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  • 2013-2022
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  • European Marine Science

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lloyd, Beth; de Voogd, Lycia; Mäki-Marttunen, Verónica; Nieuwenhuis, Sander;

    This dataset contains resting-state fMRI data and simultaneous pupil recordings for 72 individuals across two sessions of 5 minutes. MRI data MRI data were acquired using a Siemens MAGNETOM Prisma 3T MR scanner. All images (functional and structural) have been defaced for anonymity purposes. functional EPI images (150) per session (ses-day1, ses-day2), 5 minutes resting-state (no task). T2*-weighted BOLD images were recorded using a customized multi-echo EPI sequence with ascending slice acquisition (58 axial slices; TR = 2 s; TE = 14.4, 39.1 ms; partial Fourier = 6/8; GRAPPA acceleration factor = 2; multiband acceleration factor = 2; flip angle = 65°; slice matrix size 104 x 104 mm; slice thickness = 2.0 mm; FOV: 208 x 208 mm; slice gap = 0; bandwidth: 2090 Hz/px; echo spacing: 0.56 ms). the only preprocessing carried out on the functional EPI images is that these images have been realigned to the first functional image (using the realignment parameters, see: nuisance regressors 26–32), and each functional image is the voxel-wise weighted sums of both echoes, which were calculated using in-house scripts, based on local contrast-to-noise ratio. the first five scans have been removed. directory: data\sub-001\ses-day1\func\sub-001_ses-day1_task-rest_acq-normal_run-01_bold data\sub-001\ses-day2\func\sub-001_ses-day2_task-rest_acq-normal_run-01_bold structural T1-weighted MRI scan. The structural T1-weighted image (0.9 mm isotropic) was acquired using a T1-weighted 3D MP-RAGE (TR = 2.3 s; TE = 2.32 ms; flip angle = 8°, FOV = 256 x 256 x 230 mm). directory: data\sub-001\ses-day2\anat\sub-001_ses-day2_acq-highres_run-02_T1w structural fast-spin echo (FSE) scan (for locus coeruleus localisation [LC]) A neuromelanin-sensitive structural scan was acquired for delineation of the LC (11 axial slices, TR = 750 ms, TE = 10 ms, flip-angle = 120°, bandwidth = 220 Hz/Px, slice thickness = 2.5 mm, slice gap = 3.5 mm; in-plane resolution = 0.429 x 0.429 mm). directory: data\sub-001\ses-day2\anat\sub-001_ses-day2_acq-fse_run-03_T1w nuisance regressors: nuisance regressors 1–26: heart rate pulse + breathing regressors Raw pulse was preprocessed using PulseCor (https://github.com/lindvoo/PulseCor) implemented in Python for artifact correction and peak detection. Fifth-order Fourier models of the cardiac and respiratory phase-related modulation of the BOLD signal were specified (Van Buuren et al., 2009), yielding 10 nuisance regressors for cardiac noise and 10 for respiratory noise. Additional regressors were calculated for heart rate frequency, heart rate variability, (raw) abdominal circumference, respiratory frequency, respiratory amplitude, and respiration volume per unit time (Birn et al., 2006), yielding a total of 26 RETROICOR regressors (https://github.com/can-lab/RETROICORplus). nuisance regressors 26–32: realignment parameters six movement parameter regressors (3 translations, 3 rotations) derived from rigid-body motion correction, high-pass filtering (1/128Hz cut-off) and AR(1) serial autocorrelation corrections. directory: data\sub-001\ses-day1\func\sub-001_ses-day1_task-rest_acq-normal_run-01_bold\log data\sub-001\ses-day2\func\sub-001_ses-day2_task-rest_acq-normal_run-01_bold\log Pupil data: raw pupil .ascii file for the right eye collected at 250 Hz with EyeLink 1000 Plus (SR Research, Osgoode, ON, Canada) The eye-tracker was placed at the end of the scanner bore, such that the participant’s right eye could be tracked via the head coil mirror. Before the start of each resting-state session, we began with a calibration of the eye-tracker using the standard five-point EyeLink calibration procedure. The pupil data is raw; however, moments when the eye-tracker received no pupil signal (i.e., during eye blinks) were marked (-1.00) automatically during acquisition by the manufacturer's blink detection algorithm. directory: data\sub-001\logfiles-ses-day1\raw_pup data\sub-001\logfiles-ses-day2\raw_pup Demographic data: subject data (linked to subject number) containing age and gender file: data\group_data\sub_demographics.csv Additional files included in version 2: JSON files: json files for: T1: data\JSON\sub-MRIFCWML001_ses-day2_acq-highres_run-02_T1w.json EPI echo 1 + echo 2: data\JSON\func_echo1_seq_json_file.json, data\JSON\func_echo2_seq_json_file.json FSE scan: data\JSON\FSE_seq_json_file.json Changes from version 1 to version 2: Pupil data in version 1 had underegone preprocessing steps (interpolated over blinks and downsampled to 50 Hz) Pupil data in version 2 is the raw pupil data (no interpolation and sampled at 250 Hz). Neuromodulatory nuclei that are part of the ascending arousal system (AAS) play a crucial role in regulating cortical state and optimizing task performance. Pupil diameter, under constant luminance conditions, is increasingly used as an index of activity of these AAS nuclei. Indeed, task-based functional imaging studies in humans have begun to provide evidence of stimulus-driven pupil-AAS coupling. However, whether there is such a tight pupil-AAS coupling during rest is not clear. To address this question, we examined simultaneously acquired resting-state fMRI and pupil-size data from 74 participants, focusing on six AAS nuclei: the locus coeruleus, ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra, dorsal and median raphe nuclei, and cholinergic basal forebrain. Activation in all six AAS nuclei was optimally correlated with pupil size at 0- to 2-second lags, suggesting that spontaneous pupil changes were almost immediately followed by corresponding BOLD-signal changes in the AAS. These results suggest that spontaneous changes in pupil size that occur during states of rest can be used as a noninvasive general index of activity in AAS nuclei. Importantly, the nature of pupil-AAS coupling during rest appears to be vastly different from the relatively slow canonical hemodynamic response function that has been used to characterize task-related pupil-AAS coupling.

