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  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yonghui Lin; Hans-Werner Hammer; Ulf-G. Meißner;
    Publisher: APS
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | STRONG-2020 (824093)

    We present a combined analysis of the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon in the space- and timelike regions using dispersion theory. Our framework provides a consistent description of the experimental data over the full range of momentum transfer, in line with the strictures from analyticity and unitarity. The statistical uncertainties of the extracted form factors are estimated using the bootstrap method, while systematic errors are determined from variations of the spectral functions. We also perform a high-precision extraction of the nucleon radii and find good agreement with previous analyses of spacelike data alone. For the proton charge radius, we find $r_E^p = 0.840^{+0.003}_{-0.002}{}^{+0.002}_{-0.002}$~fm, where the first error is statistical and the second one is systematic. The Zemach radius and third moment are in agreement with Lamb shift measurements and hyperfine splittings. The combined data set of space- and timelike data disfavors a zero crossing of $\mu_p G_E^p/G_M^p$ in the spacelike region. Finally, we discuss the status and perspectives of modulus and phase of the form factors in the timelike region in the context of future experiments as well as the onset of perturbative QCD. Comment: 7 pages, 4 figures

  • Open Access
    Project: WT , EC | Virus-X (685778)

    The archaeal tailed viruses (arTV), evolutionarily related to tailed double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophages of the class Caudoviricetes, represent the most common isolates infecting halophilic archaea. Only a handful of these viruses have been genomically characterized, limiting our appreciation of their ecological impacts and evolution. Here, we present 37 new genomes of haloarchaeal tailed virus isolates, more than doubling the current number of sequenced arTVs. Analysis of all 63 available complete genomes of arTVs, which we propose to classify into 14 new families and 3 orders, suggests ancient divergence of archaeal and bacterial tailed viruses and points to an extensive sharing of genes involved in DNA metabolism and counterdefense mechanisms, illuminating common strategies of virus–host interactions with tailed bacteriophages. Coupling of the comparative genomics with the host range analysis on a broad panel of haloarchaeal species uncovered 4 distinct groups of viral tail fiber adhesins controlling the host range expansion. The survey of metagenomes using viral hallmark genes suggests that the global architecture of the arTV community is shaped through recurrent transfers between different biomes, including hypersaline, marine, and anoxic environments.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Marco Garofalo; Fernando Romero-López; Akaki Rusetsky; Carsten Urbach;
    Project: EC | HIDDeN (860881)

    We test an alternative proposal by Bruno and Hansen [1] to extract the scattering length from lattice simulations in a finite volume. For this, we use a scalar $\phi^4$ theory with two mass nondegenerate particles and explore various strategies to implement this new method. We find that the results are comparable to those obtained from the L\"uscher method, with somewhat smaller statistical uncertainties at larger volumes. Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Chien-Yeah Seng; Daniel Galviz; Mikhail Gorchtein; Ulf-G. Meißner;
    Project: EC | STRONG-2020 (824093)

    The measurements of $V_{us}$ in leptonic $(K_{\mu 2})$ and semileptonic $(K_{l3})$ kaon decays exhibit a $3\sigma$ disagreement, which could originate either from physics beyond the Standard Model or some large unidentified Standard Model systematic effects. Clarifying this issue requires a careful examination of all existing Standard Model inputs. Making use of a newly-proposed computational framework and the most recent lattice QCD results, we perform a comprehensive re-analysis of the electroweak radiative corrections to the $K_{e3}$ decay rates that achieves an unprecedented level of precision of $10^{-4}$, which improves the current best results by almost an order of magnitude. No large systematic effects are found, which suggests that the electroweak radiative corrections should be removed from the ``list of culprits'' responsible for the $K_{\mu 2}$--$K_{l3}$ discrepancy. Comment: Version accepted by JHEP

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Salome Mtchedlidze; Paola Domínguez-Fernández; Xiaolong Du; Axel Brandenburg; Tina Kahniashvili; Shane O’Sullivan; Wolfram Schmidt; Marcus Brüggen;
    Project: EC | MAGCOW (714196)

