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  • 2019-2023
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  • Authors: Heredia Barion, Pablo; Strelin, Jorge; Spiegel, Cornelia; Binnie, Steven; +5 Authors

    Compilations of new and published age data constraining glacier advance, retreat and aquatic moss layers in lakes from the South Shetland Islands. New and published chronostratigraphic data constraining Holocene glacier readvances from the Fildes Peninsula (n=43), Potter Peninsula (n=29), and KGI (n=76) were compiled and a non-parametric phase model (i.e., a probabilistic version of the Oxcal SUM command) was applied to each dataset using the Bchron v. 4.7.6 in R (Haslett and Parnell, 2008; Parnell, 2021).The Rcarbon package v. 1.4.2 (Bevan, 2021) was used for data analysis. Additional statistical analysis was undertaken, using R v. 4.1.0/RStudio v. 1.4.1717 (primarily packages Tidyverse, ggplot2, Vegan, Rioja, Ggally v. 2.1.2, RBacon, Rcarbon, Bchron), Sigmaplot v. 14.0, C2 (Juggins, 2007) and MATLAB v. R2021a. Code, data, all packages used, and package references, can be found at: https://github.com/stever60/Fildes_Peninsula and https://github.com/stever60/Potter_Peninsula. The data were used in data analysis in the following manuscripts to constrain deglaciation and glacier dynamics on Potter Peninsula and Fildes Peninsula, King George Island South Shetland Islands: Heredia Barion P, Roberts SJ, Spiegel C, Binnie SA, Wacker L, Davies J, et al. (submitted - a) Mid-late Holocene deglaciation and glacier readvances on the Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, NW Antarctic Peninsula. The Holocene. Heredia Barion P, Strelin JA, Roberts SJ, Spiegel C, Wacker L, Niedermann S, et al. (submitted - b). Holocene glacial dynamics and geomorphology of Potter Peninsula, King George Island (NW Antarctic Peninsula). Frontiers in Earth Science. Density phases produced by similar analysis of published SSI-wide data were less well-defined, likely reflecting local glacier influences and larger errors for some data, and not considered further. The dataset comprises of chronostratigraphic data from the Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands. The data have been used to constrain deglaciation and climate-glacier dynamics on the Fildes Peninsula. These data include C-14 density probability phases. Data was compiled with with Potter Peninsula and King George Island data and a non-parametric phase model applied. Data collected in this study were funded by: Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Tierra (CICTERRA), the Direccion Nacional del Antartico/Instituto Antartico Argentino (DNA/IAA) in the framework of the Project PICTA, 2011 - 0102, IAA 'Geomorfologia y Geologia Glaciar del Archipielago James Ross e Islas Shetland del Sur, Sector Norte de la Peninsula Antartica'; the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) research program Polar regions and Coasts in a changing Earth System (PACES II); IMCONet (FP7 IRSES, action no. 318718); the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC/BAS-CGS Grant no.81); the NERC/BAS science programmes CACHE-PEP: Natural climate variability - extending the Americas palaeoclimate transect through the Antarctic Peninsula to the pole and GRADES-QWAD: Quaternary West Antarctic Deglaciations. We thank the crews of the Argentine research station 'Carlini' and the adjoined German Dallmann-Labor (AWI) Laboratory, the Uruguayan research station 'Artigas', the Russian Bellingshausen Station, the Chinese Great Wall Station, Base Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, the Brazilian Navy Almirante Maximiano, the UK Navy HMS Endurance and NERC/BAS James Clark Ross for logistical support during the 2006, 2011, 2014 and 2015 field seasons.

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  • Authors: Heredia Barion, Pablo; Strelin, Jorge; Spiegel, Cornelia; Binnie, Steven; +5 Authors

    Chronostratigraphic data Radiocarbon (C-14) dating: Moraines adjacent to the BIC were mapped and interpreted from field observations and satellite images (DigitalGlobe, Catalogue ID: 1030010020C0C900; Google Earth, 2006 and 2011). Contour lines are derived from the Antarctic Digital Database with elevation data (+/-5 m) obtained from the Instituto Antartico Uruguayo (1997). Radiocarbon ages from moraines and stratigraphic sections were obtained by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) dating of marine mollusc shells, terrestrial mosses and seaweed layers embedded in sediments and represent maximum ages for BIC glacier readvance Calibration of marine sample radiocarbon ages (marine shells) was undertaken in Oxcal v. 4.4 using the Marine20 calibration curve (Bronk Ramsey, 2009; Heaton et al., 2020), and a newly recalculated local marine reservoir age offset (deltaR) of 666+/-76 C-14 years, which represents the weighted mean delta R of four radiocarbon-dated marine samples collected prior to 1950 CE from the northern Antarctic Peninsula and Signy Island in the online Marine20 database (see references). Terrestrial and aquatic moss samples were calibrated using the Southern Hemisphere SHCal20 calibration curve in Oxcal v. 4.4 (Hogg et al., 2020). Post-bomb (>1950 CE) ages were corrected according to 13C/12C isotopic ratios from measured pMC with the 'present day' pMC value defined as 107.5% (2010 CE) and calibrated using the SHCal13 SH Zone 1-2 Bomb curve in CALIBomb (Reimer and Reimer, 2004; Hua et al., 2013). Cosmogenic Helium-3 (He-3) nuclide surface exposure dating (CSED): Large boulders more than 50 cm in diameter on the NW Bellingshausen Ice Cap (BIC) glacial foreland were surveyed and classified. Three samples were collected for He-3 CSED using a hammer and chisel to remove the upper few centimetres of exposed surfaces. Surface shielding due to snow cover was minimised by sampling from wind-exposed localities (cf. Johnson et al., 2012, 2017, 2020; Glasser et al., 2014; Lindow et al., 2014). Laboratory analysis for 10Be cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dating followed the procedures of Kohl and Nishiizumi, (1992) and Binnie et al., (2015) Code, data, all packages used, and package references, can be found via the github repository in the references. The dataset comprises of chronostratigraphic data from the Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands. The data consists of Radiocarbon (C-14) ages, which were obtained by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) dating of marine mollusc shells, terrestrial mosses and seaweed layers embedded in sediments, and Cosmogenic Helium-3 (He-3) nuclide surface exposure dating (CSED). The data have been used to constrain deglaciation and climate-glacier dynamics on the Fildes Peninsula. Data collected in this study were funded by: Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Tierra (CICTERRA), the Direccion Nacional del Antartico/Instituto Antartico Argentino (DNA/IAA) in the framework of the Project PICTA, 2011 - 0102, IAA 'Geomorfologia y Geologia Glaciar del Archipielago James Ross e Islas Shetland del Sur, Sector Norte de la Peninsula Antartica'; the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) research program Polar regions and Coasts in a changing Earth System (PACES II); IMCONet (FP7 IRSES, action no. 318718); the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC/BAS-CGS Grant no.81); the NERC/BAS science programmes CACHE-PEP: Natural climate variability - extending the Americas palaeoclimate transect through the Antarctic Peninsula to the pole and GRADES-QWAD: Quaternary West Antarctic Deglaciations. We thank the crews of the Argentine research station 'Carlini' and the adjoined German Dallmann-Labor (AWI) Laboratory, the Uruguayan research station 'Artigas', the Russian Bellingshausen Station, the Chinese Great Wall Station, Base Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, the Brazilian Navy Almirante Maximiano, the UK Navy HMS Endurance and NERC/BAS James Clark Ross for logistical support during the 2006, 2011, 2014 and 2015 field seasons. Cosmogenic data: Differential GPS (dGPS; WGS84 ellipsoid) data for erratic boulders were obtained using a GPS Trimble Pathfinder ProXH. As geodetic reference, we used the landmark DALL 66019M002 (-62.237870; -58.664545;, ellipsoidal height 39.376 m) at the Argentine Carlini base, c. 17 km from the sampled erratics. Post-processed uncertainties for the samples were less than 0.1 m in altitude and in the horizontal. Sample concentrations are relatively low but the maximum blank subtraction was less than 6%. Analytical uncertainties for the 10Be concentrations were derived by summing in quadrature the uncertainty in the mass of Be added during sample processing (estimated to be 1% at 1 sigma) and the AMS measurement uncertainties of both the samples and blank. Radiocarbon data: Pre-bomb calibrated ages have been rounded to the nearest 10 years, and to the nearest hundred years in the manuscript text to reflect realistic total (internal and external) uncertainties. Post-bomb ages have been rounded to the nearest year. Cosmogenic data: Quartz purity was determined prior to dissolution by ICP-OES Radiocarbon data: Samples were prepared at the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research and British Antarctic Survey. AMS measurements were undertaken at ETH Zurich and Beta Analytical, Miami, and 13C/12C isotope ratios were used to calculate Conventional Radiocarbon Ages.

