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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Fiorani, L.; Conte, Andrea; Doronila, A.;

    In questo tempo di crisi, scopriamo la necessità di valori antropologici per guidare la navigazione della nostra specie su questo pianeta. Dal 2000 EcoOne, sezione ecologica dell’Associazione Internazionale New Humanity-NGO (status consultivo generale dell’ECOSOC delle Nazioni Unite, partner ufficiale dell’UNESCO, accreditata presso l’UNEP) ha organizzato numerose conferenze internazionali su temi ambientali. L’incontro del 2020 “Nuove vie verso l’ecologia integrale” ha discusso le sfide economiche, ambientali e sociali della transizione ecologica: alcuni paper selezionati della conferenza sono pubblicati in questo rapporto. In this time of crisis, we discover the need for anthropological values to guide the navigation of our species on this planet. Since 2000 EcoOne, the ecological section of the International New Humanity Association-NGO (general consultative status of the United Nations ECOSOC, official partner of UNESCO, accredited to UNEP) has organized numerous international conferences on environmental issues. The 2020 meeting “New Pathways to Integral Ecology” discussed the economic, environmental and social challenges of the ecological transition: some selected papers from the conference are published in this report.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ENEA Open Archivearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ENEA Open Archivearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Bachmann, C.; Ciupinski, L.; Gliss, C.; Franke, T.; +11 Authors

    This article describes the DEMO cryostat, the vacuum vessel, and the tokamak building as well as the system configurations to integrate the main in-vessel components and auxiliary systems developed during the Pre-Conceptual Design Phase. The vacuum vessel is the primary component for radiation shielding and containment of tritium and other radioactive material. Various systems required to operate the plasma are integrated in its ports. The vessel together with the external magnetic coils is located inside the even larger cryostat that has the primary function to provide a vacuum to enable the operation of the superconducting coils in cryogenic condition. The cryostat is surrounded by a thick concrete structure: the bioshield. It protects the external areas from neutron and gamma radiation emitted from the tokamak. The tokamak building layout is aligned with the VV ports implementing floors and separate rooms, so-called port cells, that can be sealed to provide a secondary confinement when a port is opened during in-vessel maintenance. The ports of the torus-shaped VV have to allow for the replacement of in-vessel components but also incorporate plasma limiters and auxiliary heating and diagnostic systems. The divertor is replaced through horizontal ports at the lower level, the breeding blanket (BB) through upper vertical ports. The pipe work of these in-vessel components is also routed through these ports. To facilitate the vertical replacement of the BB, it is divided into large vertical segments. Their mechanical support during operation relies on vertically clamping them inside the vacuum vessel by a combination of obstructed thermal expansion and radial pre-compression due to the ferromagnetic force acting on the breeding blanket structural material in the toroidal magnetic field.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ENEA Open Archivearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    KITopen
    Article . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: KITopen
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
    Article . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2022
    Data sources: MPG.PuRe
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Fusion Engineering and Design
    Other literature type . Article . Conference object . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    ENEA Open Archive
    Article . 2022
    Data sources: ENEA Open Archive
    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2022
    Data sources: MPG.PuRe
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ENEA Open Archivearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      KITopen
      Article . 2022
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: KITopen
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      https://doi.org/10.5445/ir/100...
      Article . 2022
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      MPG.PuRe
      Article . 2022
      Data sources: MPG.PuRe
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Fusion Engineering and Design
      Other literature type . Article . Conference object . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      ENEA Open Archive
      Article . 2022
      Data sources: ENEA Open Archive
      MPG.PuRe
      Article . 2022
      Data sources: MPG.PuRe
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Latini A.; Fiorani F.; Galeffi P.; Cantale C.; +2 Authors

