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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kasang, Dieter;

    Global carbon cycle - How much CO2 remains in the atmosphere each year? and how much time do we have left? The exchange of carbon between the surface reservoirs of atmosphere, land and ocean on the one hand and the deep geological reservoirs on the other has been considerably accelerated by human use of fossil fuels. The result is a warming of the global climate at a rate unprecedent in Earth's history over the past 50 million years. Whether anthropogenic climate change can be halted in time is uncertain. This also depends on the feedback processes between the carbon cycle and climate changes.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZFDM repositoryarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZFDM repositoryarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      ZFDM repository
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Grotlüschen, Anke; Buddeberg, Klaus; Skowranek, Kristin; Dutz, Gregor;

    In dieser Reihe stellen wir verschiedene Kapitel aus einer interdisziplinären Publikation vor, die auf Daten der LEO Studie 2018 – Leben mit geringer Literalität basiert. Band 14 der Edition ZfE „Interdisziplinäre Analysen zur LEO-Studie 2018 – Leben mit geringer Literalität. Vertiefende Erkenntnisse zur Rolle des Lesens und Schreibens im Erwachsenenalter“, herausgegeben von Anke Grotlüschen, Klaus Buddeberg und Heike Solga, versammelt 11 Kapitel zu Fragen von Digitalisierung, Arbeit und Familie und Zugängen zu sozialer Teilhabe. Den Anfang in dieser Reihe macht der Beitrag „Audiovisuelle digitale Praktiken als Erweiterung kommunikativer und informativer Handlungsfähigkeit“ von Klaus Buddeberg und Petra Grell. {"references": ["Buddeberg, Klaus; Grell, Petra (2023): Audiovisuelle digitale Praktiken als Erweiterung kom\u00acmunikativer und informativer Handlungsf\u00e4higkeit. In: Anke Grotl\u00fcschen, Klaus Buddeberg und Heike Solga (Hg.): Interdisziplin\u00e4re Analysen zur LEO-Studie 2018 \u2013 Leben mit geringer Literalit\u00e4t. Vertiefende Erkenntnisse zur Rolle des Lesens und Schreibens im Erwachsenenalter. Wiesbaden: Springer VS; Springer Fachmedien (Edition ZfE, 14), S. 37-63."]}

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZFDM repositoryarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    ZFDM repository
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZFDM repositoryarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      ZFDM repository
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Erxleben, Friederike;

    Nature-based solutions for climate protection and more: Nature-based Solutions create and maintain resilient ecosystems. They contribute significantly to climate protection. In addition, they have other positive effects, especially for climate adaptation and for the preservation and promotion of biodiversity. Nature-based solutions are proving to be economic and sustainable measures that can be used to address the crises of the time. At all levels, international, EU-European, national and local, these measures must not be neglected. Since Nature-based Solutions might need a longer implementation phase, they must be pursued as quickly as possible, so that they manifest their long-term positive effects on climate, nature and people.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZFDM repositoryarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      ZFDM repository
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ginzky, Harald; Oschlies, Andreas;

    Public interest-oriented state control of research into climate engineering techniques - the Model London Protocol: Climate Engineering, including Carbon Dioxide Removal- and/or Solar Radiation Management-techniques, increasingly gets again into the public discussion on effective climate change policies. As most of these techniques are still in infancy, the question needs to be answered whether and how research and development should be controlled and governed by states. In this context, public funding may play an important role next to regulatory approaches.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZFDM repositoryarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Obermeier, Wolfgang; Egerer, Sabine; Pongratz, Julia;

    Afforestation, reforestation and sustainable forest management for climate change mitigation: Afforestation, reforesta­tion, and sustainable forest management are considered accepted negative emission technologies (NET) with great potential for climate change mitigation. However, future forest development is highly dependent on changing environmental conditions as well as adapted forest management. For example, the increase and intensification of disturbances and extreme weather conditions (e.g., windthrow, insect infestations, fires, and drought) can greatly reduce forest productivity, especially in monocultures; at the same time, rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations and forest productivity extended into boreal latitudes can favor the NET potential. In addition, the way wood products are used affects the future NET potential. For example, long-term usage as construction timber is particularly effective, especially if it replaces fossil building materials. Similarly, the usage of wood for energy can mitigate climate change, provided that wood extraction does not exceed regrowth. Biogeophysical effects can also influence local and non-local climate, for example through changes in albedo, roughness, and transpiration. This occurs depending on local conditions as well as forestry adaptation and underscores the need to weigh the various effects of an action that affect climate. In addition, a variety of potentially positive as well as negative side effects on other ecosystem services must be considered - most importantly, biodiversity, water availability, and the need for land for food production.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZFDM repositoryarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZFDM repositoryarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A.; Geilert, Sonja; Fuhr , Michael; Hartmann, Jens;