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  • Authors: Roberts, Stephen; Pearson, Emma; Czalbowski, Tamara; Davies, Sarah; +3 Authors

    Core collection Sediment cores were collected using a Livingston piston corer from the deepest point(~5 m of water depth) in Matias Lake(L5: 62.2450°S, 58.6655°W,~70-75 m a.s.l., 20-30 cm total recovered sediment depth). We extracted 13 short cores from the depocentre in Matias Lake and along a surface transect towards Rudy Lake. Sediment recovery depth ranged from 20 and 60 cm before encountering an impenetrable diamicton layer. Data from cores MAT1 (L5-H1) (27 cm) and MAT2 (L5-H2) (29 cm) extracted from the deepest part of Matias Lake (5.8 m; 62° 14' 42.054"S, 58° 39' 53.82"W) are included in this dataset. Chronology Obtaining basal radiocarbon ages from basal and bulk minerogenic sediments in the Matias Lake cores proved challenging due to a general lack of organic carbon.Pb-210 Cs-137 and Am-241 dating of the uppermost 10 cm of the lake sediment records was undertaken and dating model calculations followed standard procedures defined in Appleby and Oldfield (1978). Pb-210 age estimates were derived using the constant rate of supply (CRS) method (Appleby and Oldfield, 1978) and incorporated into Bayesian age-depth models. The Pb-210 Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) age model shows that the uppermost 10 cm have been deposited since c. 1850 CE, and the well-defined 137Cs peak at 5 cm depth is coherent with the Pb-210 age model. Geochemistry and Sedimentology Physical properties (gamma-ray density (GRD), magnetic susceptibility, fractional porosity, resistivity and impedance) were measured using Geotek® multi-sensor core logger (MSCL). Non-destructive ITRAXTM (Cox Analytical) micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and Bartington Magnetic Susceptibility High Resolution Surface Scanning Sensor (MS2E) measurements were undertaken at Aberystwyth University. Contiguous bulk, wet sediment geochemical Energy Dispersive XRF-CS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) analysis was obtained using a chromium (Cr) X-ray tube (X-radiography image settings: 40 kV, 40 mA, 200 ms; XRF-CSCr settings: 30 kV, 40 mA, dwell time of 10 seconds, at 100 micrometers or 2 mm. Hyperspectral image (HSI) scanning was performed using the Specim Ltd. single core scanner (PFD-CL-65-V10E line scan camera, 400-1000 nm) according to the protocol of Butz et al. (2015). The spatial resolution (pixel size) was set at 69 micrometers x 69 micrometers and the spectral resolution is 2.8 nm sampled at an interval of 0.78 nm. Raw data were normalised with a BaSO4 reference and spectral endmembers were calculated using the software ENVI 5.03. Quantitative estimates of pigments were obtained using the Relative Absorption Band Depth (RABD) method, which uses ratios and normalised reflectance data from distinct wavelengths. The spectral index RABD660;670 (RABD at 660-670 nm) was calculated from the continuum between 590 and 730 nm (Butz et al., 2015) with I-band wavelengths between 660 and 670 nm using equations RABD660;670 = (6*R590+7*R730)/13/Rmin(660;670) and RABD660;670 [I-Band] = (6*R590+7*R730)/13/ Rmin(660;670)/Rmean (Rein and Sirocko, 2002). Additional statistical analysis was undertaken, and figures constructed, using R v. 4.1.0/RStudio v. 1.4.1717 (primarily packages Tidyverse, ggplot2, Vegan, Rioja, Ggally v. 2.1.2, RBacon, Rcarbon, Bchron), Sigmaplot v. 14.0, C2 (Juggins, 2007), MATLAB v. R2021a, with final layouts achieved in Adobe Illustrator v. 26.2.1 or CorelDRAW v. 2020. Code, data, all packages used, and package references can be found at: https://github.com/stever60/Potter_Peninsula The dataset comprises of lake site photos, data and multiproxy data from Lake L5 (aka Matias Lake), a small lake basin at 62.2450 S, 58.6655 W on Potter Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands. The data have been used to constrain deglaciation and glacier dynamics on Potter Peninsula. Data for the Lake L5 (Matias Lake) sediment record consist of downcore measurements of chronology, geochemistry, and sedimentology proxy data collected from the depocentre in November 2011. Data collected in this study were funded by: Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Tierra (CICTERRA), the Direccion Nacional del Antartico/Instituto Antartico Argentino (DNA/IAA) in the framework of the Project PICTA, 2011 - 0102, IAA and Geomorfologia y Geologia Glaciar del Archipielago James Ross e Islas Shetland del Sur, Sector Norte de la Peninsula Antartica, the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) research program Polar regions and Coasts in a changing Earth System (PACES II); IMCONet (FP7 IRSES, action no. 318718); the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC/BAS-CGS Grant no.81); the NERC/BAS science programmes CACHE-PEP: Natural climate variability - extending the Americas palaeoclimate transect through the Antarctic Peninsula to the pole and GRADES-QWAD: Quaternary West Antarctic Deglaciations. We thank the crews of the Argentine research station "Carlini" and the adjoined German Dallmann-Labor (AWI) Laboratory, the Uruguayan research station "Artigas", the Russian Bellingshausen Station, the Chinese Great Wall Station, Base Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, the Brazilian Navy Almirante Maximiano, the UK Navy HMS Endurance and NERC/BAS James Clark Ross for logistical support during the 2006, 2011, 2014 and 2015 field seasons. Chronology Pb-210 age estimates were derived using the constant rate of supply (CRS) method (Appleby and Oldfield, 1978) and incorporated into Bayesian age-depth models. Geochemistry & Sedimentology ITRAX-XRF Raw count per second (cps) data were analysed using the Q-spec software v8.6.0 (Cox Analytical), with MSE values minimised to optimise the fit of 'as measured' spectra to a modelled spectrum. Data are presented as percentages of the Total Scatter Normalised ratio sum (%∑TSN or, more simply, %TSN, which are equivalent to percentages of the cps sum, or %cps) to account for downcore variations in count rate, density, water and organic content. Data less than mean minus two-sigma kcps (mainly due to gaps in the core) and greater than MSE plus two-sigma (representing a poor fit between measured to modelled spectra) were filtered before analysis.?Noisy? elements were eliminated by comparing cps and using %TSN thresholds of >0.1% mean and >0.5% maximum , and by examining autocorrelation profiles for each element. Elements are presented as natural log (log n or Ln) ratios. Chronology Pb-210 Cs-137 and Am-241 dating of the uppermost 10 cm of the lake sediment records was undertaken on a well-type gamma spectrometry (Ge-detector, GWC 2522-7500 SL, Canberra Industries Inc., USA) and processed with GENIE 2000 3.0 (Canberra Industries Inc., USA). Geochemistry and Sedimentology ITRAX XRF core scanner fitted with a Molybdenum (Mo) anode X-ray tube and a Bartington Magnetic Susceptibility High Resolution Surface Scanning Sensor (MS2E) Geotek multi-sensor core logger (MSCL) Hyperspectral image (HSI) scanning was performed using the Specim Ltd. single core scanner (PFD-CL-65-V10E line scan camera, 400?1000 nm) according to the protocol of Butz et al. (2015). GEOTEK MSCL data were measured at 2 mm intervals Geochemical XRF-Core scanning data were measured at 100 μm and 2 mm contiguous intervals. SPECIM hyperspectral data were measured at 69 μm intervals

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  • Authors: Roberts, Stephen; Pearson, Emma; Czalbowski, Tamara; Davies, Sarah; +3 Authors

