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  • Open Access Czech
    Authors: 
    Kovář, Daniel;
    Publisher: Západočeská univerzita v Plzni
    Country: Czech Republic

    The paper provides a new hypothesis on the localization of the deserted castle in the town of Lomnice, which was a prominent settlement of the Vítkovci noble family in the 13th and 14th centuries. The seizure of the castle by the Hussites in 1420-1435 and unsuccessful attempts at its capture led Oldřich of Rožmberk to abandon the castle. The Gothic chapel founded in 1359 remained intact. However, urban and archeological findings do not point to the fact that it was a physical part of the deserted castle. We suggest searching for its core roughly 110 to 180 meters farther north on the site of a distinct cluster of houses, which can be considered to be the ground-plan trace of a medieval settlement.

  • Open Access Czech
    Authors: 
    Večeřa, Jan;
    Publisher: Západočeská univerzita v Plzni
    Country: Czech Republic

    The paper publishes the conclusions from a survey of the castle. It also deals with the finding of a stone console on the tower and its interpretation. Published archaeological material was also used. The detailed survey was supplemented by published historical reports. Subsequently, the castle served as an important settlement and fortified point of the Lords of Pernštejn. Abandonment of the castle did not occur until the second half of the 15th century.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Martin Kuna; Andrea Němcová; Tereza Šálková; Petr Manšík; Ondřej Chvojka;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Czech Republic

    This paper deals with the application of deposition analysis to an unusual type of features in the Late Bronze Age settlements in Central Europe. These are long narrow trenches (referred to as ‘long pits’ in this text) with characteristic standard form and alignment, as well as find contents, including high amounts of secondary-burned pottery fragments. In the context of prehistoric research, these features represent a relatively new phenomenon that has attracted attention in the last two decades due to new excavations in Bohemia and Bavaria. Based on the finds from Březnice (Czechia), the authors conclude that the long pits were connected with the closing rituals following the abandonment and burial of dwellings. Although no houses were directly documented on this site, their presence must be assumed, and their cultural biography can be reconstructed from the depositional characteristics of the accompanying finds. In order to fully understand the processes of deposition, the authors find it useful to focus not only on human agency but also on the relationships between the things themselves. This way, houses are understood as the central element of a hybrid actor-network. Their role may have been strengthened by their ontological status of living beings.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Baumanova, Monika; Tramutoli, Rosanna;
    Publisher: Universita degli Studi di Torino, Facolta di Lingue e Letterature Straniere
    Country: Czech Republic

    For the last century, archaeologists have surveyed and studied archaeological sites on the Swahili coast of East Africa, that represent the remains of past Swahili settlements and, in few cases, living historical towns. This paper is the first discussion of a collection of the names under which these past towns have been known, some of which may date back to the precolonial period. The present enquiry is concerned with the analysis of linguistic features, folk etymology and the conceptual content of these toponyms. It considers the recognised important themes in archaeology and history of the Swahili society, such as the political functioning of these towns as city states and the attested social and economic relevance of trade, the built environment and the ocean. Utilising this knowledge, it reflects on how the names contributed to place-making and defining the identity of these towns both as individual entities and as part of the Swahili cultural sphere. The interdisciplinary approach and perspectives (linguistic and archaeological) help to elucidate the connection between the socio-historical relevance of these sites with their cultural conceptualisations. Kervan. International Journal of African and Asian Studies, V. 26 N. 1 (2022): Kervan 26 (2022)

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Vilém Knoll; Tomáš Pezl;
    Publisher: Uniwersytet Jagiellonski - Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego
    Country: Czech Republic

    The paper deals with the development of law in Czechoslovakia from its inception to the existence of the so-called First Republic, focusing in particular on the development of criminal law. The primary question addressed in the paper is whether there is legal continuity with the previous Austro-Hungarian legal system. Given that there were several legal orders in force in the aftermath of the establishment of Czechoslovakia, the next necessary question is how this situation was addressed. The paper presents examples from selected areas of criminal law, such as juvenile justice, national security laws, or military criminal norms, and intends to document the main legislative trends, namely the introduction of completely new legal regulations, the adoption of the original Austrian regulation and its nationwide application, or, last but not least, the adoption of both Austrian and Hungarian regulations with their simultaneous application. The codification attempts in the Criminal Code, which were not completed in the relevant period, have not been overlooked.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Petr Dostalík;
    Publisher: Jagiellonian University Press
    Country: Czech Republic