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    ZENODO
    Dataset . 2023
    License: CC 0
    Data sources: ZENODO
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    DataverseNL
    Dataset . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: DataverseNL
    DataverseNL
    Dataset . 2023
    Data sources: Datacite
    DRYAD
    Dataset . 2022
    License: CC 0
    Data sources: Datacite
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      ZENODO
      Dataset . 2023
      License: CC 0
      Data sources: ZENODO
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      DataverseNL
      Dataset . 2023
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: DataverseNL
      DataverseNL
      Dataset . 2023
      Data sources: Datacite
      DRYAD
      Dataset . 2022
      License: CC 0
      Data sources: Datacite
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    Authors: Yang, Xuejun; Liu, Rong; Gao, Ruiru; Huang, Zhenying; +1 Authors

    Aim: The plant economics spectrum provides a fundamental framework for understanding functional trait variation along environmental gradients. However, it is unclear whether there is a general whole-plant economics spectrum across organs at the finer taxonomic scale (e.g. within genera), and if there is, which factors affect the trait coordination of the different organs. Here, we examined whether resource economics spectra of different organs (i.e. leaf, stem and root) can be integrated at the whole-plant level within a single genus, and how environment, intraspecific variation and taxonomic scale shape the whole-plant spectrum. Location: China. Time period: 2018. Major taxa studied: Artemisia. Results: Pairwise trait correlations and the trade-off patterns along the resource economic axis were consistent at both organ and whole-plant levels. Environmental gradients did not strongly affect the correlations among leaf, stem and root economics spectra, i.e. the intraspecific variation weakened but did not mask this coordination. Taxonomic scale did not affect the degree of trait coordination as the genus-wide whole-plant economics spectrum also emerged within each of the three subgenera. Main conclusions: Our results support the hypothesis that the coordination of economics spectra across organs forms a whole-plant economics spectrum representing “fast-slow” resource management strategy, which is robust to recent evolution (genotypic variation, even for species within a single genus) and present-day environmental variation. Further studies should elucidate in which circumstances or phylogenetic branches the coordinated pattern found for Artemisia is representative of other widely distributed genera. We sampled 1,022 individuals of 62 Artemisia species from 81 sites across eastern and central China in late July and August 2018. We quantified 15 economic traits that were associated with plant resource economic strategies. The whole plants were harvested for trait measurements. Oven-dried leaves, stems and roots were ground to fine powders and then examined for total carbon (C, mg g-1) and nitrogen (N, mg g-1) concentrations using an elemental analyser (Vario EL III, Elementar, Hanau, Germany). Subsamples of the fine powders of leaves, stems and roots were used to measure total phosphorus (P, g kg-1) concentrations. The 50 mg fine powder was solubilized in a Teflon cylinder using a 1:4 mixture of HClO4 (60%) and HNO3 (60%), then 3% HClO4 was added to reach a final volume of 10 ml. The final solution was digested in a MARS 5 microwave digestion system (CEM GmbH, Kamp-Lintfort, Germany), and then P concentration was measured using the Thermo Scientific iCAP 6300 (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Waltham, MA, USA).

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    ZENODO
    Dataset . 2022
    License: CC 0
    Data sources: ZENODO
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    DRYAD
    Dataset . 2022
    License: CC 0
    Data sources: Datacite
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      ZENODO
      Dataset . 2022
      License: CC 0
      Data sources: ZENODO
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      DRYAD
      Dataset . 2022
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      Data sources: Datacite
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gleditsch, Jason; Behm, Jocelyn; Ellers, Jacintha; Jesse, Wendy; +1 Authors