    Core collection: Sediment cores were collected using a Russian and Livingston corers from the deepest point (around 2 m of water depth) in Lake L15 (GPS Lake) (L15: -62.24057 degrees S, -58.67760 degrees W, around 30 m a.s.l., 11-55 cm total recovered sediment depth). Eight cores were collected from a grid of 25 (around1 m spaced) holes drilled through the around 75-100 cm thick lake ice above the deepest accessible point (around 2 m): Data from L15-H2 (-62.24057 degrees S, -58.67760 degrees W) with 30 cm of sediment and L15-H16 (-62.24056 degrees S, -58.67757 degrees W) with 55 cm of sediment are included in this dataset. Other cores taken at this site were: L15-H4 = 11 cm, L15-H9 = 39 cm, L15-H17 = 45 cm, L15-H19 = 34 cm, L15-H20 = 61 cm and L15-H22 = 49 cm. Chronology: Pb-210 Cs-137 and Am-241 dating of the uppermost 10 cm of the lake sediment records was undertaken and dating model calculations followed standard procedures defined in Appleby and Oldfield (1978). Pb-210 age estimates were derived using the constant rate of supply (CRS) method (Appleby and Oldfield, 1978) and incorporated into Bayesian age-depth models. The Pb-210 CRS age model produced a low sedimentation rate in the top 10 cm and the sample at around 4-5 cm is likely to be at least 150 years old. Radiocarbon ages of aquatic moss and macrophytic material from the uppermost lithological Unit 3 in Lake L15 were calibrated using the Southern Hemisphere SHCal20 calibration curve in Oxcal v. 4.4 (Hogg et al., 2020). Post-bomb (more than 1950 CE) ages were corrected according to 13C/12C isotopic ratios from measured pMC with the 'present day' pMC value defined as 107.5 percent (2010 CE) and calibrated using the SHCal13 SH Zone 1-2 Bomb curve in CALIBomb (Reimer and Reimer, 2004; Hua et al., 2013). Calibrated ages range from post 1950 CE to c. 0.6 ka cal BP. Geochemistry & Sedimentology: Physical properties (gamma-ray density (GRD), magnetic susceptibility, fractional porosity, resistivity and impedance) were measured using Geotek multi-sensor core logger (MSCL). Non-destructive ITRAXTM (Cox Analytical) micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and Bartington Magnetic Susceptibility High Resolution Surface Scanning Sensor (MS2E) measurements were undertaken at Aberystwyth University. Contiguous bulk, wet sediment geochemical Energy Dispersive XRF-CS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) analysis was obtained using a chromium (Cr) X-ray tube (X-radiography image settings: 40 kV, 40 mA, 200 ms; XRF-CSCr settings: 30 kV, 40 mA, dwell time of 10 seconds, at 100 micrometer or 2 mm. Hyperspectral image (HSI) scanning was performed using the Specim Ltd. single core scanner (PFD-CL-65-V10E line scan camera, 400-1000 nm) according to the protocol of Butz et al. (2015). The spatial resolution (pixel size) was set at 69 micrometer x 69 micrometer and the spectral resolution is 2.8 nm sampled at an interval of 0.78 nm. Raw data were normalised with a BaSO4 reference and spectral endmembers were calculated using the software ENVI 5.03. Quantitative estimates of pigments were obtained using the Relative Absorption Band Depth (RABD) method, which uses ratios and normalised reflectance data from distinct wavelengths. The spectral index RABD660;670 (RABD at 660-670 nm) was calculated from the continuum between 590 and 730 nm (Butz et al., 2015) with I-band wavelengths between 660 and 670 nm using equations RABD660;670 = (6 R590+7 R730)/13/Rmin(660;670) and RABD660;670 (I-Band) = (6 R590+7 R730)/13/ Rmin(660;670)/Rmean (Rein and Sirocko, 2002). Additional statistical analysis was undertaken, and figures constructed, using R v. 4.1.0/RStudio v. 1.4.1717 (primarily packages Tidyverse, ggplot2, Vegan, Rioja, Ggally v. 2.1.2, RBacon, Rcarbon, Bchron), Sigmaplot v. 14.0, C2 (Juggins, 2007), MATLAB v. R2021a, with final layouts achieved in Adobe Illustrator v. 26.2.1 or CorelDRAW v. 2020. Code, data, all packages used, and package references can be found at: https://github.com/stever60/Potter_Peninsula Chronology Pb-210 age estimates were derived using the constant rate of supply (CRS) method (Appleby and Oldfield, 1978) and incorporated into Bayesian age-depth models. The prerequisite for the CRS model was not fulfilled because the flux of Pb-210 has changed through time and is not constant, but Pb-210 data are consistent with the radiocarbon ages that show sediment between 6 and 6.5 cm dates to 620 plus-minus 80 a cal BP, and 3-3.5 cm and 0-0.5 cm depth were deposited in the 'post-bomb' (post-1950 CE) era, most likely between -40 - -44 cal yr BP (1990-1994 CE) The Cs-137 data are inconsistent with the Pb-210 CRS age model and it is possible that the steep increase in Cs-137 in the upper 2 cm relates to a Cs-137 'soil reservoir', which is leaching Cs-137 into the lake from snow or lake-ice melting. Geochemistry and Sedimentology ITRAX-XRF Raw count per second (cps) data were analysed using the Q-spec software v8.6.0 (Cox Analytical), with MSE values minimised to optimise the fit of 'as measured' spectra to a modelled spectrum. Data are presented as percentages of the Total Scatter Normalised ratio sum (percent sigma TSN or, more simply, percent TSN, which are equivalent to percentages of the cps sum, or percent cps) to account for downcore variations in count rate, density, water and organic content. Data less than mean minus two-sigma kcps (mainly due to gaps in the core) and greater than MSE plus two-sigma (representing a poor fit between measured to modelled spectra) were filtered before analysis. 'Noisy' elements were eliminated by comparing cps and using percent TSN thresholds of more than 0.1 percent mean and more than 0.5 percent maximum, and by examining autocorrelation profiles for each element. Elements are presented as natural log (log n or Ln) ratios. The dataset comprises of lake site photos, data and multiproxy data from Lake L15 (aka GPS Lake), a small lake basin at 62.24057 S, 58.6776 W on Potter Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands. The data have been used to constrain deglaciation and glacier dynamics on Potter Peninsula. Data for the Lake L15 (GPS Lake) sediment record consist of downcore measurements of chronology, geochemistry, and sedimentology proxy data collected from the depocentre in November 2011. Data collected in this study were funded by: Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Tierra (CICTERRA), the Direccion Nacional del Antartico/Instituto Antartico Argentino (DNA/IAA) in the framework of the Project PICTA, 2011 - 0102, IAA "Geomorfologia y Geologia Glaciar del Archipielago James Ross e Islas Shetland del Sur, Sector Norte de la Peninsula Antartica"; the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) research program Polar regions and Coasts in a changing Earth System (PACES II); IMCONet (FP7 IRSES, action no. 318718); the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC/BAS-CGS Grant no.81); the NERC/BAS science programmes CACHE-PEP: Natural climate variability - extending the Americas palaeoclimate transect through the Antarctic Peninsula to the pole and GRADES-QWAD: Quaternary West Antarctic Deglaciations. We thank the crews of the Argentine research station "Carlini" and the adjoined German Dallmann-Labor (AWI) Laboratory, the Uruguayan research station "Artigas", the Russian Bellingshausen Station, the Chinese Great Wall Station, Base Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, the Brazilian Navy Almirante Maximiano, the UK Navy HMS Endurance and NERC/BAS James Clark Ross for logistical support during the 2006, 2011, 2014 and 2015 field seasons. Chronology Pb-210 Cs-137 and Am-241 dating of the uppermost 10 cm of the lake sediment records was undertaken on a well-type gamma spectrometry (Ge-detector, GWC 2522-7500 SL, Canberra Industries Inc., USA) and processed with GENIE 2000 3.0 (Canberra Industries Inc., USA). Geochemistry and Sedimentology Geotek multi-sensor core logger (MSCL) ITRAX XRF core scanner fitted with a Molybdenum (Mo) anode X-ray tube and a Bartington Magnetic Susceptibility High Resolution Surface Scanning Sensor (MS2E) Hyperspectral image (HSI) scanning was performed using the Specim Ltd. single core scanner (PFD-CL-65-V10E line scan camera, 400-1000 nm) according to the protocol of Butz et al. (2015).