    This paper concerns of the doctrine of versio in rem (or actio de in rem verso) in the legal discussion in interwar Czechoslovakia. The paper presents a brief overview of the origin and field of application of actio de in rem verso in classical Roman law and the transformation of the doctrine of versio in rem i n the frame of Corpus Iuris Civilis. The scope of the changes made by the compilers is still uncertain and was a subject of extensive discussion among the legal scholars of the 19th century. The paper describes the nature of versio in rem in the Austrian Civil Code (provision of §1041) and presents legal statements of the prominent exponents of the various legal schools of interwar Czechoslovakia, the legal traditionalists and the supporters of the School of Pure Law Theory. The doctrine of versio in rem is still in the centre of attention of the modern legal scholars in the Czech Republic. The doctrine of versio in rem was adopted in the new Czech Civil Code, but without reflecting the results of the interwar discussion.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Skřivan, Aleš; Skřivan, Aleš;
    Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)
    Country: Czech Republic

    Abstract The Self-Strengthening Movement that started in China at the beginning of the 1860s included, along with other steps and measures, new plans for importing modern weapons from the West. This reform process therefore provided a new opportunity for foreign arms producers, including the German firm Fried. Krupp. This article analyses Krupp’s first activities in China, describes significant circumstances affecting the arms trade, evaluates the rivalry with British and French companies in the Chinese market and assesses the significance for the German company of its involvement in building a modern Chinese navy. The article’s approach is comprehensive and it is based on extensive research focusing on mostly unpublished sources, especially materials from German archives, often used here for the first time.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Barbora Pásztorová;
    Publisher: Cambridge University Press
    Country: Czech Republic

    AbstractAustrian chancellor Metternich's Europeanism is often disputed. It has been claimed that he strove only to strengthen Austrian power within the German Confederation and to establish Austrian hegemony in Central Europe, with European interests and the Concert of only secondary concern. The objective of this article is to analyze Metternich's opinions and acts during selected European crises and events between 1840 and 1848, arguing that his approach to resolving them or dealing with their consequences shows that during this period his primary objective was to maintain European peace. He wanted to achieve this by demonstrating the moral consensus of, ideally, all the great powers by abating tense nationalist sentiments, calling for the observance of international agreements and the respect of rights, adopting preventive measures, and warning against or drawing attention to possible negative consequences of the crises for peace in Europe. Metternich's attempt at preserving European peace at all costs was mainly a result of his personal experience of revolution and almost a quarter century of warfare with France. By the 1840s, however, Metternich's style of peace management was rejected as anachronistic, resulting in several military conflicts in subsequent years. Considering the events of the last century that led to European integration, however, his Europeanism deserves a more forgiving evaluation.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Martin Janovský; Jan Horák; Oren Ackermann; Aharon Tavger; Deborah Cassuto; Ladislav Šmejda; Michal Hejcman; Yaakov Anker; Itzhaq Shai;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Czech Republic

    Abstract Site formation processes at ancient tells in the southern Levant have been the focus of several micromorphological studies, contributing to the differentiation of anthropogenic remains from long-term natural sedimentation, occurring post-abandonment. This paper discusses how the study of sedimentary processes and chemical compositions of sediments can be used within the context of an ongoing archaeological project, and how they can contribute to archaeological, historical and geomorphological interpretations. Sedimentary processes were studied implementing POSL, granulometry and PXRF as part of the archaeological research at Tel Burna, Israel. Focusing on the area along the northwestern fortification walls (Area B2), data was collected from multiple strata inside and outside the casemate fortifications dating from the Late Bronze Age to the Late Iron Age. The gradual increase of OSL values obtained inside the casemate wall, indicate accumulation of sediment during a long period of time. Whereas similar values along the entire profile outside the casemate wall indicate sediment accumulation in one-time event. This might be related to defensive preparations, allegedly in response to advances made by Sennacherib's army in 701 BCE. In addition, results from the PXRF studies demonstrated correlation between human activities and the Cu, P, K, Zn, Mn values. Specifically, it was found that as K content increased from younger to older periods, it can be used as a pseudo-dating element. Ca content decreased as sampling descended from the tell's surface, suggesting its origin in long-term aeolian processes. The results show that the use of POSL and PXRF on archaeological contexts are useful for determining sedimentary processes. Furthermore, chemical content enabled pseudo-dating of strata and facilitated the distinction between natural and anthropogenic processes in archaeological sites and landscape.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vojtěch Kaše; Petra Heřmánková; Adéla Sobotková;
    Country: Czech Republic

