Simple Summary Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been applied to analyse the quality of forage and animal feed. However, grasslands more than other raw materials are linked to many variability factors (e.g., site, year, occurring species, etc.) that can represent strong points as well as weak points in NIRS estimation. This research is aimed at testing NIRS application for the determination of chemical characteristics of fresh, undried and unground samples of meadows and grasslands located in north-central Apennine. The interest lies in the possibility of monitoring grassland resources, supporting the decision in terms of the need of supplementation and identifying the critical periods for cutting grassland intended for animal feeding. The results indicated that FT-NIRS models could be used in the real-time quantification of crude protein, fibrous fraction and dry matter, while for lignin only a screening test could be considered. Minor components of grassland such as ash and lipids need improvement. As a practical point, a key factor of FT-NIRS in grassland chemical quality estimation is the absence of samples preparation and the importance of the parameters that have obtained the best results in animal diet formulation. Abstract Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and closed spectroscopy methods have been applied to analyse the quality of forage and animal feed. However, grasslands are linked to variability factors (e.g., site, year, occurring species, etc.) which restrict the prediction capacity of the NIRS. The aim of this study is to test the Fourier transform NIRS application in order to determine the chemical characteristics of fresh, undried and unground samples of grassland located in north-central Apennine. The results indicated the success of FT-NIRS models for dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) on fresh grassland samples (R2 > 0.90, in validation). The model can be used to quantitatively determine CP and ADF (residual prediction deviation-RPD > 3 and range error ratio- RER > 10), followed by DM and NDF that maintain a RER > 10, and are sufficient for screening for the lignin fraction (RPD = 2.4 and RER = 8.8). On the contrary, models for both lipid and ash seem not to be usable at a practical level. The success of FT-NIRS quantification for the main chemical parameters is promising from the practical point of view considering both the absence of samples preparation and the importance of these parameters for diet formulation.
The main purpose of the 92/43/EEC Habitats Directive is to contribute to the conservation of biodiversity, understood as habitat types and species of the flora and fauna of the European Union. To achieve this goal, natural and semi-natural biodiversity as a whole must be recognized and included in its annexes. As for the conservation of biotopes, named habitat types, Italy is unfortunately lacking as it the Annex I does not include important ecosystems that are typical of its territory, rare for biogeographical reasons or threatened. Therefore, the opportunity to identify a first list of significant habitats for central Italy is discussed here. For each of the new proposed types (new habitats or new subtypes) a sheet has been prepared to highlight their salient characteristics. The new proposals concern seven habitat types and one subtype: sedge and reeds formations (Freshwater large sedge and reed beds), willow shrublands (Shrubby willow formations of river banks and fens), Apennine garrigues (Apennine hilly and montane garrigues), a new subtype of Annex I Habitat 6130 (Communities of herbaceous and dwarf shrub-suffrutescent plants of Italian ultramafic substrates), ancient olive groves ("Centuries-old olive groves" with evergreen Quercus spp. and arborescent matorral), secondary meadows (Italian submontane and montane pastured meadows dominated by Cynosurus cristatus), badlands (Pioneer halophilous and sub-halophilous communities of “calanchi” and “biancane” badlands) and hop-hornbeam woods (Italian-Balkan hop-hornbeam woods).
L’articolo illustra i risultati di un percorso che le autrici stanno sviluppando, sia attraverso esperienze di ricerca presso le proprie istituzioni, sia con l’animazione del gruppo tecnico “Aree interne e dintorni” della Società Italiana degli Urbanisti (SIU). Partendo da un excursus critico di politiche internazionali e nazionali che, nel tempo, hanno cercato di affrontare (con esiti ancora limitati) i fenomeni di polarizzazione e il simmetrico processo di periferizzazione e depauperamento di vasti territori, si sta procedendo a una riflessione sulle modalità di mappatura di diverse forme di squilibrio e attivismo territoriale. In tale ottica, la restituzione dei risultati di un’indagine su esperienze di rigenerazione in diverse aree interne e periferiche del nostro Paese offre una prospettiva interpretativa “fuori baricentro”, da cui è possibile iniziare a ripensare gli approcci alla lettura delle dinamiche di marginalizzazione e i criteri per valutare gli effetti delle politiche volte a contrastarle. Parole chiave: aree interne, marginalizzazione, politiche di coesione BDC. Bollettino Del Centro Calza Bini, Vol 21 No 2 (2021): Inner and Marginalized Areas: Geographies and Alliances Towards New Cohesion Policies
Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive skin cancer characterized by an elevated grade of tumor cell plasticity. Such plasticity allows adaptation of melanoma cells to different hostile conditions and guarantees tumor survival and disease progression, including aggressive features such as drug resistance. Indeed, almost 50% of melanoma rapidly develop resistance to the BRAFV600E inhibitor vemurafenib, with fast tumor dissemination, a devastating consequence for patients outcomes. Vasculogenic mimicry (VM), the ability of cancer cells to organize themselves in perfused vascular-like channels, might sustain tumor spread by providing vemurafenib-resistant cancer cells with supplementary ways to enter into circulation and disseminate. Thus, this research aims to determine if vemurafenib resistance goes with the acquisition of VM ability by aggressive melanoma cells, and identify a driving molecule for both vemurafenib resistance and VM. We used two independent experimental models of drug-resistant melanoma cells, the first one represented by a chronic adaptation of melanoma cells to extracellular acidosis, known to drive a particularly aggressive and vemurafenib-resistant phenotype, the second one generated with chronic vemurafenib exposure. By performing in vitro tube formation assay and evaluating the expression levels of the VM markers EphA2 and VE-cadherin by Western blotting and flow cytometer analyses, we demonstrated that vemurafenib-resistant cells obtained by both models are characterized by an increased ability to perform VM. Moreover, by exploiting the CRISPR-Cas9 technique and using the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) inhibitor M25, we identified uPAR as a driver of VM expressed by vemurafenib-resistant melanoma cells. Thus, uPAR targeting may be successfully leveraged as a new complementary therapy to inhibit VM in drug-resistant melanoma patients, to counteract the rapid progression and dissemination of the disease.