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  • Authors: Bentley, Michael; Roberts, Stephen; Heredia Barion, Pablo; Strelin, Jorge; +3 Authors

    Mapping and Stratigraphic section sample collection Mapping was undertaken in ARC-GIS, with final layouts achieved in Adobe Illustrator v. 26.2.1 or CorelDRAW v. 2020. Lithostratigraphic descriptions and radiocarbon sampling were undertaken at an outer peninsula stratigraphic profile referred to as "new Pingfo II" and a new river section adjacent to the 'Potter Cove section' sampled by Sugden and John (1973). We also sampled terrestrial moss samples for radiocarbon dating from a recently exposed 'Inland outcrop' which is located inside the 1956 CE limit, around 700 m from the active glacier front. The stratigraphic sections were characterised using textural criteria, fabric, composition, sedimentary structures, and grain size analysis to determine the relationships between different depositional units. Radiocarbon (C-14) dating: Twenty-one Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon (C-14) ages were obtained from seaweed, marine mollusc shells, penguin and undetermined bones, remnants of terrestrial mosses embedded in stratigraphic profiles and moraine sediments. Calibration of marine sample radiocarbon ages (marine shells and seaweed) was undertaken in Oxcal v. 4.4 using the Marine20 calibration curve (Bronk Ramsey, 2009; Heaton et al., 2020), and a newly recalculated local marine reservoir age offset (delta R) of 666 plus-minus 76 C-14 years (Heaton et al., 2020), which represents the weighted mean delta R of four radiocarbon-dated marine samples collected prior to 1950 CE from the northern Antarctic Peninsula and Signy Island in the online Marine20 database (http://calib.org/marine/). Terrestrial and aquatic moss samples were calibrated using the Southern Hemisphere SHCal20 calibration curve in Oxcal v. 4.4 (Hogg et al., 2020). Post-bomb (more than 1950 CE) ages were corrected according to 13C/12C isotopic ratios from measured pMC with the 'present day' pMC value defined as 107.5 percent (2010 CE) and calibrated using the SHCal13 SH Zone 1-2 Bomb curve in CALIBomb (Reimer and Reimer, 2004; Hua et al., 2013). Cosmogenic Helium-3 (He-3) nuclide surface exposure dating (CSED): Five samples were collected for He-3 CSED using a hammer and chisel to remove the upper few centimetres of exposed surfaces. Differential GPS (dGPS) measurements were undertaken using a Trimble Pathfinder ProXH to determine the precise location and altitude of boulders in relation to the landmark DALL 66019M002 (62.23787 degrees S, 58.66455 degrees W, ellipsoidal height 39.376 m) triangulation station located on the Argentine Carlini base, a few hundred metres away from the sampled erratics. dGPS precision is better than 10 cm in all axes, but ellipsoid correction errors are larger. Exposure ages were calculated using the CRONUScalc calculator (Version 2.0; Marrero et al., 2016) with the time-dependent Lal (1991)/Stone (2000) scaling model (Lm) for altitude at Antarctic pressure conditions and the primary calibration data set for He-3 in pyroxene, which yields a long term sea-level high latitude (SLHL) scaled production rate of 122 plus-minus 13 at g-1 a-1 (Borchers et al., 2016). External age uncertainties include production rate uncertainties. Exposure ages determined with other scaling models (e.g., Lifton et al., 2014) vary by up to around 6 percent. We report internal and external uncertainties. Following Balco et al. (2008), external uncertainties are used for comparison with calibrated AMS radiocarbon ages and error ranges. Grain size analysis: Thirteen samples were dry sieved to separate the fraction larger than 2 mm, placed in an ultrasonic bath for 10 seconds, then placed in a reciprocating shaker and left overnight. Samples were wet sieved to separate the fraction less than 0.063 mm (silt and clay size), and the coarser fraction was dried in an oven at 50 degrees Celsius and dry sieved into sand fractions (more than 1mm, more than 0.5 mm, more than 0.25 mm, more than 0.125 mm and more than 0.063 mm). The silt and clay fractions were transferred to a sedimentation cylinder and fine and coarse silt separated from clays after settling using the pipette method. The clay fraction was then concentrated using a centrifuge, and all fractions were dried in an oven at 40 degrees Celsius. Additional statistical analysis was undertaken, and figures constructed, using R v. 4.1.0/RStudio v. 1.4.1717 (primarily packages Tidyverse, ggplot2, Vegan, Rioja, Ggally v. 2.1.2, RBacon, Rcarbon, Bchron), Sigmaplot v. 14.0, C2 (Juggins, 2007), MATLAB v. R2021a, with final layouts achieved in Adobe Illustrator v. 26.2.1 or CorelDRAW v. 2020. Code, data, all packages used and package references can be found at: https://github.com/stever60/Potter Peninsula The dataset comprises of stratigraphic chronological and sedimentological data from Potter Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands. The data have been used to constrain deglaciation and glacier dynamics on Potter Peninsula. Data collected in this study were funded by: Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Tierra (CICTERRA), the Direccion Nacional del Antartico/Instituto Antartico Argentino (DNA/IAA) in the framework of the Project PICTA, 2011 - 0102, IAA "Geomorfologia y Geologia Glaciar del Archipielago James Ross e Islas Shetland del Sur, Sector Norte de la Peninsula Antartica"; the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) research program Polar regions and Coasts in a changing Earth System (PACES II); IMCONet (FP7 IRSES, action no. 318718); the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC/BAS-CGS Grant no.81); the NERC/BAS science programmes CACHE-PEP: Natural climate variability - extending the Americas palaeoclimate transect through the Antarctic Peninsula to the pole and GRADES-QWAD: Quaternary West Antarctic Deglaciations. We thank the crews of the Argentine research station "Carlini'" and the adjoined German Dallmann-Labor (AWI) Laboratory, the Uruguayan research station "Artigas", the Russian Bellingshausen Station, the Chinese Great Wall Station, Base Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, the Brazilian Navy Almirante Maximiano, the UK Navy HMS Endurance and NERC/BAS James Clark Ross for logistical support during the 2006, 2011, 2014 and 2015 field seasons. Radiocarbon samples were prepared at the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research and British Antarctic Survey. AMS measurements were undertaken at ETH Zurich and Beta Analytical, Miami, and 13C/12C isotope ratios were used to calculate Conventional Radiocarbon Ages. Pre-bomb calibrated ages have been rounded to the nearest 10 years, and to the nearest hundred years in the manuscript text to reflect realistic total (internal and external) uncertainties. Post-bomb ages have been rounded to the nearest year.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Frontini Romina; Fernádez-Jalvo Yolanda; Pesquero-Fernández, María Dolores;

    This dataset corresponds to the manuscript "Compression and digestion as agents of vertebral deformation in fish: tools to interpret paleontological and archaeological assemblages" by Frontini, Romina, Roselló-Izquierdo, Eufrasia, Morales-Muñiz, Arturo, Denys, Christiane, Guillaud, Émilie, Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda, Pesquero-Fernández, María Dolores. The article is in process of revision. In this study, the deformation of fish vertebrae due to uniaxial forces is experimentally assessed. Specifically, we report the effects of lateral compaction on fish vertebrae. The aims of the study were: 1) to gain an understanding of compression exerted on the vertebrae from three teleost families of archaeozoological and paleontological relevance (Sciaenidae, Merlucidae, Gadidae), 2) to characterize the nature of alterations on vertebral body due to uniaxial compression under dry and hydrated conditions, and 3) to determine variations of the compression effects on dry and hydrated specimens.

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    Authors: Rovere, Alessio; Pappalardo, Marta; Richiano, Sebastian; Aguirre, Marina; +5 Authors

    The dataset consists of a spreadsheet containing data on GPS surveys, dynamic topography extracted from published models (gplates.org), Shell preservation scoring, Strontium Isotopic Stratigraphy ages, and Global mean Sea Level calculations. Fil: Aguirre, Marina Laura. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico La Plata; Argentina. Fil: Richiano, Sebastián Miguel. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Centro Nacional Patagónico. Instituto Patagónico de Geología y Paleontología; Argentina Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo

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    Authors: Dario Dematties; Silvio Rizzi; George K. Thiruvathukal; Alejandro Javier Wainselboim; +2 Authors

    The file Corpora.txt keeps the corpus used to train the model and the different instances of the classifier. It is basically a text file with one sentence per line from the original corpus called test.tsv available at https://github.com/google-research-datasets/wiki-split.git. We eliminated punctuation marks and special characters from the original file putting each sentence per line. Enju_Output.txt holds the outputs generated by Enju in -so mode (Output in stand-off format) using Corpora.txt as input. This file has basically a natural language English per-sentence parse with a wide-coverage probabilistic for HPSG grammar. The file Supervision.txt keeps the grammatical tags of the corpus. This file holds a tag per word and each tag is situated in a single line. Sentences are separated by one empty line while tags from words in the same sentence are located in adjacent lines. The file Word_Category.txt carries the coarse-grained word category information needed by the model and introduced in it by apical dendrites. Each word in the corpus has a word-category tag which provides additional constraints to those provided by lateral dendrites. This file contains a tag per word and each tag is situated in a single line. Sentences are separated by one empty line while tags from words in the same sentence are located in adjacent lines. The file SynSemTests.xlsx keeps all the grammar classification results as well as the statistical analysis in the classification tests.