    Recent empirical studies on the division of labor in modern cities indicate a complex web of relationships between sectoral specialization of cities and their productivity on one hand and sectoral diversification and resilience on the other. Emerging scholarly consensus suggests that ancient urbanism has more in common with modern urban development than previously thought. We explore whether modern trends in urban division of labor apply to the cities of the Western Roman Empire from the first century BCE to the fourth century CE. We analyze occupational data extracted from a large body of Latin epigraphic evidence by computer-assisted text-mining, subsequently mapped onto a dataset of ancient Roman cities. We detect a higher frequency of occupation terms on inscriptions from cities led by Rome than from rural areas and identify an accumulation of tertiary sector occupations in large cities. The temporal dimension of epigraphic data allows us to study aspects of the division of labor diachronically and to detect trends in the data in a four centuries-long period of Roman imperial history. Our analyses reveal an overall decrease in the frequency of occupational terms between the first half and second half of the third century CE; the maximum frequency of occupational terms shifts over time from large cities to medium and small towns, and finally, rural areas. Our results regarding the specialization and diversity of cities and their respective impact on productivity and resilience remain inconclusive, possibly as a result of the socio-economic bias of Latin inscriptions and insufficient representativeness of the data. Yet, we believe that our formalized approach to the research problem opens up new avenues for research, both in respect to the economic history of the Roman Empire and to the current trends in the science of cities.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
235 Research products, page 1 of 24
  • Open Access Czech
    Authors: 
    Kovář, Daniel;
    Publisher: Západočeská univerzita v Plzni
    Country: Czech Republic

    The paper provides a new hypothesis on the localization of the deserted castle in the town of Lomnice, which was a prominent settlement of the Vítkovci noble family in the 13th and 14th centuries. The seizure of the castle by the Hussites in 1420-1435 and unsuccessful attempts at its capture led Oldřich of Rožmberk to abandon the castle. The Gothic chapel founded in 1359 remained intact. However, urban and archeological findings do not point to the fact that it was a physical part of the deserted castle. We suggest searching for its core roughly 110 to 180 meters farther north on the site of a distinct cluster of houses, which can be considered to be the ground-plan trace of a medieval settlement.

  • Open Access Czech
    Authors: 
    Večeřa, Jan;
    Publisher: Západočeská univerzita v Plzni
    Country: Czech Republic

    The paper publishes the conclusions from a survey of the castle. It also deals with the finding of a stone console on the tower and its interpretation. Published archaeological material was also used. The detailed survey was supplemented by published historical reports. Subsequently, the castle served as an important settlement and fortified point of the Lords of Pernštejn. Abandonment of the castle did not occur until the second half of the 15th century.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Martin Kuna; Andrea Němcová; Tereza Šálková; Petr Manšík; Ondřej Chvojka;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Czech Republic

    This paper deals with the application of deposition analysis to an unusual type of features in the Late Bronze Age settlements in Central Europe. These are long narrow trenches (referred to as ‘long pits’ in this text) with characteristic standard form and alignment, as well as find contents, including high amounts of secondary-burned pottery fragments. In the context of prehistoric research, these features represent a relatively new phenomenon that has attracted attention in the last two decades due to new excavations in Bohemia and Bavaria. Based on the finds from Březnice (Czechia), the authors conclude that the long pits were connected with the closing rituals following the abandonment and burial of dwellings. Although no houses were directly documented on this site, their presence must be assumed, and their cultural biography can be reconstructed from the depositional characteristics of the accompanying finds. In order to fully understand the processes of deposition, the authors find it useful to focus not only on human agency but also on the relationships between the things themselves. This way, houses are understood as the central element of a hybrid actor-network. Their role may have been strengthened by their ontological status of living beings.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Baumanova, Monika; Tramutoli, Rosanna;
    Publisher: Universita degli Studi di Torino, Facolta di Lingue e Letterature Straniere
    Country: Czech Republic