    Primordial magnetic fields could explain the large-scale magnetic fields present in the Universe. Inflation and phase transitions in the early Universe could give rise to such fields with unique characteristics. We investigate the magneto-hydrodynamic evolution of these magnetogenesis scenarios with cosmological simulations. We evolve inflation-generated magnetic fields either as (i) uniform (homogeneous) or as (ii) scale-invariant stochastic fields, and phase transition-generated ones either as (iii) helical or as (iv) non-helical fields from the radiation-dominated epoch. We find that the final distribution of magnetic fields in the simulated cosmic web shows a dependence on the initial strength and the topology of the seed field. Thus, the observed field configuration retains information on the initial conditions at the moment of the field generation. If detected, primordial magnetic field observations would open a new window for indirect probes of the early universe. The differences between the competing models are revealed on the scale of galaxy clusters, bridges, as well as filaments and voids. The distinctive spectral evolution of different seed fields produces imprints on the correlation length today. We discuss how the differences between rotation measures from highly ionized regions can potentially be probed with forthcoming surveys. 28 pages, 17 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Maia Meparishvili; Lela Chitadze; Vincenzo Lagani; Brian McCabe; Revaz Solomonia; Revaz Solomonia;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | CHARM-Vis (867429)

    Visual imprinting is a learning process whereby young animals come to prefer a visual stimulus after exposure to it (training). The available evidence indicates that the intermediate medial mesopallium (IMM) in the domestic chick forebrain is a site of memory formation during visual imprinting. We have studied the role of Src, an important non-receptor tyrosine kinase, in memory formation. Amounts of total Src (Total-Src) and its two phosphorylated forms, tyrosine-416 (activated, 416P-Src) and tyrosine-527 (inhibited, 527P-Src), were measured 1 and 24 h after training in the IMM and in a control brain region, the posterior pole of nidopallium (PPN). One hour after training, in the left IMM, we observed a positive correlation between the amount of 527P-Src and learning strength that was attributable to learning, and there was also a positive correlation between 416P-Src and learning strength that was attributable to a predisposition to learn readily. Twenty-four hours after training, the amount of Total-Src increased with learning strength in both the left and right IMM, and amount of 527P-Src increased with learning strength only in the left IMM; both correlations were attributable to learning. A further, negative, correlation between learning strength and 416P-Src/Total-Src in the left IMM reflected a predisposition to learn. No learning-related changes were found in the PPN control region. We suggest that there are two pools of Src; one of them in an active state and reflecting a predisposition to learn, and the second one in an inhibited condition, which increases as a result of learning. These two pools may represent two or more signaling pathways, namely, one pathway downstream of Src activated by tyrosine-416 phosphorylation and another upstream of Src, keeping the enzyme in an inactivated state via phosphorylation of tyrosine-527.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Thomas Bergauer; Marko Dragicevic; Ivan Mikulec; Jochen Schieck; Wolfgang Waltenberger; Vladimir Chekhovsky; Tomas Kello; Freya Blekman; Emil Sørensen Bols; Martin Delcourt; +405 more
    Publisher: American Physical Society (APS)
    Project: EC | AMVA4NewPhysics (675440), EC | LHCTOPVLQ (752730), EC | INSIGHTS (765710), EC | HIGCC (724704)

    A search is presented for lepton-flavor violating decays of the Higgs boson to μ τ and e τ . The dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 137 fb - 1 collected at the LHC in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. No significant excess has been found, and the results are interpreted in terms of upper limits on lepton-flavor violating branching fractions of the Higgs boson. The observed (expected) upper limits on the branching fractions are, respectively, B ( H → μ τ ) 0.15 ( 0.15 ) % and B ( H → e τ ) 0.22 ( 0.16 ) % at 95% confidence level.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Wolfgang Adam; Thomas Bergauer; Marko Dragicevic; Jochen Schieck; Wolfgang Waltenberger; Vladimir Chekhovsky; Aliaksandr Litomin; D. Di Croce; Maxim Pieters; Freya Blekman; +411 more
    Publisher: American Physical Society (APS)
    Project: EC | LHCTOPVLQ (752730), EC | AMVA4NewPhysics (675440), EC | INSIGHTS (765710), EC | HIGCC (724704)