    This study aims to highlight the major effects of biochar incorporation into potting soil substrate on plant growth and performance in early growth stages of five elite Italian varieties of durum wheat (Triticum durum). The biochars used were obtained from two contrasting feedstocks, namely wood chips and wheat straw, by gasification under high temperature conditions, and were applied in a greenhouse experiment either as pure or as nutrient-activated biochar obtained by incubation with digestate. The results of the experiment showed that specific genotypes as well as different treatments with biochar have significant effects on plant response when looking at shoot traits related to growth. The evaluated genotypes could be clustered in two main distinct groups presenting, respectively, significantly increasing (Duilio, Iride, and Saragolla varieties) and decreasing (Marco Aurelio and Grecale varieties) values of projected shoot system area (PSSA), fresh weight (FW), dry weight (DW), and plant water loss by evapotranspiration (ET). All these traits were correlated with Pearson correlation coefficients ranging from 0.74 to 0.98. Concerning the treatment effect, a significant alteration of the mentioned plant traits was observed when applying biochar from wheat straw, characterized by very high electrical conductivity (EC), resulting in a reduction of 34.6% PSSA, 43.2% FW, 66.9% DW, and 36.0% ET, when compared to the control. Interestingly, the application of the same biochar after nutrient spiking with digestate determined about a 15–30% relief from the abovementioned reduction induced by the application of the sole pure wheat straw biochar. Our results reinforce the current basic knowledge available on biological soil amendments as biochar and digestate.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ENEA Open Archive; D...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    ENEA Open Archive
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: ENEA Open Archive
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Plant Science
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Plant Science
    Article
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    DOAJ
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: DOAJ
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ENEA Open Archive; D...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      ENEA Open Archive
      Article . 2021
      Data sources: ENEA Open Archive
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Plant Science
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Plant Science
      Article
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: UnpayWall
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      DOAJ
      Article . 2021
      Data sources: DOAJ
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Alice Crespi; Marcello Petitta; Paola Marson; Christian Viel; +1 Authors

    This work discusses the ability of a bias-adjustment method using empirical quantile mapping to improve the skills of seasonal forecasts over Europe for three key climate variables, i.e., temperature, precipitation and wind speed. In particular, the suitability of the approach to be integrated in climate services and to provide tailored predictions for local applications was evaluated. The workflow was defined in order to allow a flexible implementation and applicability while providing accurate results. The scheme adjusted monthly quantities from the seasonal forecasting system SEAS5 of the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts (ECMWF) by using ERA5 reanalysis as reference. Raw and adjusted forecasts were verified through several metrics analyzing different aspects of forecast skills. The applied method reduced model biases for all variables and seasons even though more limited improvements were obtained for precipitation. In order to further assess the benefits and limitations of the procedure, the results were compared with those obtained by the ADAMONT method, which calibrates daily quantities by empirical quantile mapping conditioned by weather regimes. The comparable performances demonstrated the overall suitability of the proposed method to provide end users with calibrated predictions of monthly and seasonal quantities.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ENEA Open Archivearrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    ENEA Open Archive
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: ENEA Open Archive
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Climate
    Article
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    DOAJ
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: DOAJ
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Climate
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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      Climate
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      Article . 2021
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    Authors: Bortolami, Alessio; Donini, Marcello; Marusic, Carla; Lico, Chiara; +8 Authors

    Infectious bursal disease virus is the causative agent of Gumboro disease, a severe infection that affects young chickens and is associated with lymphoid depletion in the bursa of Fabricius. Traditional containment strategies are based either on inactivated or live-attenuated vaccines. These approaches have several limitations such as residual virulence or low efficacy in the presence of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) but, most importantly, the impossibility to detect the occurrence of natural infections in vaccinated flocks. Therefore, the development of novel vaccination strategies allowing the differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) is a priority. Recently, commercial vectored and experimental subunit vaccines based on VP2 have been proved effective in protecting from clinical disease and posed the basis for the development of novel DIVA strategies. In this study, an engineered version of the VP3 protein of IBDV (His-VP3) was produced in plants, successfully purified from Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, and used to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of anti-VP3 antibodies. The His-VP3 ELISA was validated with a panel of 180 reference sera and demonstrated to have 100% sensitivity (95% CI: 94.7–100.0) and 94.17% specificity (95% CI: 88.4–97.6). To evaluate the application of His-VP3 ELISA as a DIVA test, the novel assay was used to monitor, in combination with a commercial kit, detecting anti-VP2 antibodies, the immune response of chickens previously immunized with an inactivated IBDV vaccine, a recombinant Turkey herpes virus carrying the VP2 of IBDV (HVT-ND-IBD) or with plant-produced VP2 particles. The combined tests correctly identified the immune status of the vaccinated specific pathogen free white-leghorn chickens. Moreover, the His-VP3 ELISA correctly detected MDA against VP3 in commercial broiler chicks and showed that antibody titers fade with time, consistent with the natural decrease of maternally derived immunity. Finally, the novel assay, in combination with a VP2-specific ELISA, demonstrated its potential application as a DIVA test in chickens inoculated with VP2-based vaccines, being able to detect the seroconversion after challenge with a very virulent IBDV strain.