    For the last century, archaeologists have surveyed and studied archaeological sites on the Swahili coast of East Africa, that represent the remains of past Swahili settlements and, in few cases, living historical towns. This paper is the first discussion of a collection of the names under which these past towns have been known, some of which may date back to the precolonial period. The present enquiry is concerned with the analysis of linguistic features, folk etymology and the conceptual content of these toponyms. It considers the recognised important themes in archaeology and history of the Swahili society, such as the political functioning of these towns as city states and the attested social and economic relevance of trade, the built environment and the ocean. Utilising this knowledge, it reflects on how the names contributed to place-making and defining the identity of these towns both as individual entities and as part of the Swahili cultural sphere. The interdisciplinary approach and perspectives (linguistic and archaeological) help to elucidate the connection between the socio-historical relevance of these sites with their cultural conceptualisations. Kervan. International Journal of African and Asian Studies, V. 26 N. 1 (2022): Kervan 26 (2022)

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Vilém Knoll; Tomáš Pezl;
    Publisher: Uniwersytet Jagiellonski - Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego
    Country: Czech Republic

    The paper deals with the development of law in Czechoslovakia from its inception to the existence of the so-called First Republic, focusing in particular on the development of criminal law. The primary question addressed in the paper is whether there is legal continuity with the previous Austro-Hungarian legal system. Given that there were several legal orders in force in the aftermath of the establishment of Czechoslovakia, the next necessary question is how this situation was addressed. The paper presents examples from selected areas of criminal law, such as juvenile justice, national security laws, or military criminal norms, and intends to document the main legislative trends, namely the introduction of completely new legal regulations, the adoption of the original Austrian regulation and its nationwide application, or, last but not least, the adoption of both Austrian and Hungarian regulations with their simultaneous application. The codification attempts in the Criminal Code, which were not completed in the relevant period, have not been overlooked.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Petr Dostalík;
    Publisher: Jagiellonian University Press
    Country: Czech Republic

    This paper concerns of the doctrine of versio in rem (or actio de in rem verso) in the legal discussion in interwar Czechoslovakia. The paper presents a brief overview of the origin and field of application of actio de in rem verso in classical Roman law and the transformation of the doctrine of versio in rem i n the frame of Corpus Iuris Civilis. The scope of the changes made by the compilers is still uncertain and was a subject of extensive discussion among the legal scholars of the 19th century. The paper describes the nature of versio in rem in the Austrian Civil Code (provision of §1041) and presents legal statements of the prominent exponents of the various legal schools of interwar Czechoslovakia, the legal traditionalists and the supporters of the School of Pure Law Theory. The doctrine of versio in rem is still in the centre of attention of the modern legal scholars in the Czech Republic. The doctrine of versio in rem was adopted in the new Czech Civil Code, but without reflecting the results of the interwar discussion.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Skřivan, Aleš; Skřivan, Aleš;
    Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)
    Country: Czech Republic

    Abstract The Self-Strengthening Movement that started in China at the beginning of the 1860s included, along with other steps and measures, new plans for importing modern weapons from the West. This reform process therefore provided a new opportunity for foreign arms producers, including the German firm Fried. Krupp. This article analyses Krupp’s first activities in China, describes significant circumstances affecting the arms trade, evaluates the rivalry with British and French companies in the Chinese market and assesses the significance for the German company of its involvement in building a modern Chinese navy. The article’s approach is comprehensive and it is based on extensive research focusing on mostly unpublished sources, especially materials from German archives, often used here for the first time.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Barbora Pásztorová;
    Publisher: Cambridge University Press
    Country: Czech Republic