    The CMS experiment at the LHC has measured the differential cross sections of Z bosons decaying to pairs of leptons, as functions of transverse momentum and rapidity, in lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV. The measured Z boson elliptic azimuthal anisotropy coefficient is compatible with zero, showing that Z bosons do not experience significant final-state interactions in the medium produced in the collision. Yields of Z bosons are compared to Glauber model predictions and are found to deviate from these expectations in peripheral collisions, indicating the presence of initial collision geometry and centrality selection effects. The precision of the measurement allows, for the first time, for a data-driven determination of the nucleon-nucleon integrated luminosity as a function of lead-lead centrality, thereby eliminating the need for its estimation based on a Glauber model.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Thomas Bergauer; Marko Dragicevic; Jochen Schieck; Wolfgang Waltenberger; E. A. De Wolf; Freya Blekman; Emil Sørensen Bols; Stefaan Tavernier; Andrey Popov; Elizabeth Starling; +407 more
    Publisher: American Physical Society
    Countries: Spain, United States, Italy, United Kingdom, Belgium, Spain, Russian Federation, Italy, Belgium, Czech Republic ...
    Project: EC | AMVA4NewPhysics (675440), EC | LHCTOPVLQ (752730), EC | HIGCC (724704), EC | INSIGHTS (765710)

    Events where the two leading jets are separated by a pseudorapidity interval devoid of particle activity, known as jet-gap-jet events, are studied in proton-proton collisions at √s = 13 TeV. The signature is expected from hard color-singlet exchange. Each of the highest transverse momentum (p(T)) jets must have p(T)(jet) > 40 GeV and pseudorapidity 1.4 0.2 GeV in the interval vertical bar eta vertical bar < 1 between the jets are observed in excess of calculations that assume only color-exchange. The fraction of events produced via color-singlet exchange, f(CSE), is measured as a function of p(T)(jet2), the pseudorapidity difference between the two leading jets, and the azimuthal angular separation between the two leading jets. The fraction f(CSE) has values of 0.4-1.0%. The results are compared with previous measurements and with predictions from perturbative quantum chromodynamics. In addition, the first study of jet-gap-jet events detected in association with an intact proton using a subsample of events with an integrated luminosity of 0.40 pb(-1) is presented. The intact protons are detected with the Roman pot detectors of the TOTEM experiment. The f(CSE) in this sample is 2.91 +/- 0.70(stat)(-1.01)(+1.08)(syst) times larger than that for inclusive dijet production in dijets with similar kinematics. Physical Review D, 104 (3) ISSN:0556-2821 ISSN:1550-2368 ISSN:1550-7998

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gelabert, Pere; Sawyer, Susanna; Bergström, Anders; Margaryan, Ashot; Collin, Thomas C; Meshveliani, Tengiz; Belfer-Cohen, Anna; Lordkipanidze, David; Jakeli, Nino; Matskevich, Zinovi; +11 more
    Publisher: Cell Press
    Countries: Netherlands, Denmark
    Project: EC | AGRICON (852558), EC | CSEYHP (217223)

    Summary Cave sediments have been shown to preserve ancient DNA but so far have not yielded the genome-scale information of skeletal remains. We retrieved and analyzed human and mammalian nuclear and mitochondrial environmental “shotgun” genomes from a single 25,000-year-old Upper Paleolithic sediment sample from Satsurblia cave, western Georgia:first, a human environmental genome with substantial basal Eurasian ancestry, which was an ancestral component of the majority of post-Ice Age people in the Near East, North Africa, and parts of Europe; second, a wolf environmental genome that is basal to extant Eurasian wolves and dogs and represents a previously unknown, likely extinct, Caucasian lineage; and third, a European bison environmental genome that is basal to present-day populations, suggesting that population structure has been substantially reshaped since the Last Glacial Maximum. Our results provide new insights into the Late Pleistocene genetic histories of these three species and demonstrate that direct shotgun sequencing of sediment DNA, without target enrichment methods, can yield genome-wide data informative of ancestry and phylogenetic relationships. Highlights • A single shotgun-sequenced Pleistocene sediment yielded genomic data of three mammals • Sediment genome sequencing can produce data comparable to that from skeletal remains • A pre-LGM human lineage from the Caucasus was an ancestral component of West Eurasia • ∼0.01X wolf and bison environmental genomes, suggesting reshaping of populations Cave sediments preserve ancient DNA for thousands of years. Gelabert et al. retrieve human and mammalian nuclear and mitochondrial environmental “shotgun” genomes from a single 25,000-year-old sediment sample from Satsurblia cave. Their results provide insights into the population genetic histories of three mammalian species.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
333 Research products, page 1 of 34
  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yonghui Lin; Hans-Werner Hammer; Ulf-G. Meißner;
    Publisher: APS
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | STRONG-2020 (824093)