Publisher: Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology
Objective: Evaluating gender differences in resilience, depression, and anxiety levels in patients suffering from lymphoma and exploring possible association between constructs. Method: The study enrolled a consecutive series of 110 patients suffering from lymphoma compared with 140 controls matched for age, gender, and education. Several validated instruments were used: to measure resilience, anxious and depressive symptoms. Comparisons between groups were performed using a one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Pearson Correlation���s was used to investigate the associations between constructs. Results: Significant gender differences between female and male patients with lymphoma were found for all the explored dimensions. Psychological constructs seemed to be more compromised in the patients��� group than in the control group and specifically more in women than in men. This finding underlines higher sensitiveness for women affected by lymphoma. Resilience (i.e., SOC and SOM scores) and level of depression and anxiety are more strongly associated among female patients than among male patients. Conclusion: The main finding of the present study is that for patients suffering from lymphoma, resilience and psychopathology have a different pathway based on gender. These gender differences can be considered to prompt appropriate tailored psychological treatments for depressive and anxious symptoms in onco- hematology. Women with lymphomas displayed lower mean in resilience score (SOC and SOM), and greater level of depression and anxiety than women in the control group. The comparisons between men with lymphomas and men in the control group point out significant differences only for the level of depression and anxiety which was higher in male patients than in male controls. On the other hand, women with lymphoma displayed poorer level of Resilience (SOC and SOM) and higher level of depression and anxiety than men affected by Lymphoma. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol 9, No 3 (2021)
In order to achieve the goal of carbon neutrality and explore the impact of COVID-19 on urban road carbon emission, this study applied and improved a near real-time road carbon emission estimation method for typical Chinese urban agglomeration to improve the rapid evaluation of sustainable development. As a result, we recorded the daily road carbon emission for 12 cities in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (JJJ) region under the impact of the epidemic, exploring the road carbon reduction effect caused by COVID-19. Singular value decomposition method was used to analyze the temporal and spatial characteristics of road carbon emission changes among cities and to explore the urban resilience oriented to public events. The results show: (1) In the JJJ region, the carbon reduction effect caused by COVID-19 is significant, but it lasted for a short time. In the three periods—before the epidemic, strict lockdown period, and post-lockdown period for prevention and control—the total daily road carbon emissions in the 12 cities were 170,000–190,000 tons, 90,000–110,000 tons, and 160,000–180,000 tons, respectively. (2) Cities in the JJJ region showed different road carbon reduction potential under short-term administrative control. During the “strict lockdown period” (23 January–25 February 2020), the average change rate of road carbon emissions in Beijing was −78.72%, which had great potential for reduction. However, the average change rates of Xingtai and Zhangjiakou were only −7.53% and −8.66%, respectively. (3) There are spatiotemporal differences in carbon emissions of urban roads in the JJJ region under the impact of the epidemic. During the gradual reduction of COVID-19 restrictions, great differences between cities on weekends and holidays arise, showing the road carbon emissions in Beijing on weekends and holidays are far lower than that in other cities. (4) In the face of public emergencies, the larger the city is and the more complex the function of the city is, the more difficult for the city is to maintain a steady state. This study not only provides an idea for the dynamic monitoring of urban carbon emissions to improve the rapid evaluation of urban sustainable development in post- and pre-lockdown but also fills the gap in the research on the differences in the response of cities to sudden security incidents from the perspective of road carbon emissions.
The aim of this paper is to advance a formal description of the implicit logic grounding of the psychoanalytic theory. We therefore propose a new interpretation of the logical features of the Freudian unconscious process, starting from the Bi-logic formulation put forward by the Chilean psychoanalyst Matte Blanco. We conceive the universal undifferentiated state of the deep psychoanalytic Unconscious in terms of particular sets named infinite singletons, and we show how they can represent the logical foundations for a formal description of the Primary process. We first disclose some implicit assumptions underlying the common logical language. In doing so, we discover an unexpected presence of symmetry even in the most basic of logical and verbal structures. In the approach derived, we show that infiniteness, not finiteness, is the primary mode of sets, and therefore, of thinking. The pivotal consequence of this model is that the unconscious elements cannot be characterised in the absence of external reality, which produces the collapse of infinite sets and allows for the emergence of linguistic representations. Finally, we discuss how the model could represent a platform to formalise further developments of psychoanalytic theory, in particular with respect to the shift from the First to the Second Topics in Freudian theory.