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    Article . 2021
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    Frontiers in Plant Science
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    Frontiers in Plant Science
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Antonio Costanzo; Sergio Falcone; Antonino D'Alessandro; Giovanni Vitale; +4 Authors

    A technological system capable of automatically producing damage scenarios at an urban scale, as soon as an earthquake occurs, can help the decision-makers in planning the first post-disaster response, i.e., to prioritize the field activities for checking damage, making a building safe, and supporting rescue and recovery. This system can be even more useful when it works on densely populated areas, as well as on historic urban centers. In the paper, we propose a processing chain on a GIS platform to generate post-earthquake damage scenarios, which are based: (1) on the near real-time processing of the ground motion, that is recorded in different sites by MEMS accelerometric sensor network in order to take into account the local effects, and (2) the current structural characteristics of the built heritage, that can be managed through an information system from the local public administration authority. In the framework of the EU-funded H2020-ARCH project, the components of the system have been developed for the historic area of Camerino (Italy). Currently, some experimental fragility curves in the scientific literature, which are based on the damage observations after Italian earthquakes, are implemented in the platform. These curves allow relating the acceleration peaks obtained by the recordings of the ground motion with the probability to reach a certain damage level, depending on the structural typology. An operational test of the system was performed with reference to an ML3.3 earthquake that occurred 13 km south of Camerino. Acceleration peaks between 1.3 and 4.5 cm/s2 were recorded by the network, and probabilities lower than 35% for negligible damage (and then about 10% for moderate damage) were calculated for the historical buildings given this low-energy earthquake.

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    ENEA Open Archive
    Article . 2021
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    Article . 2021
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    Article . 2021
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    Authors: Francesco Torre; Claudio Mingazzini; Daniele Mirabile Gattia; Teodor Huminiuc; +4 Authors

    The stability of nanostructured metal alloys is currently being extensively investigated, and several mathematical models have been developed to describe the thermodynamics of these systems. However, model capability in terms of thermal stability predictions strongly relies on grain boundary-related parameters that are difficult to measure or estimate accurately. To overcome this limitation, a novel theoretical approach is proposed and adopted in this work to identify W-based nanocrystalline alloys which are potentially able to show thermodynamic stability. A comparison between model outcomes and experimental findings is reported for two selected alloys, namely W-Ag and W-Al. Experimental results clearly highlight that W-Ag mixtures retain a segregated structure on relatively coarse length scales even after prolonged mechanical treatments. Moreover, annealing at moderate temperatures readily induces demixing of the constituent elements. In contrast, homogeneous nanostructured W-Al solid solutions are obtained by ball milling of elemental powders. These alloys show enhanced thermal stability with respect to pure W even at high homologous temperatures. Experimental evidences agree with model predictions for both the investigated systems.

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    Materials; ENEA Open Archive
    Other literature type . Article . Other ORP type . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Article . 2021
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      Materials; ENEA Open Archive
      Other literature type . Article . Other ORP type . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      DOAJ
      Article . 2021
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      ENEA Open Archive
      Article . 2021
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      Article . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: A. Agostini; C. Carbone; M. Lanchi; A. Miliozzi; +2 Authors

    Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) systems are regarded as a renewable energy source technology which can contribute to decoupling the energy mix from fossil fuel combustion and related environmental impacts. However, current small scale CSP technologies (e.g. Dish-Stirling) have not entered the market yet, due to high costs, complexity and poor reliability. The EU funded OMSoP (Optimised Microturbine Solar Power) project aimed at solving the small scale CSP shortcomings by coupling a Solar Dish with the consolidated and relatively cheap technology of the Micro Gas Turbine (MGT). in this study an environmental life cycle assessment analysis of the production and operation of a CSP-MGT system, is performed following an eco-design approach, thus identifying the environmental hot-spots and how the system can be improved in terms of environmental impacts. The results of the analysis, per unit of electricity produced, were compared to other renewable technologies with the same level of dispatchability to better evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the system under exam. As regards climate change, the greenhouse gases emissions of the CSP-MGT system resulted in the same range of those generated by photovoltaic systems. However, the system can substantially be optimised and the greenhouse gases emissions per kWh can be reduced up to 73% with respect to the built prototype. The greenhouse gases emissions are much lower than the current Italian energy mix (by up to 94%). To reduce the environmental burden of CSP-MGT plants, the system design here considered should be revised by improving the components performance, and significantly reducing the reflective surface and therefore the structural materials for the dish foundation and frame. The replacement of steel in the dish frame with aluminium increases all the environmental impacts parameters and primary energy demand (17-27% depending on the environmental category considered), but slightly reduces abiotic elements depletion (by 9%).