    We built a database of 840 islands based on the Global Administrative Areas shapefile (version 3.6, GADM, 2012) grouped into 72 banks. Banks were based on historical land connections and underwater topography (GEBCO Compilation Group, 2020) and included Bermuda. Species Richness Data We performed an extensive literature search of island-level herp records (searches completed June 2020; see Methods Supp. Info. Section 1 of the manuscript). Native status was given to extant species indicated in the literature as being native to an island. Introduced status was given to non-native species established on an island indicated from the literature or if a non-native species had multiple records in Global Biodiversity Information Facility, which included data from multiple sources (see Methods Supp. Info. Section 1 of the manuscript), that spanned multiple geographic locations and years on an island. We used several sources to standardize species names and taxonomy including caribherp.org (Hedges, 2020), Reptile Database (Uetz et al., 2020), Amphibian Species of the World 6.1 (Frost, 2020), the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS, accessed June 2020), and GBIF. Our search yielded 1075 extant species of herps on 72 banks. Species were grouped into clades defined by taxonomic class, order, suborder, family, and genus. We identified 154 reptilian and 42 amphibian clades. Native, introduced, and total species richness values per bank per clade were calculated. Not all clades contained enough species on enough banks to fit robust regressions. Based on a power analysis of the fit of the all-herps model, only 15 clades were retained for analysis. Island Bank Data We calculated four common natural habitat diversity metrics: geographic area, island spread, topographical complexity, and natural area; and one anthropogenic metric: economic area. Geographic area was the sum of contemporary land area of each island in each bank from the Global Administrative Areas shapefile (version 3.6, GADM, 2012). Island spread was one minus the total bank land area divided by bank extent estimated as the area of the minimum convex polygon around the islands. Topographic complexity was the standard deviation of terrestrial elevation of each bank from STRM Digital Elevation Data (90m resolution; version 4, Jarvis et al., 2008). Natural area and economic area were the total proportion of bank area covered by natural or economic land cover types in the Annual International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme classification layer of the MODIS Land Cover Type Yearly Global 500m data (Friedl & Sulla-Menashe, 2015). Natural area included all forest, grassland, wetland, savanna, and shrubland land cover types. Economic area included all cropland and urban land cover types. The “cropland/natural vegetation mosaics” type was split evenly between the two metrics. Bare ground and permanent water cover types were excluded. We calculated a natural and an anthropogenic metric of source pool isolation: geographic isolation and economic isolation. Mainland South and Central America plus the continental islands Cuba and Hispaniola have acted as natural source pools for all Caribbean herps. We used the minimum distance from the geographic centroid of a bank to the shoreline of the nearest mainland or continental island source as geographic isolation (see Methods Supp. Info. Section 3 of the manuscript for comparison to other isolation metrics). We estimated economic isolation from individual ship dockings at ports in the greater Caribbean region in March, June, September, and December of 1979, 1991, 2003, and 2015 for cargo, cruise, and passenger ships (Loyd’s, 2020). We took the inverse of one plus the summed total number of ship visits from outside a bank to docks within each bank across all months, years, and ship types as our economic isolation metric.Bank population density was estimated as the number of people living on a bank averaged over every five years from 2000 to 2015 (Population Count version 4, CIESIN, 2018) divided by bank area. References: CIESIN. (2018). Gridded Population of the World, Version 4 (GPWv4): Population Count, Revision 11 [Data set]. Palisades, NY: NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC). https://doi.org/10.7927/H4JW8BX5 Friedl, M., & Sulla-Menashe, D. (2015). MCD12Q1 MODIS/Terra+Aqua Land Cover Type Yearly L3 Global 500m SIN Grid V006 [Data set]. NASA EOSDIS Land Processes DAAC. https://doi.org/10.5067/MODIS/MCD12Q1.006 Frost, D. R. (2020). Amphibian Species of the World. Amphibian Species of the World: An Online Reference. Version 6.1. https://amphibiansoftheworld.amnh.org/ GADM. (2012). Global Administrative Areas (3.6) [Digital Geospatial Data]. University of California, Berkley. www.gadm.org GBIF. (2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility. GEBCO Compilation Group. (2020). GEBCO 2020 Grid [Map]. doi:10.5285/a29c5465-b138-234d-e053-6c86abc040b9 Hedges, S. B. (2020). Caribherp. Caribherp: Amphibians and Reptiles of Caribbean Islands. http://www.caribherp.org/ Jarvis, A., Reuter, H. I., Nelson, A., & Guervara, E. (2008). Hole-filled seamless SRTM data V4 [Map]. International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT). http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org Loyd’s. (2020). Lloyd’s of London. https://www.lloyds.com/ Uetz, P., Freed, P., & Hošek, J. (2020). The Reptile Database. http://reptile-database.org/ Aim: Island biogeography theory states that species richness increases with habitat diversity and decreases with isolation from source pools. However, ecological theory must incorporate effects of human activity to explain contemporary patterns of biodiversity. We contemporized island biogeography theory by conceptualizing island trajectories of how species richness changes over time with accelerating land development and economic trade, which increase extinction and immigration rates, respectively. With this contemporized theory, we then articulate and empirically assess expected relationships of native, introduced, and total species richness with natural and anthropogenic metrics of habitat diversity and isolation from source pools. Location: Greater Caribbean region. Time period: Database finalized in 2020. Methods: We built a database of 1075 native and introduced reptiles and amphibians (herps) for 840 Caribbean islands. For each island, we calculated natural and anthropogenic metrics of island habitat diversity and isolation from source pools and used linear model averaging to assess the expected relationships under the contemporized theory for 15 major herp clades. Results: Natural habitat diversity metrics exhibited positive relationships with native and introduced species richness, strengthening total species richness–area relationships across herp clades. Geographic isolation exhibited negative relationships with native and positive relationships with introduced species richness, weakening total species richness–isolation relationships. Economic area, based on developed land, and economic isolation, based on maritime trade, exhibited negative relationships with native species richness, but positive and negative relationships, respectively, with introduced species richness. Total species richness relationships with these two anthropogenic metrics were strongest in clades with many introduced species. Main conclusion: A contemporized island biogeographic theory that includes the effects of land development and economic trade on species extinction and immigration explained current Caribbean herp species richness patterns. As human activity continues to accelerate, the contemporized theory we articulate here will increasingly predict island biogeography of the Anthropocene. All data are provided in csv format and can be opened with Microsoft Excel or any text editor.

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    ZENODO
    Dataset . 2022
    License: CC 0
    Data sources: ZENODO
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      ZENODO
      Dataset . 2022
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    Authors: Zhang, Shudong; Cornwell, William K.; Zhao, Weiwei; van Logtestijn, Richard S.P.; +3 Authors

    1. Biological decomposition and wildfire are two predominant and alternative processes that can mineralize organic C in forest litter. Currently, the relationships between decomposition and fire are still poorly understood. 2. We provide an empirical test of the hypothesized decoupling of surface litter bed decomposability and flammability, and the underlying traits and trait spectra. 3. We employed a 41-species set of gymnosperms of very broad evolutionary and geographic spread, because of the wide range of (absent to frequent) fire regimes they are associated with. 4. We found that the interspecific pattern of mass loss proportions in a "common garden" decomposition experiment was not correlated with any of the flammability parameters and an RDA analysis also showed that the decomposability and flammability of leaf litter were decoupled across species. This decoupling originates from the former depending mostly on SSS traits and the latter on PES traits and those trait spectra being virtually uncorrelated. 5. Synthesis. Our results show that, indeed, leaf litter decomposability and flammability parameters are decoupled across species, and this decoupling can be explained by their different drivers in terms of trait spectra: chemical traits for decomposability and size-shape traits for flammability.