    AbstractAustrian chancellor Metternich's Europeanism is often disputed. It has been claimed that he strove only to strengthen Austrian power within the German Confederation and to establish Austrian hegemony in Central Europe, with European interests and the Concert of only secondary concern. The objective of this article is to analyze Metternich's opinions and acts during selected European crises and events between 1840 and 1848, arguing that his approach to resolving them or dealing with their consequences shows that during this period his primary objective was to maintain European peace. He wanted to achieve this by demonstrating the moral consensus of, ideally, all the great powers by abating tense nationalist sentiments, calling for the observance of international agreements and the respect of rights, adopting preventive measures, and warning against or drawing attention to possible negative consequences of the crises for peace in Europe. Metternich's attempt at preserving European peace at all costs was mainly a result of his personal experience of revolution and almost a quarter century of warfare with France. By the 1840s, however, Metternich's style of peace management was rejected as anachronistic, resulting in several military conflicts in subsequent years. Considering the events of the last century that led to European integration, however, his Europeanism deserves a more forgiving evaluation.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Martin Janovský; Jan Horák; Oren Ackermann; Aharon Tavger; Deborah Cassuto; Ladislav Šmejda; Michal Hejcman; Yaakov Anker; Itzhaq Shai;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Czech Republic

    Abstract Site formation processes at ancient tells in the southern Levant have been the focus of several micromorphological studies, contributing to the differentiation of anthropogenic remains from long-term natural sedimentation, occurring post-abandonment. This paper discusses how the study of sedimentary processes and chemical compositions of sediments can be used within the context of an ongoing archaeological project, and how they can contribute to archaeological, historical and geomorphological interpretations. Sedimentary processes were studied implementing POSL, granulometry and PXRF as part of the archaeological research at Tel Burna, Israel. Focusing on the area along the northwestern fortification walls (Area B2), data was collected from multiple strata inside and outside the casemate fortifications dating from the Late Bronze Age to the Late Iron Age. The gradual increase of OSL values obtained inside the casemate wall, indicate accumulation of sediment during a long period of time. Whereas similar values along the entire profile outside the casemate wall indicate sediment accumulation in one-time event. This might be related to defensive preparations, allegedly in response to advances made by Sennacherib's army in 701 BCE. In addition, results from the PXRF studies demonstrated correlation between human activities and the Cu, P, K, Zn, Mn values. Specifically, it was found that as K content increased from younger to older periods, it can be used as a pseudo-dating element. Ca content decreased as sampling descended from the tell's surface, suggesting its origin in long-term aeolian processes. The results show that the use of POSL and PXRF on archaeological contexts are useful for determining sedimentary processes. Furthermore, chemical content enabled pseudo-dating of strata and facilitated the distinction between natural and anthropogenic processes in archaeological sites and landscape.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vojtěch Kaše; Petra Heřmánková; Adéla Sobotková;
    Country: Czech Republic

    Recent empirical studies on the division of labor in modern cities indicate a complex web of relationships between sectoral specialization of cities and their productivity on one hand and sectoral diversification and resilience on the other. Emerging scholarly consensus suggests that ancient urbanism has more in common with modern urban development than previously thought. We explore whether modern trends in urban division of labor apply to the cities of the Western Roman Empire from the first century BCE to the fourth century CE. We analyze occupational data extracted from a large body of Latin epigraphic evidence by computer-assisted text-mining, subsequently mapped onto a dataset of ancient Roman cities. We detect a higher frequency of occupation terms on inscriptions from cities led by Rome than from rural areas and identify an accumulation of tertiary sector occupations in large cities. The temporal dimension of epigraphic data allows us to study aspects of the division of labor diachronically and to detect trends in the data in a four centuries-long period of Roman imperial history. Our analyses reveal an overall decrease in the frequency of occupational terms between the first half and second half of the third century CE; the maximum frequency of occupational terms shifts over time from large cities to medium and small towns, and finally, rural areas. Our results regarding the specialization and diversity of cities and their respective impact on productivity and resilience remain inconclusive, possibly as a result of the socio-economic bias of Latin inscriptions and insufficient representativeness of the data. Yet, we believe that our formalized approach to the research problem opens up new avenues for research, both in respect to the economic history of the Roman Empire and to the current trends in the science of cities.

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