    Ocean alkanisation: To remove CO2 from the atmosphere and store it in the ocean, the chemical composition of seawater is changed by adding minerals in solid or dissolved form. This process is called ocean alkalinisation. An increase in alkalinity in seawater leads to increased CO2 uptake, which can be achieved by various methods. The ocean gains alkalinity naturally through weathering processes of minerals. Ocean alkalinisation can be seen as an acceleration of this natural process and is a promising method to remove anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZFDM repositoryarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Link, P. Michael; Link, Jasmin S. A.; Scheffran, Jürgen;

    Application of Climate Engineering: A problem for peace and security: Although a global consensus about the implementation of climate engineering (CE) technologies is currently unlikely, their initial intention appears to be peaceful. However, the application of some CE technologies requires a steady – or even intensifying – use over long periods of time in order to avoid physical or psychological termination effects. Such CE applications are difficult to reconcile with democratic policy and thus carry a substantial conflict potential. Furthermore, difficulties in measurement or application doses of CE technologies may amplify already existing conflicts. From CE applications, plausible and relevant direct and indirect consequences for peace and security can be derived. The most important linkages of effects and their implications for security are described in complex networks of the consequences of CE applications. These are implemented in a diffusion model to assess the predominant activities and sinks that are possible in such network structures. Applying this model to the examples of stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI) and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), the immanent political and socioeconomic consequences become apparent. Interestingly, some of these effects can already be triggered by information about the CE application, e.g. by fake news.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ZFDM repositoryarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Dittmeyer, Roland; Dietrich, Benjamin;

    Technical processes for CO2 removal from the atmosphere and storing it underground or in durable products: The use of technical processes to remove CO2 from the atmosphere (DAC) is seen as the last but indispensable option to bring global greenhouse gas emissions first to net zero and then to negative values (IPCC 2022, IEA 2022, Prognos 2021). Avoidance, and where this is not possible reduction, of emissions is to be prioritized over DAC, as are nature-based solutions for CO2 removal. Nevertheless, it is assumed that DAC with a global capacity of gigatons of CO2 per year will be needed in perspective (Viebahn et al. 2019). Research and development must help reduce energy demand and costs, and a market ramp-up must be stimulated to make DAC available on an industrial scale. Captured CO2 is either stored in the geological subsurface (DACCS) or used for carbon-based products (DACCU). The permanence of the emplacement can be increased by mineralization of the CO2 in reactive rock layers, e.g., by the Carbfix process. (Snæbjörnsdóttir et al. 2020) In the case of DACCU, one can only speak of negative CO2 emissions if there is a long service life of the products. Otherwise, they are CO2-neutral approaches in the best case.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lozán, José L.; Wulf, Christina;

    Industrial CO2 use - An overview: Technologies for CO2 utilisation have recently been gaining in importance. Some CO2 uses, such as the production of urea and methanol, are practised on an industrial scale. Many others are being tested. Good progress has been made in the production of plastics and synthetic fuels. The use of carbonised CO2, e.g. for the production of building materials, can lead to the longterm storage of CO2. Synthetic fuels, however, only store the used CO2 for a short time, but prevent the use of fuels made from petroleum. Re-sequestration keeps the CO2 in the cycle. Synthetic methane can play an important role for energy storage and ammonia for the transport of green hydrogen. Overall, however, the contribution of CO2 uses to climate protection is rather limited. To limit global warming, a combination of many climate engineering methods is required in addition to a drastic reduction of global emissions.

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    Authors: Kasang, Dieter;

    CO2 sources and capture technologies: Two main sources are being discussed for the climate-friendly use of carbon dioxide. With the direct CO2 capture from the ambient air, highly pure CO2 is obtained by technical processes and the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is immediately reduced, albeit only slightly. The CO2 capture from flue gases in industrial combustion processes prevents carbon dioxide from entering the atmosphere. It is faced with the problem that the use of fossil fuels must be stopped in the coming decades for reasons of climate protection.