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    ZENODO
    Dataset . 2022
    License: CC 0
    Data sources: ZENODO
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      ZENODO
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    Authors: Guo, Chao; Tuo, Bin; Ci, Hang; Bi-Le, Bi-Le; +3 Authors

    The twig component of this experimental work, including the huge twig-related dataset for traits, termite consumption and decomposition across 41 species in two sites, is entirely new and critical to testing our conceptual model and hypotheses. The work and datasets for leaf and branch traits and decomposition rates overlap strongly (but not completely; see our new data subsets on leaf and branch decomposition below) with those used in two previous studies on single tree organs to test different hypotheses unrelated to organ co-variation of traits and decomposition (Guo et al., 2020; 2021); for these organs we provide brief methods here with reference to these two studies for further details. Study sites We conducted the in situ decomposition experiment Funlog in two subtropical evergreen broad-leaf forest sites in Zhejiang Province, E-China (details in Suppl. Table S1; Guo et al., 2020; 2021), both with subtropical monsoon climate: i) Tiantong National Forest Park (TT) (29°52′N, 121°39′E) on the mainland, with Schima superba as the predominant tree species; ii) Putuo island (PT) (29°97′N, 121°38′E), in the Zhoushan archipelago, with Quercus glauca being predominant. Based on previous observations (Guo et al., 2020), the moth Arippara indicator Walker is a key leaf litter detritivore in the PT forest litter layer. While 3-4 generations inhabit the litter layer from May to November (Leraut, 2013), larval abundance and consumption activity peak from August through November (details in Appendix S1: Fig. S1). In both sites, termites are the main detritivores of deadwood including branches in the litter layer (details in Appendix S1: Fig. S2; Guo et al., 2021). Tree species and sampling In October-November 2017, we collected leaf, twig, and branch samples from 41 common woody species in TT and PT, 8 evergreen trees, 12 evergreen shrubs (including short understory trees), 11 deciduous trees, 5 deciduous shrubs and 5 conifer trees (see Guo et al., 2021, details in Appendix S1: Table S2). In total, 195 individual healthy adult trees/shrubs were selected, i.e., 27 species × 3 tree individuals and 19 species × 6 shrub individuals. The rationale for selecting living trees was (1) to standardize the initial, undegraded phase for all samples (Cornelissen et al., 2012); (2) to mimic typhoon-induced wind-throw and logging as predominant agents of deadwood formation on the forest floor. We chain-sawed 20 cm long branch sections of approx. 5cm diameter; cut twig samples into 10 cm long sections of approx. 2 cm diameter (to standardize diameter as a possible covariate of decomposition rate). Adjacent to each end of a branch we cut off a 2 cm thick disk for initial branch trait analyses, while for twigs and leaves we randomly selected subsamples from each individual per species for initial trait measurement. All leaf litter and twig samples were stored air-dried until further use. Due to space/time constraints, branch samples were weighed at field moisture before sealing them into litter-bags (see below). Litter decomposition experiment Similar sub-experiments were set up simultaneously at both sites. Leaf, twig, and branch subsamples from each individual per species were weighed air-dried and oven-dried (75 °C) for the calculation of initial dry mass of the litter-bag samples via water content. For the leaf litter incubation, details are in Guo et al. (2020), but here we added a harvest after 18 months, which yielded a large new dataset compared to that study. Briefly, 10g of pre-weighed air-dried leaves were sealed into 1-mm mesh nylon litter-bags, with broadly similar packing density among species. For the twig incubation, we sealed two pre-weighed twig sections per sample into 10 × 20 cm nylon litter-bags with 4 mm mesh. For branch incubation (details in Guo et al., 2021, but here we added an additional 12 woody species to the decomposition dataset), we used 4 mm mesh nylon litter-bags. These different mesh sizes were based on achieving the best compromise in terms of allowing free access to the main detritivores (allowing ranking of the “natural” contribution of invertebrates to decomposition for each organ) while preventing litter particles from falling out throughout the decomposition trajectory for each of the tree organs – the latter was especially important for leaf litter of small-leaved conifers and fragile-leaved deciduous species. Based on field surveys before the experiment, the main leaf litter detritivores were moth larvae (Guo et al., 2020), which could enter the 1 mm mesh easily. Termites, which are estimated to be responsible for > 90 % of the invertebrate contribution to decomposition, were found to have body diameters between 1.21 mm and 2.67 mm (authors’ measaurements), leading to the choice of 4 mm mesh. The only other possible significant contributor to leaf and woody litter decomposition in our study sites, large millipeds, have body diameters around 7 mm, so these had to be excluded from the experiment altogether to prevent litter particle losses from the litter-bags. In total, 2469 litter-bag samples were used, based on 46 tree species (including 5 repeated species) × 3 organs × 3 replications (plots) × 2 incubation sites × 3 harvest times. The litter-bag samples were distributed over three replicate forest plots in each sites, in January 2018 (details in Guo et al., 2020; 2021). The litter-bags of each species were pinned onto the forest floor in their respective subplots within each of the three replicate plots randomly, and each species’ replicate had three litter-bags per organ one for each harvest. Harvests were after 6 (Jul. 2018), 12 (Jan. 2019), and 18 months (Jul. 2019). We carefully cleaned the collected leaf samples with a brush. Each twig and branch sample was put in a large tray with steep, tall edges to retain the termites. We cut the sample into small pieces and removed soil (brought in by termites) with a brush carefully. All samples were then oven-dried at 75 °C to constant mass and weighed (dry mass). Plant organ trait measurements Details of leaf trait measurements relevant to the LES, including leaf thickness, leaf chemistry, specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf dry matter content (LDMC), were reported by Guo et al. (2020). For initial wood traits considered relevant to the WES and to decomposition, each 2 cm subsample of branch or 10 cm long twig was stored cool in a sealed plastic bag between collection in the field and processing. Within 12h, after bark removal, a subsample was cut from each disk of branch and twig to obtain fresh mass and determine initial volume (Williamson & Wiemann, 2010). All wood subsamples were dried at 75 °C for 72h. Initial wood density (WD) was calculated as dry mass per volume. For chemical trait measurements of leaf and woody litter, initial leaf, twig and branch subsamples were ground to powder. Thereafter, 0.2g sub-samples were digested using concentrated H2SO4 to determine N and P concentrations on an infrared spectrophotometer (Smartchem 200, Alliance, France). For branches, lignin content was determined by acidolysis-titration, and cellulose content was determined by anthrone-sulfuric acid colorimetry. Moth larvae and termite activity measurements Upon harvesting of the leaf litter bags, macrofauna (Arippara indicator larvae) were collected and counted, and moth larvae faeces extracted, oven-dried at 75 °C and weighed for dry mass (details in Guo et al., 2020). The feeding intensity of larvae was defined by larval abundance and divided into six classes: (0), (1), (2), (3), (4) indicated 0, 1, 2 3, 4 larvae, respectively; (5) ≥ 5 larvae. We visually scored the termites’ feeding intensity of branches and twigs after cleaning the litter-bag samples. We (see Guo et al., 2021 for details) adjusted the method that classifies termite feeding intensity based on the bite marks (Liu et al., 2015). Briefly, we measured the percentage surface area loss due to termite activity using a visual grid method. After removing soil brought in by termites, we estimated the depth of termite damage in five random spots along the sample surface. The area loss and foraging depth were used to estimate the percentage of sample volume of twig or branch consumed by termites, distinguishing 5 classes; (1) 1-10% (2) 11-20%, (3) 21-30%, (4) 31-40%, (5) > 41% volume loss. 1. Plant functional traits are increasingly used to understand ecological relationships and (changing) ecosystem functions. For understanding ecosystem-level biogeochemistry, we need to understand how (much) traits co-vary between different plant organs across species, and its implications for litter decomposition. However, we do not know how the degree of synchronous variation in decomposition rates between organs across species could be influenced by different keystone invertebrates decomposing different senesced plant organs, especially in warm-climate forests. Here we asked whether interspecific patterns in wood and leaf decomposition rates and in the spectra of resource economics traits underpinning them, co-vary across woody species; and how (much) the keystone invertebrate decomposers of the litter of these organs enhance or lower such co-variation of decomposition rates through time. 2. We addressed these questions through an 18-month “common-garden” decomposition experiment using leaf, twig and branch litter of 41 woody species in two distant subtropical forest sites in east China. We quantified the effects of leaf, twig, and branch functional traits and their respective key invertebrates (moth larvae, termites) on the decomposition rates of those organs. 3. Interspecific variation in wood traits was partly decoupled from that in leaf traits across species, while strong coupling was found between twigs and branches. The co-variation between leaf and woody organ decomposition rates was altered dynamically through the shifting activities of the key decomposers, which created non-linear relationships of invertebrate litter consumption as a function of species rankings along the resource economic trait spectra of leaves and branches. 4. The deviations from coupling of decomposition rates between organs were likely caused by combinations of three mechanisms: (1) (de-)coupling between organs of other traits, not commonly considered in resource economics spectra (e.g., resins) (2) leaf and wood decomposers having specific diet requirements, and (3) temporal patterns of the decomposers’ activity. 5. Synthesis. Our study highlights the importance of considering the different ways by which invertebrate detritivores drive decomposition processes through time. Under the ongoing biodiversity decline, future research would benefit from a better understanding of the role of the dynamic interactions between detritivore activities and plant functional traits on the carbon turnover in ecosystems.