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  • Authors: Heredia Barion, Pablo; Strelin, Jorge; Spiegel, Cornelia; Binnie, Steven; +5 Authors

    Compilations of new and published age data constraining glacier advance, retreat and aquatic moss layers in lakes from the South Shetland Islands. New and published chronostratigraphic data constraining Holocene glacier readvances from the Fildes Peninsula (n=43), Potter Peninsula (n=29), and KGI (n=76) were compiled and a non-parametric phase model (i.e., a probabilistic version of the Oxcal SUM command) was applied to each dataset using the Bchron v. 4.7.6 in R (Haslett and Parnell, 2008; Parnell, 2021).The Rcarbon package v. 1.4.2 (Bevan, 2021) was used for data analysis. Additional statistical analysis was undertaken, using R v. 4.1.0/RStudio v. 1.4.1717 (primarily packages Tidyverse, ggplot2, Vegan, Rioja, Ggally v. 2.1.2, RBacon, Rcarbon, Bchron), Sigmaplot v. 14.0, C2 (Juggins, 2007) and MATLAB v. R2021a. Code, data, all packages used, and package references, can be found at: https://github.com/stever60/Fildes_Peninsula and https://github.com/stever60/Potter_Peninsula. The data were used in data analysis in the following manuscripts to constrain deglaciation and glacier dynamics on Potter Peninsula and Fildes Peninsula, King George Island South Shetland Islands: Heredia Barion P, Roberts SJ, Spiegel C, Binnie SA, Wacker L, Davies J, et al. (submitted - a) Mid-late Holocene deglaciation and glacier readvances on the Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, NW Antarctic Peninsula. The Holocene. Heredia Barion P, Strelin JA, Roberts SJ, Spiegel C, Wacker L, Niedermann S, et al. (submitted - b). Holocene glacial dynamics and geomorphology of Potter Peninsula, King George Island (NW Antarctic Peninsula). Frontiers in Earth Science. Density phases produced by similar analysis of published SSI-wide data were less well-defined, likely reflecting local glacier influences and larger errors for some data, and not considered further. The dataset comprises of chronostratigraphic data from the Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands. The data have been used to constrain deglaciation and climate-glacier dynamics on the Fildes Peninsula. These data include C-14 density probability phases. Data was compiled with with Potter Peninsula and King George Island data and a non-parametric phase model applied. Data collected in this study were funded by: Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Tierra (CICTERRA), the Direccion Nacional del Antartico/Instituto Antartico Argentino (DNA/IAA) in the framework of the Project PICTA, 2011 - 0102, IAA 'Geomorfologia y Geologia Glaciar del Archipielago James Ross e Islas Shetland del Sur, Sector Norte de la Peninsula Antartica'; the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) research program Polar regions and Coasts in a changing Earth System (PACES II); IMCONet (FP7 IRSES, action no. 318718); the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC/BAS-CGS Grant no.81); the NERC/BAS science programmes CACHE-PEP: Natural climate variability - extending the Americas palaeoclimate transect through the Antarctic Peninsula to the pole and GRADES-QWAD: Quaternary West Antarctic Deglaciations. We thank the crews of the Argentine research station 'Carlini' and the adjoined German Dallmann-Labor (AWI) Laboratory, the Uruguayan research station 'Artigas', the Russian Bellingshausen Station, the Chinese Great Wall Station, Base Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, the Brazilian Navy Almirante Maximiano, the UK Navy HMS Endurance and NERC/BAS James Clark Ross for logistical support during the 2006, 2011, 2014 and 2015 field seasons.

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  • Authors: Heredia Barion, Pablo; Strelin, Jorge; Spiegel, Cornelia; Binnie, Steven; +5 Authors

    Chronostratigraphic data Radiocarbon (C-14) dating: Moraines adjacent to the BIC were mapped and interpreted from field observations and satellite images (DigitalGlobe, Catalogue ID: 1030010020C0C900; Google Earth, 2006 and 2011). Contour lines are derived from the Antarctic Digital Database with elevation data (+/-5 m) obtained from the Instituto Antartico Uruguayo (1997). Radiocarbon ages from moraines and stratigraphic sections were obtained by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) dating of marine mollusc shells, terrestrial mosses and seaweed layers embedded in sediments and represent maximum ages for BIC glacier readvance Calibration of marine sample radiocarbon ages (marine shells) was undertaken in Oxcal v. 4.4 using the Marine20 calibration curve (Bronk Ramsey, 2009; Heaton et al., 2020), and a newly recalculated local marine reservoir age offset (deltaR) of 666+/-76 C-14 years, which represents the weighted mean delta R of four radiocarbon-dated marine samples collected prior to 1950 CE from the northern Antarctic Peninsula and Signy Island in the online Marine20 database (see references). Terrestrial and aquatic moss samples were calibrated using the Southern Hemisphere SHCal20 calibration curve in Oxcal v. 4.4 (Hogg et al., 2020). Post-bomb (>1950 CE) ages were corrected according to 13C/12C isotopic ratios from measured pMC with the 'present day' pMC value defined as 107.5% (2010 CE) and calibrated using the SHCal13 SH Zone 1-2 Bomb curve in CALIBomb (Reimer and Reimer, 2004; Hua et al., 2013). Cosmogenic Helium-3 (He-3) nuclide surface exposure dating (CSED): Large boulders more than 50 cm in diameter on the NW Bellingshausen Ice Cap (BIC) glacial foreland were surveyed and classified. Three samples were collected for He-3 CSED using a hammer and chisel to remove the upper few centimetres of exposed surfaces. Surface shielding due to snow cover was minimised by sampling from wind-exposed localities (cf. Johnson et al., 2012, 2017, 2020; Glasser et al., 2014; Lindow et al., 2014). Laboratory analysis for 10Be cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dating followed the procedures of Kohl and Nishiizumi, (1992) and Binnie et al., (2015) Code, data, all packages used, and package references, can be found via the github repository in the references. The dataset comprises of chronostratigraphic data from the Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands. The data consists of Radiocarbon (C-14) ages, which were obtained by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) dating of marine mollusc shells, terrestrial mosses and seaweed layers embedded in sediments, and Cosmogenic Helium-3 (He-3) nuclide surface exposure dating (CSED). The data have been used to constrain deglaciation and climate-glacier dynamics on the Fildes Peninsula. Data collected in this study were funded by: Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Tierra (CICTERRA), the Direccion Nacional del Antartico/Instituto Antartico Argentino (DNA/IAA) in the framework of the Project PICTA, 2011 - 0102, IAA 'Geomorfologia y Geologia Glaciar del Archipielago James Ross e Islas Shetland del Sur, Sector Norte de la Peninsula Antartica'; the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) research program Polar regions and Coasts in a changing Earth System (PACES II); IMCONet (FP7 IRSES, action no. 318718); the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC/BAS-CGS Grant no.81); the NERC/BAS science programmes CACHE-PEP: Natural climate variability - extending the Americas palaeoclimate transect through the Antarctic Peninsula to the pole and GRADES-QWAD: Quaternary West Antarctic Deglaciations. We thank the crews of the Argentine research station 'Carlini' and the adjoined German Dallmann-Labor (AWI) Laboratory, the Uruguayan research station 'Artigas', the Russian Bellingshausen Station, the Chinese Great Wall Station, Base Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, the Brazilian Navy Almirante Maximiano, the UK Navy HMS Endurance and NERC/BAS James Clark Ross for logistical support during the 2006, 2011, 2014 and 2015 field seasons. Cosmogenic data: Differential GPS (dGPS; WGS84 ellipsoid) data for erratic boulders were obtained using a GPS Trimble Pathfinder ProXH. As geodetic reference, we used the landmark DALL 66019M002 (-62.237870; -58.664545;, ellipsoidal height 39.376 m) at the Argentine Carlini base, c. 17 km from the sampled erratics. Post-processed uncertainties for the samples were less than 0.1 m in altitude and in the horizontal. Sample concentrations are relatively low but the maximum blank subtraction was less than 6%. Analytical uncertainties for the 10Be concentrations were derived by summing in quadrature the uncertainty in the mass of Be added during sample processing (estimated to be 1% at 1 sigma) and the AMS measurement uncertainties of both the samples and blank. Radiocarbon data: Pre-bomb calibrated ages have been rounded to the nearest 10 years, and to the nearest hundred years in the manuscript text to reflect realistic total (internal and external) uncertainties. Post-bomb ages have been rounded to the nearest year. Cosmogenic data: Quartz purity was determined prior to dissolution by ICP-OES Radiocarbon data: Samples were prepared at the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research and British Antarctic Survey. AMS measurements were undertaken at ETH Zurich and Beta Analytical, Miami, and 13C/12C isotope ratios were used to calculate Conventional Radiocarbon Ages.