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    Authors: Kasang, Dieter;

    Global carbon cycle - How much CO2 remains in the atmosphere each year? and how much time do we have left? The exchange of carbon between the surface reservoirs of atmosphere, land and ocean on the one hand and the deep geological reservoirs on the other has been considerably accelerated by human use of fossil fuels. The result is a warming of the global climate at a rate unprecedent in Earth's history over the past 50 million years. Whether anthropogenic climate change can be halted in time is uncertain. This also depends on the feedback processes between the carbon cycle and climate changes.

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    Authors: Grotlüschen, Anke; Buddeberg, Klaus; Skowranek, Kristin; Dutz, Gregor;

    In dieser Reihe stellen wir verschiedene Kapitel aus einer interdisziplinären Publikation vor, die auf Daten der LEO Studie 2018 – Leben mit geringer Literalität basiert. Band 14 der Edition ZfE „Interdisziplinäre Analysen zur LEO-Studie 2018 – Leben mit geringer Literalität. Vertiefende Erkenntnisse zur Rolle des Lesens und Schreibens im Erwachsenenalter“, herausgegeben von Anke Grotlüschen, Klaus Buddeberg und Heike Solga, versammelt 11 Kapitel zu Fragen von Digitalisierung, Arbeit und Familie und Zugängen zu sozialer Teilhabe. Den Anfang in dieser Reihe macht der Beitrag „Audiovisuelle digitale Praktiken als Erweiterung kommunikativer und informativer Handlungsfähigkeit“ von Klaus Buddeberg und Petra Grell. {"references": ["Buddeberg, Klaus; Grell, Petra (2023): Audiovisuelle digitale Praktiken als Erweiterung kom\u00acmunikativer und informativer Handlungsf\u00e4higkeit. In: Anke Grotl\u00fcschen, Klaus Buddeberg und Heike Solga (Hg.): Interdisziplin\u00e4re Analysen zur LEO-Studie 2018 \u2013 Leben mit geringer Literalit\u00e4t. Vertiefende Erkenntnisse zur Rolle des Lesens und Schreibens im Erwachsenenalter. Wiesbaden: Springer VS; Springer Fachmedien (Edition ZfE, 14), S. 37-63."]}

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    Authors: Erxleben, Friederike;

    Nature-based solutions for climate protection and more: Nature-based Solutions create and maintain resilient ecosystems. They contribute significantly to climate protection. In addition, they have other positive effects, especially for climate adaptation and for the preservation and promotion of biodiversity. Nature-based solutions are proving to be economic and sustainable measures that can be used to address the crises of the time. At all levels, international, EU-European, national and local, these measures must not be neglected. Since Nature-based Solutions might need a longer implementation phase, they must be pursued as quickly as possible, so that they manifest their long-term positive effects on climate, nature and people.

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    Authors: Ginzky, Harald; Oschlies, Andreas;

    Public interest-oriented state control of research into climate engineering techniques - the Model London Protocol: Climate Engineering, including Carbon Dioxide Removal- and/or Solar Radiation Management-techniques, increasingly gets again into the public discussion on effective climate change policies. As most of these techniques are still in infancy, the question needs to be answered whether and how research and development should be controlled and governed by states. In this context, public funding may play an important role next to regulatory approaches.

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    Authors: Obermeier, Wolfgang; Egerer, Sabine; Pongratz, Julia;

    Afforestation, reforestation and sustainable forest management for climate change mitigation: Afforestation, reforesta­tion, and sustainable forest management are considered accepted negative emission technologies (NET) with great potential for climate change mitigation. However, future forest development is highly dependent on changing environmental conditions as well as adapted forest management. For example, the increase and intensification of disturbances and extreme weather conditions (e.g., windthrow, insect infestations, fires, and drought) can greatly reduce forest productivity, especially in monocultures; at the same time, rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations and forest productivity extended into boreal latitudes can favor the NET potential. In addition, the way wood products are used affects the future NET potential. For example, long-term usage as construction timber is particularly effective, especially if it replaces fossil building materials. Similarly, the usage of wood for energy can mitigate climate change, provided that wood extraction does not exceed regrowth. Biogeophysical effects can also influence local and non-local climate, for example through changes in albedo, roughness, and transpiration. This occurs depending on local conditions as well as forestry adaptation and underscores the need to weigh the various effects of an action that affect climate. In addition, a variety of potentially positive as well as negative side effects on other ecosystem services must be considered - most importantly, biodiversity, water availability, and the need for land for food production.