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    ZENODO
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      ZENODO
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    Authors: Erdenebileg, Enkhmaa; Wang, Congwen; Yu, Wanying; Ye, Xuehua; +4 Authors

    Litters of leaves and roots of different qualities occur naturally above- and belowground, respectively, where they decompose in contrasting abiotic and biotic environments. Therefore, ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics can be strongly affected by the combination of litter position and quality. However, it is poorly understood how C versus N turnover of litters depends on the interplay among plant functional type (PFT), organs, traits, and litter position. In a semi-arid inland dune, soil surface and buried leaf litters and buried fine roots of 25 species across three PFTs (herbs, legume shrubs, and non-legume shrubs) were incubated for 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months to investigate litter decomposition and C and N dynamics. Morphological and chemical (nutrient and NMR carbon) traits of initial litters of leaves and fine roots were determined. The litter decomposition rates (k values) of surface leaves and buried fine roots did not differ, but buried fine roots and buried leaf litter decomposed faster than surface leaf litter. Ratios of k values of surface leaves to buried leaves decreased with the leaf C:N ratio. Herbs and legume shrubs decomposed faster than non-legume shrubs for buried fine roots, but not for leaves. At given C loss, buried fine roots had higher N loss than leaf litters; legume shrubs with relatively higher N or lower C:N ratio had higher N loss than non-legume shrubs. Stronger positive relationships between C and N losses were shown in leaves and legume shrubs than in fine roots and non-legume shrubs, respectively. Synthesis: The generality of faster N release of legume litters at a given C release highlights the importance of legumes in N cycling in semi-arid ecosystems where N is the limiting factor. The dynamics and coordination of C versus N release as a function of litter quality are modulated by litter position and PFT. These findings have important implications for the development of process-based models on C and N cycles in the context of ongoing global change potentially altering the functional composition of plant communities and the relative quantities and qualities of aboveground versus belowground litter.