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  • Authors: Roberts, Stephen; Pearson, Emma; Czalbowski, Tamara; Davies, Sarah; +3 Authors

    Core collection Sediment cores were collected using a Livingston piston corer from the deepest point(~5 m of water depth) in Matias Lake(L5: 62.2450°S, 58.6655°W,~70-75 m a.s.l., 20-30 cm total recovered sediment depth). We extracted 13 short cores from the depocentre in Matias Lake and along a surface transect towards Rudy Lake. Sediment recovery depth ranged from 20 and 60 cm before encountering an impenetrable diamicton layer. Data from cores MAT1 (L5-H1) (27 cm) and MAT2 (L5-H2) (29 cm) extracted from the deepest part of Matias Lake (5.8 m; 62° 14' 42.054"S, 58° 39' 53.82"W) are included in this dataset. Chronology Obtaining basal radiocarbon ages from basal and bulk minerogenic sediments in the Matias Lake cores proved challenging due to a general lack of organic carbon.Pb-210 Cs-137 and Am-241 dating of the uppermost 10 cm of the lake sediment records was undertaken and dating model calculations followed standard procedures defined in Appleby and Oldfield (1978). Pb-210 age estimates were derived using the constant rate of supply (CRS) method (Appleby and Oldfield, 1978) and incorporated into Bayesian age-depth models. The Pb-210 Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) age model shows that the uppermost 10 cm have been deposited since c. 1850 CE, and the well-defined 137Cs peak at 5 cm depth is coherent with the Pb-210 age model. Geochemistry and Sedimentology Physical properties (gamma-ray density (GRD), magnetic susceptibility, fractional porosity, resistivity and impedance) were measured using Geotek® multi-sensor core logger (MSCL). Non-destructive ITRAXTM (Cox Analytical) micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and Bartington Magnetic Susceptibility High Resolution Surface Scanning Sensor (MS2E) measurements were undertaken at Aberystwyth University. Contiguous bulk, wet sediment geochemical Energy Dispersive XRF-CS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) analysis was obtained using a chromium (Cr) X-ray tube (X-radiography image settings: 40 kV, 40 mA, 200 ms; XRF-CSCr settings: 30 kV, 40 mA, dwell time of 10 seconds, at 100 micrometers or 2 mm. Hyperspectral image (HSI) scanning was performed using the Specim Ltd. single core scanner (PFD-CL-65-V10E line scan camera, 400-1000 nm) according to the protocol of Butz et al. (2015). The spatial resolution (pixel size) was set at 69 micrometers x 69 micrometers and the spectral resolution is 2.8 nm sampled at an interval of 0.78 nm. Raw data were normalised with a BaSO4 reference and spectral endmembers were calculated using the software ENVI 5.03. Quantitative estimates of pigments were obtained using the Relative Absorption Band Depth (RABD) method, which uses ratios and normalised reflectance data from distinct wavelengths. The spectral index RABD660;670 (RABD at 660-670 nm) was calculated from the continuum between 590 and 730 nm (Butz et al., 2015) with I-band wavelengths between 660 and 670 nm using equations RABD660;670 = (6*R590+7*R730)/13/Rmin(660;670) and RABD660;670 [I-Band] = (6*R590+7*R730)/13/ Rmin(660;670)/Rmean (Rein and Sirocko, 2002). Additional statistical analysis was undertaken, and figures constructed, using R v. 4.1.0/RStudio v. 1.4.1717 (primarily packages Tidyverse, ggplot2, Vegan, Rioja, Ggally v. 2.1.2, RBacon, Rcarbon, Bchron), Sigmaplot v. 14.0, C2 (Juggins, 2007), MATLAB v. R2021a, with final layouts achieved in Adobe Illustrator v. 26.2.1 or CorelDRAW v. 2020. Code, data, all packages used, and package references can be found at: https://github.com/stever60/Potter_Peninsula The dataset comprises of lake site photos, data and multiproxy data from Lake L5 (aka Matias Lake), a small lake basin at 62.2450 S, 58.6655 W on Potter Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands. The data have been used to constrain deglaciation and glacier dynamics on Potter Peninsula. Data for the Lake L5 (Matias Lake) sediment record consist of downcore measurements of chronology, geochemistry, and sedimentology proxy data collected from the depocentre in November 2011. Data collected in this study were funded by: Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Tierra (CICTERRA), the Direccion Nacional del Antartico/Instituto Antartico Argentino (DNA/IAA) in the framework of the Project PICTA, 2011 - 0102, IAA and Geomorfologia y Geologia Glaciar del Archipielago James Ross e Islas Shetland del Sur, Sector Norte de la Peninsula Antartica, the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) research program Polar regions and Coasts in a changing Earth System (PACES II); IMCONet (FP7 IRSES, action no. 318718); the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC/BAS-CGS Grant no.81); the NERC/BAS science programmes CACHE-PEP: Natural climate variability - extending the Americas palaeoclimate transect through the Antarctic Peninsula to the pole and GRADES-QWAD: Quaternary West Antarctic Deglaciations. We thank the crews of the Argentine research station "Carlini" and the adjoined German Dallmann-Labor (AWI) Laboratory, the Uruguayan research station "Artigas", the Russian Bellingshausen Station, the Chinese Great Wall Station, Base Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, the Brazilian Navy Almirante Maximiano, the UK Navy HMS Endurance and NERC/BAS James Clark Ross for logistical support during the 2006, 2011, 2014 and 2015 field seasons. Chronology Pb-210 age estimates were derived using the constant rate of supply (CRS) method (Appleby and Oldfield, 1978) and incorporated into Bayesian age-depth models. Geochemistry & Sedimentology ITRAX-XRF Raw count per second (cps) data were analysed using the Q-spec software v8.6.0 (Cox Analytical), with MSE values minimised to optimise the fit of 'as measured' spectra to a modelled spectrum. Data are presented as percentages of the Total Scatter Normalised ratio sum (%∑TSN or, more simply, %TSN, which are equivalent to percentages of the cps sum, or %cps) to account for downcore variations in count rate, density, water and organic content. Data less than mean minus two-sigma kcps (mainly due to gaps in the core) and greater than MSE plus two-sigma (representing a poor fit between measured to modelled spectra) were filtered before analysis.?Noisy? elements were eliminated by comparing cps and using %TSN thresholds of >0.1% mean and >0.5% maximum , and by examining autocorrelation profiles for each element. Elements are presented as natural log (log n or Ln) ratios. Chronology Pb-210 Cs-137 and Am-241 dating of the uppermost 10 cm of the lake sediment records was undertaken on a well-type gamma spectrometry (Ge-detector, GWC 2522-7500 SL, Canberra Industries Inc., USA) and processed with GENIE 2000 3.0 (Canberra Industries Inc., USA). Geochemistry and Sedimentology ITRAX XRF core scanner fitted with a Molybdenum (Mo) anode X-ray tube and a Bartington Magnetic Susceptibility High Resolution Surface Scanning Sensor (MS2E) Geotek multi-sensor core logger (MSCL) Hyperspectral image (HSI) scanning was performed using the Specim Ltd. single core scanner (PFD-CL-65-V10E line scan camera, 400?1000 nm) according to the protocol of Butz et al. (2015). GEOTEK MSCL data were measured at 2 mm intervals Geochemical XRF-Core scanning data were measured at 100 μm and 2 mm contiguous intervals. SPECIM hyperspectral data were measured at 69 μm intervals

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  • Authors: Roberts, Stephen; Pearson, Emma; Czalbowski, Tamara; Davies, Sarah; +3 Authors