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ENEA Open Archive; F...arrow_drop_down
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    ENEA Open Archive
    Article . 2021
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    DOAJ
    Article . 2021
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    Frontiers in Energy Research
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cea, Benjamin; Fraboulet, Isaline; Feuger, Océane; Hugony, Francesca; +7 Authors

    International audience; An innovative and simple method based on dilution, named as the dilution chamber (DC), allowing the measurement of solid and condensable fractions of particulate matter emitted by residential wood combustion appliances has been developed, and its performances have been evaluated. The DC method was then tested by five European institutes (Ineris, ISSI/ENEA, DTI, and RISE) on advanced residential wood log/pellet stoves, under nominal output and low output combustion conditions and using different fuel types. The aim of the study was to evaluate the capability of the DC method to collect the condensable fraction. The DC method was compared with another manual method used to collect the solid and condensable fractions at the same time, the dilution tunnel (DT), on four sampling platforms. A third method, a combining heated filter and impinger filled in with isopropanol collection (SPC-IPA), was also used by Ineris only for comparison with the DC method. PM measurements based on the DC method globally showed a linear correlation with PM measurements based on DT (R2 ranged between 0.81 and 0.99, p < 0.05) specifically for the residential wood stoves under low output conditions when the condensable fraction contributes the most. An analysis and quantification of PAHs related to the total mass of PM of samples taken by the DC method and performed by ENEA/ISSI showed that it produces a condensation effect of semivolatile species comparable or even greater than the DT method. PM emission factors calculated from PM measurements based on the DC method were (i) about 2- to 20-fold higher for the residential wood stoves (EF ranged between 201 to 2420 g GJ–1) compared to those obtained for the residential pellet stoves (EF ranged between 108 to 556 g GJ–1) and (ii) of the same magnitude of PM emission factors from the literature or the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook.

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    ENEA Open Archive
    Article . 2021
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Energy & Fuels; ENEA Open Archive
    Article . Other ORP type . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: STM Policy #29
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      Energy & Fuels; ENEA Open Archive
      Article . Other ORP type . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Cerinski, Damijan; Ferreiro, Ana Isabel; Baleta, Jakov; Costa, Mário; +3 Authors

    Abstract Conversion of biomass into gas suitable for further exploitation is one of the valuable renewable energy pathways due to the wide distribution and availability of raw materials. Biomass gasification is a thermochemical process of partial combustion in a reduced oxygen environment that aims to produce hydrogen-enriched syngas. Updraft gasifier design, with its advantages of high efficiency, produces syngas with higher hydrogen yield compared to other gasifier designs. The main drawback of the updraft gasifier is high yield of tars in the outflow gas decreasing its lower heating value. Recently, significant research efforts have focused on the optimization of the updraft gasifiers operating conditions, especially by developing numerical models as a complementary approach to experiments. The simplest modelling approach for predicting biomass gasification behaviour is the thermodynamic equilibrium model. When describing the behaviour of an updraft gasifier, special focus needs to be given to the pyrolysis stage, since in this type of reactor pyrolysis products directly outflow from the gasifier. In this work, a pilot-scale biomass gasifier was modelled using a combination of a pyrolysis kinetic model with a thermodynamic equilibrium model. To describe the pyrolysis behaviour, the CRECK-S-BIO and two secondary gas-phase mechanisms with distinct levels of complexity were used. The gasification and oxidation of char were modelled using a thermodynamic equilibrium model through the minimization of Gibbs free energy approach. The predicted results of dry clean syngas were compared to the experimental data considering eleven different operating conditions. The model combination that used the detailed secondary gas-phase mechanism achieved generally lower average prediction errors. Although some discrepancies were observed in the predictions, these preliminary results show that the model approach considered in this study represents a good basis for future development of the model.

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    Energy Reports
    Article . 2021
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    Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZENODO; ENEA Open Ar...arrow_drop_down
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      Energy Reports
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Fiorani, L.; Conte, Andrea; Doronila, A.;

    In questo tempo di crisi, scopriamo la necessità di valori antropologici per guidare la navigazione della nostra specie su questo pianeta. Dal 2000 EcoOne, sezione ecologica dell’Associazione Internazionale New Humanity-NGO (status consultivo generale dell’ECOSOC delle Nazioni Unite, partner ufficiale dell’UNESCO, accreditata presso l’UNEP) ha organizzato numerose conferenze internazionali su temi ambientali. L’incontro del 2020 “Nuove vie verso l’ecologia integrale” ha discusso le sfide economiche, ambientali e sociali della transizione ecologica: alcuni paper selezionati della conferenza sono pubblicati in questo rapporto. In this time of crisis, we discover the need for anthropological values to guide the navigation of our species on this planet. Since 2000 EcoOne, the ecological section of the International New Humanity Association-NGO (general consultative status of the United Nations ECOSOC, official partner of UNESCO, accredited to UNEP) has organized numerous international conferences on environmental issues. The 2020 meeting “New Pathways to Integral Ecology” discussed the economic, environmental and social challenges of the ecological transi