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    Authors: Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A.; Geilert, Sonja; Fuhr , Michael; Hartmann, Jens;

    Ocean alkanisation: To remove CO2 from the atmosphere and store it in the ocean, the chemical composition of seawater is changed by adding minerals in solid or dissolved form. This process is called ocean alkalinisation. An increase in alkalinity in seawater leads to increased CO2 uptake, which can be achieved by various methods. The ocean gains alkalinity naturally through weathering processes of minerals. Ocean alkalinisation can be seen as an acceleration of this natural process and is a promising method to remove anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere.

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    Authors: Link, P. Michael; Link, Jasmin S. A.; Scheffran, Jürgen;

    Application of Climate Engineering: A problem for peace and security: Although a global consensus about the implementation of climate engineering (CE) technologies is currently unlikely, their initial intention appears to be peaceful. However, the application of some CE technologies requires a steady – or even intensifying – use over long periods of time in order to avoid physical or psychological termination effects. Such CE applications are difficult to reconcile with democratic policy and thus carry a substantial conflict potential. Furthermore, difficulties in measurement or application doses of CE technologies may amplify already existing conflicts. From CE applications, plausible and relevant direct and indirect consequences for peace and security can be derived. The most important linkages of effects and their implications for security are described in complex networks of the consequences of CE applications. These are implemented in a diffusion model to assess the predominant activities and sinks that are possible in such network structures. Applying this model to the examples of stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI) and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), the immanent political and socioeconomic consequences become apparent. Interestingly, some of these effects can already be triggered by information about the CE application, e.g. by fake news.

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    Authors: Dittmeyer, Roland; Dietrich, Benjamin;

    Technical processes for CO2 removal from the atmosphere and storing it underground or in durable products: The use of technical processes to remove CO2 from the atmosphere (DAC) is seen as the last but indispensable option to bring global greenhouse gas emissions first to net zero and then to negative values (IPCC 2022, IEA 2022, Prognos 2021). Avoidance, and where this is not possible reduction, of emissions is to be prioritized over DAC, as are nature-based solutions for CO2 removal. Nevertheless, it is assumed that DAC with a global capacity of gigatons of CO2 per year will be needed in perspective (Viebahn et al. 2019). Research and development must help reduce energy demand and costs, and a market ramp-up must be stimulated to make DAC available on an industrial scale. Captured CO2 is either stored in the geological subsurface (DACCS) or used for carbon-based products (DACCU). The permanence of the emplacement can be increased by mineralization of the CO2 in reactive rock layers, e.g., by the Carbfix process. (Snæbjörnsdóttir et al. 2020) In the case of DACCU, one can only speak of negative CO2 emissions if there is a long service life of the products. Otherwise, they are CO2-neutral approaches in the best case.

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    Authors: Lozán, José L.; Wulf, Christina;

    Industrial CO2 use - An overview: Technologies for CO2 utilisation have recently been gaining in importance. Some CO2 uses, such as the production of urea and methanol, are practised on an industrial scale. Many others are being tested. Good progress has been made in the production of plastics and synthetic fuels. The use of carbonised CO2, e.g. for the production of building materials, can lead to the longterm storage of CO2. Synthetic fuels, however, only store the used CO2 for a short time, but prevent the use of fuels made from petroleum. Re-sequestration keeps the CO2 in the cycle. Synthetic methane can play an important role for energy storage and ammonia for the transport of green hydrogen. Overall, however, the contribution of CO2 uses to climate protection is rather limited. To limit global warming, a combination of many climate engineering methods is required in addition to a drastic reduction of global emissions.

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    Authors: Kasang, Dieter;

    CO2 sources and capture technologies: Two main sources are being discussed for the climate-friendly use of carbon dioxide. With the direct CO2 capture from the ambient air, highly pure CO2 is obtained by technical processes and the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is immediately reduced, albeit only slightly. The CO2 capture from flue gases in industrial combustion processes prevents carbon dioxide from entering the atmosphere. It is faced with the problem that the use of fossil fuels must be stopped in the coming decades for reasons of climate protection.

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