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    ZENODO
    Dataset . 2022
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      ZENODO
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    Authors: Hoedjes, Katja; Kostic, Hristina; Keller, Laurent; Flatt, Thomas;

    Evolve and resequence’ (E&R) studies in Drosophila melanogaster have identified many candidate loci underlying the evolution of ageing and life history, but experiments that validate the effects of such candidates remain rare. In a recent E&R study we have identified several alleles of the LAMMER kinase Darkener of apricot (Doa) as candidates for evolutionary changes in lifespan and fecundity. Here, we use two complementary approaches to confirm the functional role of Doa in life-history evolution. First, we used transgenic RNAi to study the effects of Doa at the whole-gene level. Ubiquitous silencing of expression in adult flies reduced both lifespan and fecundity, indicating pleiotropic effects. Second, to characterize segregating variation at Doa, we examined four candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; Doa-1, -2, -3, -4) using a genetic association approach. Three candidate SNPs had effects that were qualitatively consistent with expectations based on our E&R study: Doa-2 pleiotropically affected both lifespan and late-life fecundity; Doa-1 affected lifespan (but not fecundity), and Doa-4 affected late-life fecundity (but not lifespan). Finally, the last candidate allele (Doa-3) also affected lifespan, but in the opposite direction than predicted. The excel file contains all raw data presented in the main text and the supplementary material of this paper and has been ordered in different tabs for each figure separately. The methods have been described in detail in the published article and details on the raw data provided here is given in the README file.

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    ZENODO
    Dataset . 2022
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    DRYAD
    Dataset . 2022
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      ZENODO
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    Authors: Chang, Chenhui; Berg, Matty; van Logtestijn, Richard; Zuo, Juan; +8 Authors

    1. Previous studies showed that bark cover at early-decay stage had profound control on the invertebrate assemblages of bark and wood, with possible consequence for the decomposition process. However, previous experimental designs could not disentangle how bark versus wood traits affect the invertebrate assemblage process in bark and/or wood separately because wood traits of different tree species may vary independently from bark traits. Furthermore, we do not know whether such tree species specific bark trait effects are still influential at mid-decay stage. 2. To unravel whether and how bark and wood traits influence invertebrate communities in tree logs at mid-decay stage, we introduce reciprocal bark transplantation within pairs of different tree species as a new method. We applied this method to two pairs of phylogenetically contrasting species of gymnosperms (pair I: Araucaria araucana and Cryptomeria japonica, pair II: Picea abies and Thuja plicata) and another gymnosperm (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) set as disturbance control to test for potential bark manipulation artefacts on invertebrate community composition. 3. Our bark exchange experiment revealed that both bark and wood host abundant and divergent subsets of invertebrates on mid-decay logs of different tree species. We further documented that the invertebrate community composition was predominantly shaped by the traits of host tissue per se, while also being significantly but less strongly affected by the traits of the other tissue, i.e. the adjacent bark or wood. Our results indicated that bark trait effects faded with time and how long bark trait effects persist greatly depends on bark thickness. 4. Synthesis. Our study suggests that maintaining deadwood heterogeneity related to variation between tree species, and to bark versus wood, is important for nursing a large biodiversity of invertebrates. Combined with bark removal methodology, our bark exchange method can be further extended to more decay stages and more forest biomes to track bark trait effects and bark induced priority effects on deadwood decomposition, and its associated invertebrate and microbial communities.

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    ZENODO
    Dataset . 2022
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    Dataset . 2022
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      ZENODO
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      DRYAD
      Dataset . 2022
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Marca-Zevallos, Manuel J.; M. Moulatlet, Gabriel; R. Sousa, Thaiane; Schietti, Juliana; +114 Authors

    Tree diversity and composition in Amazonia are known to be strongly determined by the water supplied by precipitation. Nevertheless, within the same climatic regime, water availability is modulated by local topography and soil characteristics (hereafter referred to as local hydrological conditions), varying from saturated and poorly drained to well-drained and potentially dry areas. While these conditions may be expected to influence species distribution, the impacts of local hydrological conditions on tree diversity and composition remain poorly understood at the whole Amazon basin scale. Using a dataset of 443 1-ha non-flooded forest plots distributed across the basin, we investigate how local hydrological conditions influence 1) tree alpha diversity, 2) the community-weighted wood density mean (CWM-wd) – a proxy for hydraulic resistance, and 3) tree species composition. We find that the effect of local hydrological conditions on tree diversity depends on climate, being more evident in wetter forests, where diversity increases towards locations with well-drained soils. CWM-wd increased toward better-drained soils in Southern and Western Amazonia. Tree species composition changed along local soil hydrological gradients in Central-Eastern, Western and Southern Amazonia, and those changes were correlated with changes in the mean wood density of plots. Our results suggest that local hydrological gradients filter species, influencing the diversity and composition of Amazonian forests. Overall, this study shows that the effect of local hydrological conditions is pervasive, extending overwide Amazonian regions, and reinforces the importance of accounting for local topography and hydrology to better understand the likely response and resilience of forests to increased frequency of extreme climate events and rising temperatures. We used the Amazon Tree Diversity Network (ATDN) dataset, with plots distributed throughout the Amazon basin. Our analyses were restricted to 1-ha lowland terra-firme forest plots below 500 a.s.l. (excluding plots on white sand and inundated forests) and to individuals with a diameter ≥ 10 cm, excluding all lianas. Plots varied in dimensions and shapes, with most being square or rectangular 1 ha, while 11.7% were 250 × 40 m and following altitudinal contours . In addition, we considered only plots with at least 80% of individuals identified to species level. As species identification was done by different taxonomists, we excluded 18 634 individuals (8.45% of the total number of individuals; mean = 42, min = 0, max = 173 individuals per plot) that were not identified to the species level to avoid confusion with morphospecies synonymy. This introduced no bias in the analyses, as there was no association between the proportion of morphospecies per plot with the main variables of interest (i.e. local hydrological conditions). By including only those individuals identified at the species level, more robust patterns of alpha diversity and composition are expected. We also excluded plots with georeferencing problems, such as those with coordinates displaced from terra-firme towards rivers or lakes. Finally, we excluded 18 plots from areas without height above nearest drainage (HAND) data. Thus, we carried out the analyses using 443 plots, which total 210 801 individuals of 3527 species, distributed in 619 genera and 104 families.