    Core collection: Sediment cores were collected using a Russian and Livingston corers from the deepest point (around 2 m of water depth) in Lake L15 (GPS Lake) (L15: -62.24057 degrees S, -58.67760 degrees W, around 30 m a.s.l., 11-55 cm total recovered sediment depth). Eight cores were collected from a grid of 25 (around1 m spaced) holes drilled through the around 75-100 cm thick lake ice above the deepest accessible point (around 2 m): Data from L15-H2 (-62.24057 degrees S, -58.67760 degrees W) with 30 cm of sediment and L15-H16 (-62.24056 degrees S, -58.67757 degrees W) with 55 cm of sediment are included in this dataset. Other cores taken at this site were: L15-H4 = 11 cm, L15-H9 = 39 cm, L15-H17 = 45 cm, L15-H19 = 34 cm, L15-H20 = 61 cm and L15-H22 = 49 cm. Chronology: Pb-210 Cs-137 and Am-241 dating of the uppermost 10 cm of the lake sediment records was undertaken and dating model calculations followed standard procedures defined in Appleby and Oldfield (1978). Pb-210 age estimates were derived using the constant rate of supply (CRS) method (Appleby and Oldfield, 1978) and incorporated into Bayesian age-depth models. The Pb-210 CRS age model produced a low sedimentation rate in the top 10 cm and the sample at around 4-5 cm is likely to be at least 150 years old. Radiocarbon ages of aquatic moss and macrophytic material from the uppermost lithological Unit 3 in Lake L15 were calibrated using the Southern Hemisphere SHCal20 calibration curve in Oxcal v. 4.4 (Hogg et al., 2020). Post-bomb (more than 1950 CE) ages were corrected according to 13C/12C isotopic ratios from measured pMC with the 'present day' pMC value defined as 107.5 percent (2010 CE) and calibrated using the SHCal13 SH Zone 1-2 Bomb curve in CALIBomb (Reimer and Reimer, 2004; Hua et al., 2013). Calibrated ages range from post 1950 CE to c. 0.6 ka cal BP. Geochemistry & Sedimentology: Physical properties (gamma-ray density (GRD), magnetic susceptibility, fractional porosity, resistivity and impedance) were measured using Geotek multi-sensor core logger (MSCL). Non-destructive ITRAXTM (Cox Analytical) micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and Bartington Magnetic Susceptibility High Resolution Surface Scanning Sensor (MS2E) measurements were undertaken at Aberystwyth University. Contiguous bulk, wet sediment geochemical Energy Dispersive XRF-CS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) analysis was obtained using a chromium (Cr) X-ray tube (X-radiography image settings: 40 kV, 40 mA, 200 ms; XRF-CSCr settings: 30 kV, 40 mA, dwell time of 10 seconds, at 100 micrometer or 2 mm. Hyperspectral image (HSI) scanning was performed using the Specim Ltd. single core scanner (PFD-CL-65-V10E line scan camera, 400-1000 nm) according to the protocol of Butz et al. (2015). The spatial resolution (pixel size) was set at 69 micrometer x 69 micrometer and the spectral resolution is 2.8 nm sampled at an interval of 0.78 nm. Raw data were normalised with a BaSO4 reference and spectral endmembers were calculated using the software ENVI 5.03. Quantitative estimates of pigments were obtained using the Relative Absorption Band Depth (RABD) method, which uses ratios and normalised reflectance data from distinct wavelengths. The spectral index RABD660;670 (RABD at 660-670 nm) was calculated from the continuum between 590 and 730 nm (Butz et al., 2015) with I-band wavelengths between 660 and 670 nm using equations RABD660;670 = (6 R590+7 R730)/13/Rmin(660;670) and RABD660;670 (I-Band) = (6 R590+7 R730)/13/ Rmin(660;670)/Rmean (Rein and Sirocko, 2002). Additional statistical analysis was undertaken, and figures constructed, using R v. 4.1.0/RStudio v. 1.4.1717 (primarily packages Tidyverse, ggplot2, Vegan, Rioja, Ggally v. 2.1.2, RBacon, Rcarbon, Bchron), Sigmaplot v. 14.0, C2 (Juggins, 2007), MATLAB v. R2021a, with final layouts achieved in Adobe Illustrator v. 26.2.1 or CorelDRAW v. 2020. Code, data, all packages used, and package references can be found at: https://github.com/stever60/Potter_Peninsula Chronology Pb-210 age estimates were derived using the constant rate of supply (CRS) method (Appleby and Oldfield, 1978) and incorporated into Bayesian age-depth models. The prerequisite for the CRS model was not fulfilled because the flux of Pb-210 has changed through time and is not constant, but Pb-210 data are consistent with the radiocarbon ages that show sediment between 6 and 6.5 cm dates to 620 plus-minus 80 a cal BP, and 3-3.5 cm and 0-0.5 cm depth were deposited in the 'post-bomb' (post-1950 CE) era, most likely between -40 - -44 cal yr BP (1990-1994 CE) The Cs-137 data are inconsistent with the Pb-210 CRS age model and it is possible that the steep increase in Cs-137 in the upper 2 cm relates to a Cs-137 'soil reservoir', which is leaching Cs-137 into the lake from snow or lake-ice melting. Geochemistry and Sedimentology ITRAX-XRF Raw count per second (cps) data were analysed using the Q-spec software v8.6.0 (Cox Analytical), with MSE values minimised to optimise the fit of 'as measured' spectra to a modelled spectrum. Data are presented as percentages of the Total Scatter Normalised ratio sum (percent sigma TSN or, more simply, percent TSN, which are equivalent to percentages of the cps sum, or percent cps) to account for downcore variations in count rate, density, water and organic content. Data less than mean minus two-sigma kcps (mainly due to gaps in the core) and greater than MSE plus two-sigma (representing a poor fit between measured to modelled spectra) were filtered before analysis. 'Noisy' elements were eliminated by comparing cps and using percent TSN thresholds of more than 0.1 percent mean and more than 0.5 percent maximum, and by examining autocorrelation profiles for each element. Elements are presented as natural log (log n or Ln) ratios. The dataset comprises of lake site photos, data and multiproxy data from Lake L15 (aka GPS Lake), a small lake basin at 62.24057 S, 58.6776 W on Potter Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands. The data have been used to constrain deglaciation and glacier dynamics on Potter Peninsula. Data for the Lake L15 (GPS Lake) sediment record consist of downcore measurements of chronology, geochemistry, and sedimentology proxy data collected from the depocentre in November 2011. Data collected in this study were funded by: Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Tierra (CICTERRA), the Direccion Nacional del Antartico/Instituto Antartico Argentino (DNA/IAA) in the framework of the Project PICTA, 2011 - 0102, IAA "Geomorfologia y Geologia Glaciar del Archipielago James Ross e Islas Shetland del Sur, Sector Norte de la Peninsula Antartica"; the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) research program Polar regions and Coasts in a changing Earth System (PACES II); IMCONet (FP7 IRSES, action no. 318718); the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC/BAS-CGS Grant no.81); the NERC/BAS science programmes CACHE-PEP: Natural climate variability - extending the Americas palaeoclimate transect through the Antarctic Peninsula to the pole and GRADES-QWAD: Quaternary West Antarctic Deglaciations. We thank the crews of the Argentine research station "Carlini" and the adjoined German Dallmann-Labor (AWI) Laboratory, the Uruguayan research station "Artigas", the Russian Bellingshausen Station, the Chinese Great Wall Station, Base Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, the Brazilian Navy Almirante Maximiano, the UK Navy HMS Endurance and NERC/BAS James Clark Ross for logistical support during the 2006, 2011, 2014 and 2015 field seasons. Chronology Pb-210 Cs-137 and Am-241 dating of the uppermost 10 cm of the lake sediment records was undertaken on a well-type gamma spectrometry (Ge-detector, GWC 2522-7500 SL, Canberra Industries Inc., USA) and processed with GENIE 2000 3.0 (Canberra Industries Inc., USA). Geochemistry and Sedimentology Geotek multi-sensor core logger (MSCL) ITRAX XRF core scanner fitted with a Molybdenum (Mo) anode X-ray tube and a Bartington Magnetic Susceptibility High Resolution Surface Scanning Sensor (MS2E) Hyperspectral image (HSI) scanning was performed using the Specim Ltd. single core scanner (PFD-CL-65-V10E line scan camera, 400-1000 nm) according to the protocol of Butz et al. (2015).