    We present a combined analysis of the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon in the space- and timelike regions using dispersion theory. Our framework provides a consistent description of the experimental data over the full range of momentum transfer, in line with the strictures from analyticity and unitarity. The statistical uncertainties of the extracted form factors are estimated using the bootstrap method, while systematic errors are determined from variations of the spectral functions. We also perform a high-precision extraction of the nucleon radii and find good agreement with previous analyses of spacelike data alone. For the proton charge radius, we find $r_E^p = 0.840^{+0.003}_{-0.002}{}^{+0.002}_{-0.002}$~fm, where the first error is statistical and the second one is systematic. The Zemach radius and third moment are in agreement with Lamb shift measurements and hyperfine splittings. The combined data set of space- and timelike data disfavors a zero crossing of $\mu_p G_E^p/G_M^p$ in the spacelike region. Finally, we discuss the status and perspectives of modulus and phase of the form factors in the timelike region in the context of future experiments as well as the onset of perturbative QCD. Comment: 7 pages, 4 figures

  • Open Access
    Project: WT , EC | Virus-X (685778)

    The archaeal tailed viruses (arTV), evolutionarily related to tailed double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophages of the class Caudoviricetes, represent the most common isolates infecting halophilic archaea. Only a handful of these viruses have been genomically characterized, limiting our appreciation of their ecological impacts and evolution. Here, we present 37 new genomes of haloarchaeal tailed virus isolates, more than doubling the current number of sequenced arTVs. Analysis of all 63 available complete genomes of arTVs, which we propose to classify into 14 new families and 3 orders, suggests ancient divergence of archaeal and bacterial tailed viruses and points to an extensive sharing of genes involved in DNA metabolism and counterdefense mechanisms, illuminating common strategies of virus–host interactions with tailed bacteriophages. Coupling of the comparative genomics with the host range analysis on a broad panel of haloarchaeal species uncovered 4 distinct groups of viral tail fiber adhesins controlling the host range expansion. The survey of metagenomes using viral hallmark genes suggests that the global architecture of the arTV community is shaped through recurrent transfers between different biomes, including hypersaline, marine, and anoxic environments.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Marco Garofalo; Fernando Romero-López; Akaki Rusetsky; Carsten Urbach;
    Project: EC | HIDDeN (860881)

    We test an alternative proposal by Bruno and Hansen [1] to extract the scattering length from lattice simulations in a finite volume. For this, we use a scalar $\phi^4$ theory with two mass nondegenerate particles and explore various strategies to implement this new method. We find that the results are comparable to those obtained from the L\"uscher method, with somewhat smaller statistical uncertainties at larger volumes. Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Chien-Yeah Seng; Daniel Galviz; Mikhail Gorchtein; Ulf-G. Meißner;
    Project: EC | STRONG-2020 (824093)

    The measurements of $V_{us}$ in leptonic $(K_{\mu 2})$ and semileptonic $(K_{l3})$ kaon decays exhibit a $3\sigma$ disagreement, which could originate either from physics beyond the Standard Model or some large unidentified Standard Model systematic effects. Clarifying this issue requires a careful examination of all existing Standard Model inputs. Making use of a newly-proposed computational framework and the most recent lattice QCD results, we perform a comprehensive re-analysis of the electroweak radiative corrections to the $K_{e3}$ decay rates that achieves an unprecedented level of precision of $10^{-4}$, which improves the current best results by almost an order of magnitude. No large systematic effects are found, which suggests that the electroweak radiative corrections should be removed from the ``list of culprits'' responsible for the $K_{\mu 2}$--$K_{l3}$ discrepancy. Comment: Version accepted by JHEP

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Salome Mtchedlidze; Paola Domínguez-Fernández; Xiaolong Du; Axel Brandenburg; Tina Kahniashvili; Shane O’Sullivan; Wolfram Schmidt; Marcus Brüggen;
    Project: EC | MAGCOW (714196)