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    ZENODO
    Dataset . 2022
    License: CC 0
    Data sources: ZENODO
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    DRYAD
    Dataset . 2022
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    Data sources: Datacite
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      ZENODO
      Dataset . 2022
      License: CC 0
      Data sources: ZENODO
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      DRYAD
      Dataset . 2022
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Caspar, Kai Robert; Pallasdies, Fabian; Mader, Larissa; Sartorelli, Heitor; +1 Authors

    The evolution of human right-handedness has been intensively debated for decades. Manual lateralization patterns in non-human primates have the potential to elucidate evolutionary determinants of human handedness. However, restricted species samples and inconsistent methodologies have so far limited comparative phylogenetic studies. By combining original data with published literature reports, we assembled data on hand preferences for standardized object manipulation in 1,786 individuals from 38 species of anthropoid primates, including monkeys, apes, and humans. Based on that, we employ quantitative phylogenetic methods to test prevalent hypotheses on the roles of ecology, brain size and tool use in primate handedness evolution. We confirm that human right-handedness represents an unparalleled extreme among anthropoids and found taxa displaying population-level handedness to be rare. Species-level direction of manual lateralization was largely uniform among non-human primates and did not strongly correlate with any of the selected biological predictors, nor with phylogeny. In contrast, we recovered highly variable patterns of hand preference strength, which show signatures of both ecology and phylogeny. In particular, terrestrial primates tend to display weaker hand preferences than arboreal species. These results challenge popular ideas on primate handedness evolution, especially the postural origins hypothesis. Furthermore, they point to a potential adaptive benefit of disparate lateralization strength in primates, a measure of hand preference that has often been overlooked in the past. Finally, our data show that human lateralization patterns do not align with trends found among other anthropoids, suggesting that unique selective pressures gave rise to the unusual hand preferences of our species.

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    ZENODO
    Dataset . 2022
    License: CC 0
    Data sources: ZENODO
    DRYAD
    Dataset . 2022
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    Data sources: Datacite
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      ZENODO
      Dataset . 2022
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      Data sources: ZENODO
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      Dataset . 2022
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      Data sources: Datacite
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lloyd, Beth; de Voogd, Lycia; Mäki-Marttunen, Verónica; Nieuwenhuis, Sander;

    This dataset contains resting-state fMRI data and simultaneous pupil recordings for 72 individuals across two sessions of 5 minutes. MRI data MRI data were acquired using a Siemens MAGNETOM Prisma 3T MR scanner. All images (functional and structural) have been defaced for anonymity purposes. functional EPI images (150) per session (ses-day1, ses-day2), 5 minutes resting-state (no task). T2*-weighted BOLD images were recorded using a customized multi-echo EPI sequence with ascending slice acquisition (58 axial slices; TR = 2 s; TE = 14.4, 39.1 ms; partial Fourier = 6/8; GRAPPA acceleration factor = 2; multiband acceleration factor = 2; flip angle = 65°; slice matrix size 104 x 104 mm; slice thickness = 2.0 mm; FOV: 208 x 208 mm; slice gap = 0; bandwidth: 2090 Hz/px; echo spacing: 0.56 ms). the only preprocessing carried out on the functional EPI images is that these images have been realigned to the first functional image (using the realignment parameters, see: nuisance regressors 26–32), and each functional image is the voxel-wise weighted sums of both echoes, which were calculated using in-house scripts, based on local contrast-to-noise ratio. the first five scans have been removed. directory: data\sub-001\ses-day1\func\sub-001_ses-day1_task-rest_acq-normal_run-01_bold data\sub-001\ses-day2\func\sub-001_ses-day2_task-rest_acq-normal_run-01_bold structural T1-weighted MRI scan. The structural T1-weighted image (0.9 mm isotropic) was acquired using a T1-weighted 3D MP-RAGE (TR = 2.3 s; TE = 2.32 ms; flip angle = 8°, FOV = 256 x 256 x 230 mm). directory: data\sub-001\ses-day2\anat\sub-001_ses-day2_acq-highres_run-02_T1w structural fast-spin echo (FSE) scan (for locus coeruleus localisation [LC]) A neuromelanin-sensitive structural scan was acquired for delineation of the LC (11 axial slices, TR = 750 ms, TE = 10 ms, flip-angle = 120°, bandwidth = 220 Hz/Px, slice thickness = 2.5 mm, slice gap = 3.5 mm; in-plane resolution = 0.429 x 0.429 mm). directory: data\sub-001\ses-day2\anat\sub-001_ses-day2_acq-fse_run-03_T1w nuisance regressors: nuisance regressors 1–26: heart rate pulse + breathing regressors Raw pulse was preprocessed using PulseCor (https://github.com/lindvoo/PulseCor) implemented in Python for artifact correction and peak detection. Fifth-order Fourier models of the cardiac and respiratory phase-related modulation of the BOLD signal were specified (Van Buuren et al., 2009), yielding 10 nuisance regressors for cardiac noise and 10 for respiratory noise. Additional regressors were calculated for heart rate frequency, heart rate variability, (raw) abdominal circumference, respiratory frequency, respiratory amplitude, and respiration volume per unit time (Birn et al., 2006), yielding a total of 26 RETROICOR regressors (https://github.com/can-lab/RETROICORplus). nuisance regressors 26–32: realignment parameters six movement parameter regressors (3 translations, 3 rotations) derived from rigid-body motion correction, high-pass filtering (1/128Hz cut-off) and AR(1) serial autocorrelation corrections. directory: data\sub-001\ses-day1\func\sub-001_ses-day1_task-rest_acq-normal_run-01_bold\log data\sub-001\ses-day2\func\sub-001_ses-day2_task-rest_acq-normal_run-01_bold\log Pupil data: raw pupil .ascii file for the right eye collected at 250 Hz with EyeLink 1000 Plus (SR Research, Osgoode, ON, Canada) The eye-tracker was placed at the end of the scanner bore, such that the participant’s right eye could be tracked via the head coil mirror. Before the start of each resting-state session, we began with a calibration of the eye-tracker using the standard five-point EyeLink calibration procedure. The pupil data is raw; however, moments when the eye-tracker received no pupil signal (i.e., during eye blinks) were marked (-1.00) automatically during acquisition by the manufacturer's blink detection algorithm. directory: data\sub-001\logfiles-ses-day1\raw_pup data\sub-001\logfiles-ses-day2\raw_pup Demographic data: subject data (linked to subject number) containing age and gender file: data\group_data\sub_demographics.csv Additional files included in version 2: JSON files: json files for: T1: data\JSON\sub-MRIFCWML001_ses-day2_acq-highres_run-02_T1w.json EPI echo 1 + echo 2: data\JSON\func_echo1_seq_json_file.json, data\JSON\func_echo2_seq_json_file.json FSE scan: data\JSON\FSE_seq_json_file.json Changes from version 1 to version 2: Pupil data in version 1 had underegone preprocessing steps (interpolated over blinks and downsampled to 50 Hz) Pupil data in version 2 is the raw pupil data (no interpolation and sampled at 250 Hz). Neuromodulatory nuclei that are part of the ascending arousal system (AAS) play a crucial role in regulating cortical state and optimizing task performance. Pupil diameter, under constant luminance conditions, is increasingly used as an index of activity of these AAS nuclei. Indeed, task-based functional imaging studies in humans have begun to provide evidence of stimulus-driven pupil-AAS coupling. However, whether there is such a tight pupil-AAS coupling during rest is not clear. To address this question, we examined simultaneously acquired resting-state fMRI and pupil-size data from 74 participants, focusing on six AAS nuclei: the locus coeruleus, ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra, dorsal and median raphe nuclei, and cholinergic basal forebrain. Activation in all six AAS nuclei was optimally correlated with pupil size at 0- to 2-second lags, suggesting that spontaneous pupil changes were almost immediately followed by corresponding BOLD-signal changes in the AAS. These results suggest that spontaneous changes in pupil size that occur during states of rest can be used as a noninvasive general index of activity in AAS nuclei. Importantly, the nature of pupil-AAS coupling during rest appears to be vastly different from the relatively slow canonical hemodynamic response function that has been used to characterize task-related pupil-AAS coupling.

