place, particularly in the context of the EU’s ambitious climate and energy goals. The paper will aim to show that over the years, the programmes were effective in contributing to real structural improvements in the energy markets. Today, the Greek energy sector is greener and more open to competition. Such reforms, with a focus on developing the renewable energy sector, proved to be aligned with the general direction of EU policy, shown by events after the programme such as the European Green Deal and the COVID recovery package, the Recovery and Resilience Facility, which put an emphasis on sustainable investments. The state of the energy sector has an impact on a country’s growth and competitiveness, both in its own right and for sectors that heavily rely on energy inputs. From a social aspect, energy poverty is an important issue to consider. Before entering the macroeconomic adjustment programmes, the Greek energy market was much less developed than that of its EU peers, not as open to competition and lacking investment. Given the importance of energy markets to the wider economy, it was found that a reform programme should also place focus on this area. With this in mind, this paper will argue that the programme was right to put efforts into a systematic reform of the Greek energy market. It will argue that those reforms, sometimes implemented in a different manner to how they were originally envisaged, made good progress, which helped the energy market from both an economic and environmental/climate perspective, with benefits for wider society.

  • Open Access Greek
    Publisher: Πανεπιστήμιο Πειραιώς
    Country: Greece

    Στο πλαίσιο αυτής της προπτυχιακής διατριβής αναδεικνύονται οι επωφελείς πτυχές των Παραγωγικών Συστημάτων με Βιομηχανικά Κελιά (ΣΠΒΚ), καθώς παρουσιάζεται η εννοιολογική βάση των συστημάτων και η μαθηματική έκφραση αυτής. Επίσης, στην εργασία παρουσιάζεται η έννοια των μεταμορφωτικών κελιών, η οποία αποτελεί νεωτερικό στοιχείο στην σχετική βιβλιογραφία. Αρχικώς, αναφέρονται θεμελιώδεις αρχές που διέπουν τα προαναφερθέντα συστήματα και τα πλεονεκτήματα που χαρακτηρίζουν αυτά έναντι των κλασικότερων συστημάτων παραγωγής. Εν συνεχεία, δομείται εννοιολογικά η πράξη της εφαρμογής των παραγωγικών συστημάτων με βιομηχανικά κελιά. Τα δομικά στοιχεία της υλοποίησης των ΣΠΒΚ αποτελούν ο σχεδιασμός των κελιών, η μορφοποίηση, η διασφάλιση της ποιότητάς τους και η αξιοπιστία τους κατά την περίοδο λειτουργίας τους. Αφού γίνει εκτενής περιγραφή της υπαρχούσης βιβλιογραφίας, έπειτα παρουσιάζεται ένα μαθηματικό μοντέλο, το οποίο δημιουργήθηκε στο πλαίσιο της παρούσης διατριβής και λαμβάνει υπόψιν μεταβλητές σχετικές με την Διαμόρφωση των Κελιών (CF), την Διάταξη των Ομαδοποιημένων Μερών (GL) και τον Χρονοπρογραμματισμό Αποπεράτωσης των Λειτουργιών των Εξαρτημάτων (GS), ενώ μερικά αριθμητικά παραδείγματα μικρής κλίμακας συμβάλλουν στην πληρότητα της παρουσίασης του μοντέλου. Τελικώς, η εργασία κλείνει με την παρουσίαση των μεταμορφωτικών κελιών. Τα κελιά αυτά χαρακτηρίζονται από την ιδιότητα του δαπέδου, στο οποίο βρίσκονται, να μετασχηματίζεται και να υιοθετεί γεωμετρίες ορθογωνίου παραλληλογράμμου και τριγώνου, μέσω των κατάλληλων εσωτερικών τομών που πραγματοποιούνται στην αρχική γεωμετρία του δαπέδου των εκάστοτε εγκαταστάσεων. Επιπλέον, τα Θεωρήματα 5.2 και 5.3, τα οποία αναπτύχθηκαν στην παρούσα εργασία αποτελούν την επεξηγηματική βάση των γεωμετρικών μετασχηματισμών που παρουσιάζονται. In the context of this undergraduate thesis, the beneficial aspects of Cellular Manufacturing Systems (CMS) are highlighted, as the conceptual basis of the CMSs and its mathematical expression are presented. Also, the work introduces the concept of Metamorphic Cells, which is a new element in the relevant literature. Initially, the fundamental principles that dominate the aforementioned systems and the advantages that characterize them, over the classic production systems, are mentioned. Subsequently, the act of implementing CMS is conceptually structured. The structural elements of the implementation of CMSs are the design of the cells, their formation, their quality assurance and their reliability during their operation period. After an extensive description of the existing literature, a mathematical model, which takes into account variables related to Cell Formation (CF), Group Layout (GL) and Group Scheduling (GS) is presented, while some small-scale numerical examples contribute to the completeness of the model’s presentation. Finally, the dissertation ends with the presentation of the metamorphic cells. These cells are characterized by the property of the floor, on which they are located, to be transformed and adopt rectangular and triangular geometries. These geometric transformations are achieved because of appropriate internal cuts of initial floor’s geometry. In addition, Theorems 5.2 and 5.3, which were developed in this work, form the explanatory basis of the geometric transformations presented.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nikitas, Vasilis; Vasilopoulou, Vasiliki;
    Publisher: European Commisiom
    Country: Greece

    JEL Classification: H11, H83. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank Luis Garcia Lombardero and Martin Hallet (Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs) for the useful comments and information and the Country Unit for Greece of Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs, and especially the members who contributed for this publication: Platon Derdemezis, Fotini Dionyssopoulou, Sotirios Giannoulis, Julia Lendvai, Milan Lisicky and Vassilis Maroulis. Contact: Vasilis Nikitas, vasilis.nikitas@ec.europa.eu, and Vasiliki Vasilopoulou, vasiliki.vasilopoulou@ ec.europa.eu, European Commission, Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs DISCUSSION PAPER 167 This paper summarises the approach taken by the European Commission during the Economic Adjustment Programmes (2010 to 2018) to address reforms to Greece’s public administration. It will argue that it was necessary to address this structural reform area as part of the programmes as well as post-programme surveillance. The paper will explain the challenges the public administration was faced with at the outset of the programme, as a number of macroeconomic imbalances that the Greek economy had accumulated prior to the financial crisis can demonstrably be linked to the weaknesses of the public administration. A reform of the public administration was therefore urgently needed and formed a key element of all three programmes. The benchmarking of structural policies revealed that Greece was underperforming relative to the EU average in many policy domains. Therefore, Greece needed to review the overall functioning and capacity of its public sector as well as addressing its public sector wage bill, which was well above the Eurozone average.

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