    Primordial magnetic fields could explain the large-scale magnetic fields present in the Universe. Inflation and phase transitions in the early Universe could give rise to such fields with unique characteristics. We investigate the magneto-hydrodynamic evolution of these magnetogenesis scenarios with cosmological simulations. We evolve inflation-generated magnetic fields either as (i) uniform (homogeneous) or as (ii) scale-invariant stochastic fields, and phase transition-generated ones either as (iii) helical or as (iv) non-helical fields from the radiation-dominated epoch. We find that the final distribution of magnetic fields in the simulated cosmic web shows a dependence on the initial strength and the topology of the seed field. Thus, the observed field configuration retains information on the initial conditions at the moment of the field generation. If detected, primordial magnetic field observations would open a new window for indirect probes of the early universe. The differences between the competing models are revealed on the scale of galaxy clusters, bridges, as well as filaments and voids. The distinctive spectral evolution of different seed fields produces imprints on the correlation length today. We discuss how the differences between rotation measures from highly ionized regions can potentially be probed with forthcoming surveys. 28 pages, 17 figures, accepted for publication in ApJ

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Maia Meparishvili; Lela Chitadze; Vincenzo Lagani; Brian McCabe; Revaz Solomonia; Revaz Solomonia;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: EC | CHARM-Vis (867429)

    Visual imprinting is a learning process whereby young animals come to prefer a visual stimulus after exposure to it (training). The available evidence indicates that the intermediate medial mesopallium (IMM) in the domestic chick forebrain is a site of memory formation during visual imprinting. We have studied the role of Src, an important non-receptor tyrosine kinase, in memory formation. Amounts of total Src (Total-Src) and its two phosphorylated forms, tyrosine-416 (activated, 416P-Src) and tyrosine-527 (inhibited, 527P-Src), were measured 1 and 24 h after training in the IMM and in a control brain region, the posterior pole of nidopallium (PPN). One hour after training, in the left IMM, we observed a positive correlation between the amount of 527P-Src and learning strength that was attributable to learning, and there was also a positive correlation between 416P-Src and learning strength that was attributable to a predisposition to learn readily. Twenty-four hours after training, the amount of Total-Src increased with learning strength in both the left and right IMM, and amount of 527P-Src increased with learning strength only in the left IMM; both correlations were attributable to learning. A further, negative, correlation between learning strength and 416P-Src/Total-Src in the left IMM reflected a predisposition to learn. No learning-related changes were found in the PPN control region. We suggest that there are two pools of Src; one of them in an active state and reflecting a predisposition to learn, and the second one in an inhibited condition, which increases as a result of learning. These two pools may represent two or more signaling pathways, namely, one pathway downstream of Src activated by tyrosine-416 phosphorylation and another upstream of Src, keeping the enzyme in an inactivated state via phosphorylation of tyrosine-527.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Thomas Bergauer; Marko Dragicevic; Ivan Mikulec; Jochen Schieck; Wolfgang Waltenberger; Vladimir Chekhovsky; Tomas Kello; Freya Blekman; Emil Sørensen Bols; Martin Delcourt; +405 more
    Publisher: American Physical Society (APS)
    Project: EC | AMVA4NewPhysics (675440), EC | LHCTOPVLQ (752730), EC | INSIGHTS (765710), EC | HIGCC (724704)

    A search is presented for lepton-flavor violating decays of the Higgs boson to μ τ and e τ . The dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 137 fb - 1 collected at the LHC in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. No significant excess has been found, and the results are interpreted in terms of upper limits on lepton-flavor violating branching fractions of the Higgs boson. The observed (expected) upper limits on the branching fractions are, respectively, B ( H → μ τ ) 0.15 ( 0.15 ) % and B ( H → e τ ) 0.22 ( 0.16 ) % at 95% confidence level.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Wolfgang Adam; Thomas Bergauer; Marko Dragicevic; Jochen Schieck; Wolfgang Waltenberger; Vladimir Chekhovsky; Aliaksandr Litomin; D. Di Croce; Maxim Pieters; Freya Blekman; +411 more
    Publisher: American Physical Society (APS)
    Project: EC | LHCTOPVLQ (752730), EC | AMVA4NewPhysics (675440), EC | INSIGHTS (765710), EC | HIGCC (724704)