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    ZENODO
    Dataset . 2023
    License: CC 0
    Data sources: ZENODO
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    DataverseNL
    Dataset . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: DataverseNL
    DataverseNL
    Dataset . 2023
    Data sources: Datacite
    DRYAD
    Dataset . 2022
    License: CC 0
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      ZENODO
      Dataset . 2023
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      Data sources: ZENODO
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      DataverseNL
      Dataset . 2023
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: DataverseNL
      DataverseNL
      Dataset . 2023
      Data sources: Datacite
      DRYAD
      Dataset . 2022
      License: CC 0
      Data sources: Datacite
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Yang, Xuejun; Liu, Rong; Gao, Ruiru; Huang, Zhenying; +1 Authors

    Aim: The plant economics spectrum provides a fundamental framework for understanding functional trait variation along environmental gradients. However, it is unclear whether there is a general whole-plant economics spectrum across organs at the finer taxonomic scale (e.g. within genera), and if there is, which factors affect the trait coordination of the different organs. Here, we examined whether resource economics spectra of different organs (i.e. leaf, stem and root) can be integrated at the whole-plant level within a single genus, and how environment, intraspecific variation and taxonomic scale shape the whole-plant spectrum. Location: China. Time period: 2018. Major taxa studied: Artemisia. Results: Pairwise trait correlations and the trade-off patterns along the resource economic axis were consistent at both organ and whole-plant levels. Environmental gradients did not strongly affect the correlations among leaf, stem and root economics spectra, i.e. the intraspecific variation weakened but did not mask this coordination. Taxonomic scale did not affect the degree of trait coordination as the genus-wide whole-plant economics spectrum also emerged within each of the three subgenera. Main conclusions: Our results support the hypothesis that the coordination of economics spectra across organs forms a whole-plant economics spectrum representing “fast-slow” resource management strategy, which is robust to recent evolution (genotypic variation, even for species within a single genus) and present-day environmental variation. Further studies should elucidate in which circumstances or phylogenetic branches the coordinated pattern found for Artemisia is representative of other widely distributed genera. We sampled 1,022 individuals of 62 Artemisia species from 81 sites across eastern and central China in late July and August 2018. We quantified 15 economic traits that were associated with plant resource economic strategies. The whole plants were harvested for trait measurements. Oven-dried leaves, stems and roots were ground to fine powders and then examined for total carbon (C, mg g-1) and nitrogen (N, mg g-1) concentrations using an elemental analyser (Vario EL III, Elementar, Hanau, Germany). Subsamples of the fine powders of leaves, stems and roots were used to measure total phosphorus (P, g kg-1) concentrations. The 50 mg fine powder was solubilized in a Teflon cylinder using a 1:4 mixture of HClO4 (60%) and HNO3 (60%), then 3% HClO4 was added to reach a final volume of 10 ml. The final solution was digested in a MARS 5 microwave digestion system (CEM GmbH, Kamp-Lintfort, Germany), and then P concentration was measured using the Thermo Scientific iCAP 6300 (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Waltham, MA, USA).

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    ZENODO
    Dataset . 2022
    License: CC 0
    Data sources: ZENODO
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    DRYAD
    Dataset . 2022
    License: CC 0
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      ZENODO
      Dataset . 2022
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      DRYAD
      Dataset . 2022
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      Data sources: Datacite
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gleditsch, Jason; Behm, Jocelyn; Ellers, Jacintha; Jesse, Wendy; +1 Authors