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  • Authors: Bentley, Michael; Roberts, Stephen; Heredia Barion, Pablo; Strelin, Jorge; +3 Authors

    Mapping and Stratigraphic section sample collection Mapping was undertaken in ARC-GIS, with final layouts achieved in Adobe Illustrator v. 26.2.1 or CorelDRAW v. 2020. Lithostratigraphic descriptions and radiocarbon sampling were undertaken at an outer peninsula stratigraphic profile referred to as "new Pingfo II" and a new river section adjacent to the 'Potter Cove section' sampled by Sugden and John (1973). We also sampled terrestrial moss samples for radiocarbon dating from a recently exposed 'Inland outcrop' which is located inside the 1956 CE limit, around 700 m from the active glacier front. The stratigraphic sections were characterised using textural criteria, fabric, composition, sedimentary structures, and grain size analysis to determine the relationships between different depositional units. Radiocarbon (C-14) dating: Twenty-one Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon (C-14) ages were obtained from seaweed, marine mollusc shells, penguin and undetermined bones, remnants of terrestrial mosses embedded in stratigraphic profiles and moraine sediments. Calibration of marine sample radiocarbon ages (marine shells and seaweed) was undertaken in Oxcal v. 4.4 using the Marine20 calibration curve (Bronk Ramsey, 2009; Heaton et al., 2020), and a newly recalculated local marine reservoir age offset (delta R) of 666 plus-minus 76 C-14 years (Heaton et al., 2020), which represents the weighted mean delta R of four radiocarbon-dated marine samples collected prior to 1950 CE from the northern Antarctic Peninsula and Signy Island in the online Marine20 database (http://calib.org/marine/). Terrestrial and aquatic moss samples were calibrated using the Southern Hemisphere SHCal20 calibration curve in Oxcal v. 4.4 (Hogg et al., 2020). Post-bomb (more than 1950 CE) ages were corrected according to 13C/12C isotopic ratios from measured pMC with the 'present day' pMC value defined as 107.5 percent (2010 CE) and calibrated using the SHCal13 SH Zone 1-2 Bomb curve in CALIBomb (Reimer and Reimer, 2004; Hua et al., 2013). Cosmogenic Helium-3 (He-3) nuclide surface exposure dating (CSED): Five samples were collected for He-3 CSED using a hammer and chisel to remove the upper few centimetres of exposed surfaces. Differential GPS (dGPS) measurements were undertaken using a Trimble Pathfinder ProXH to determine the precise location and altitude of boulders in relation to the landmark DALL 66019M002 (62.23787 degrees S, 58.66455 degrees W, ellipsoidal height 39.376 m) triangulation station located on the Argentine Carlini base, a few hundred metres away from the sampled erratics. dGPS precision is better than 10 cm in all axes, but ellipsoid correction errors are larger. Exposure ages were calculated using the CRONUScalc calculator (Version 2.0; Marrero et al., 2016) with the time-dependent Lal (1991)/Stone (2000) scaling model (Lm) for altitude at Antarctic pressure conditions and the primary calibration data set for He-3 in pyroxene, which yields a long term sea-level high latitude (SLHL) scaled production rate of 122 plus-minus 13 at g-1 a-1 (Borchers et al., 2016). External age uncertainties include production rate uncertainties. Exposure ages determined with other scaling models (e.g., Lifton et al., 2014) vary by up to around 6 percent. We report internal and external uncertainties. Following Balco et al. (2008), external uncertainties are used for comparison with calibrated AMS radiocarbon ages and error ranges. Grain size analysis: Thirteen samples were dry sieved to separate the fraction larger than 2 mm, placed in an ultrasonic bath for 10 seconds, then placed in a reciprocating shaker and left overnight. Samples were wet sieved to separate the fraction less than 0.063 mm (silt and clay size), and the coarser fraction was dried in an oven at 50 degrees Celsius and dry sieved into sand fractions (more than 1mm, more than 0.5 mm, more than 0.25 mm, more than 0.125 mm and more than 0.063 mm). The silt and clay fractions were transferred to a sedimentation cylinder and fine and coarse silt separated from clays after settling using the pipette method. The clay fraction was then concentrated using a centrifuge, and all fractions were dried in an oven at 40 degrees Celsius. Additional statistical analysis was undertaken, and figures constructed, using R v. 4.1.0/RStudio v. 1.4.1717 (primarily packages Tidyverse, ggplot2, Vegan, Rioja, Ggally v. 2.1.2, RBacon, Rcarbon, Bchron), Sigmaplot v. 14.0, C2 (Juggins, 2007), MATLAB v. R2021a, with final layouts achieved in Adobe Illustrator v. 26.2.1 or CorelDRAW v. 2020. Code, data, all packages used and package references can be found at: https://github.com/stever60/Potter Peninsula The dataset comprises of stratigraphic chronological and sedimentological data from Potter Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands. The data have been used to constrain deglaciation and glacier dynamics on Potter Peninsula. Data collected in this study were funded by: Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Tierra (CICTERRA), the Direccion Nacional del Antartico/Instituto Antartico Argentino (DNA/IAA) in the framework of the Project PICTA, 2011 - 0102, IAA "Geomorfologia y Geologia Glaciar del Archipielago James Ross e Islas Shetland del Sur, Sector Norte de la Peninsula Antartica"; the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) research program Polar regions and Coasts in a changing Earth System (PACES II); IMCONet (FP7 IRSES, action no. 318718); the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC/BAS-CGS Grant no.81); the NERC/BAS science programmes CACHE-PEP: Natural climate variability - extending the Americas palaeoclimate transect through the Antarctic Peninsula to the pole and GRADES-QWAD: Quaternary West Antarctic Deglaciations. We thank the crews of the Argentine research station "Carlini'" and the adjoined German Dallmann-Labor (AWI) Laboratory, the Uruguayan research station "Artigas", the Russian Bellingshausen Station, the Chinese Great Wall Station, Base Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, the Brazilian Navy Almirante Maximiano, the UK Navy HMS Endurance and NERC/BAS James Clark Ross for logistical support during the 2006, 2011, 2014 and 2015 field seasons. Radiocarbon samples were prepared at the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research and British Antarctic Survey. AMS measurements were undertaken at ETH Zurich and Beta Analytical, Miami, and 13C/12C isotope ratios were used to calculate Conventional Radiocarbon Ages. Pre-bomb calibrated ages have been rounded to the nearest 10 years, and to the nearest hundred years in the manuscript text to reflect realistic total (internal and external) uncertainties. Post-bomb ages have been rounded to the nearest year.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Frontini Romina; Fernádez-Jalvo Yolanda; Pesquero-Fernández, María Dolores;

    This dataset corresponds to the manuscript "Compression and digestion as agents of vertebral deformation in fish: tools to interpret paleontological and archaeological assemblages" by Frontini, Romina, Roselló-Izquierdo, Eufrasia, Morales-Muñiz, Arturo, Denys, Christiane, Guillaud, Émilie, Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda, Pesquero-Fernández, María Dolores. The article is in process of revision. In this study, the deformation of fish vertebrae due to uniaxial forces is experimentally assessed. Specifically, we report the effects of lateral compaction on fish vertebrae. The aims of the study were: 1) to gain an understanding of compression exerted on the vertebrae from three teleost families of archaeozoological and paleontological relevance (Sciaenidae, Merlucidae, Gadidae), 2) to characterize the nature of alterations on vertebral body due to uniaxial compression under dry and hydrated conditions, and 3) to determine variations of the compression effects on dry and hydrated specimens.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao ZENODOarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    ZENODO
    Dataset . 2020
    Data sources: Datacite
    ZENODO
    Dataset . 2020
    Data sources: ZENODO
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao ZENODOarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      ZENODO
      Dataset . 2020
      Data sources: Datacite
      ZENODO
      Dataset . 2020
      Data sources: ZENODO
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    Authors: Rovere, Alessio; Pappalardo, Marta; Richiano, Sebastian; Aguirre, Marina; +5 Authors

    The dataset consists of a spreadsheet containing data on GPS surveys, dynamic topography extracted from published models (gplates.org), Shell preservation scoring, Strontium Isotopic Stratigraphy ages, and Global mean Sea Level calculations. Fil: Aguirre, Marina Laura. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico La Plata; Argentina. Fil: Richiano, Sebastián Miguel. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Centro Nacional Patagónico. Instituto Patagónico de Geología y Paleontología; Argentina Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo

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