    The CMS experiment at the LHC has measured the differential cross sections of Z bosons decaying to pairs of leptons, as functions of transverse momentum and rapidity, in lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV. The measured Z boson elliptic azimuthal anisotropy coefficient is compatible with zero, showing that Z bosons do not experience significant final-state interactions in the medium produced in the collision. Yields of Z bosons are compared to Glauber model predictions and are found to deviate from these expectations in peripheral collisions, indicating the presence of initial collision geometry and centrality selection effects. The precision of the measurement allows, for the first time, for a data-driven determination of the nucleon-nucleon integrated luminosity as a function of lead-lead centrality, thereby eliminating the need for its estimation based on a Glauber model.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Thomas Bergauer; Marko Dragicevic; Jochen Schieck; Wolfgang Waltenberger; E. A. De Wolf; Freya Blekman; Emil Sørensen Bols; Stefaan Tavernier; Andrey Popov; Elizabeth Starling; +407 more
    Publisher: American Physical Society
    Countries: Spain, United States, Italy, United Kingdom, Belgium, Spain, Russian Federation, Italy, Belgium, Czech Republic ...
    Project: EC | AMVA4NewPhysics (675440), EC | LHCTOPVLQ (752730), EC | HIGCC (724704), EC | INSIGHTS (765710)

    Events where the two leading jets are separated by a pseudorapidity interval devoid of particle activity, known as jet-gap-jet events, are studied in proton-proton collisions at √s = 13 TeV. The signature is expected from hard color-singlet exchange. Each of the highest transverse momentum (p(T)) jets must have p(T)(jet) > 40 GeV and pseudorapidity 1.4 0.2 GeV in the interval vertical bar eta vertical bar < 1 between the jets are observed in excess of calculations that assume only color-exchange. The fraction of events produced via color-singlet exchange, f(CSE), is measured as a function of p(T)(jet2), the pseudorapidity difference between the two leading jets, and the azimuthal angular separation between the two leading jets. The fraction f(CSE) has values of 0.4-1.0%. The results are compared with previous measurements and with predictions from perturbative quantum chromodynamics. In addition, the first study of jet-gap-jet events detected in association with an intact proton using a subsample of events with an integrated luminosity of 0.40 pb(-1) is presented. The intact protons are detected with the Roman pot detectors of the TOTEM experiment. The f(CSE) in this sample is 2.91 +/- 0.70(stat)(-1.01)(+1.08)(syst) times larger than that for inclusive dijet production in dijets with similar kinematics. Physical Review D, 104 (3) ISSN:0556-2821 ISSN:1550-2368 ISSN:1550-7998

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gelabert, Pere; Sawyer, Susanna; Bergström, Anders; Margaryan, Ashot; Collin, Thomas C; Meshveliani, Tengiz; Belfer-Cohen, Anna; Lordkipanidze, David; Jakeli, Nino; Matskevich, Zinovi; +11 more
    Publisher: Cell Press
    Countries: Netherlands, Denmark
    Project: EC | AGRICON (852558), EC | CSEYHP (217223)

    Summary Cave sediments have been shown to preserve ancient DNA but so far have not yielded the genome-scale information of skeletal remains. We retrieved and analyzed human and mammalian nuclear and mitochondrial environmental “shotgun” genomes from a single 25,000-year-old Upper Paleolithic sediment sample from Satsurblia cave, western Georgia:first, a human environmental genome with substantial basal Eurasian ancestry, which was an ancestral component of the majority of post-Ice Age people in the Near East, North Africa, and parts of Europe; second, a wolf environmental genome that is basal to extant Eurasian wolves and dogs and represents a previously unknown, likely extinct, Caucasian lineage; and third, a European bison environmental genome that is basal to present-day populations, suggesting that population structure has been substantially reshaped since the Last Glacial Maximum. Our results provide new insights into the Late Pleistocene genetic histories of these three species and demonstrate that direct shotgun sequencing of sediment DNA, without target enrichment methods, can yield genome-wide data informative of ancestry and phylogenetic relationships. Highlights • A single shotgun-sequenced Pleistocene sediment yielded genomic data of three mammals • Sediment genome sequencing can produce data comparable to that from skeletal remains • A pre-LGM human lineage from the Caucasus was an ancestral component of West Eurasia • ∼0.01X wolf and bison environmental genomes, suggesting reshaping of populations Cave sediments preserve ancient DNA for thousands of years. Gelabert et al. retrieve human and mammalian nuclear and mitochondrial environmental “shotgun” genomes from a single 25,000-year-old sediment sample from Satsurblia cave. Their results provide insights into the population genetic histories of three mammalian species.

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