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  • Publication . Article . 2019
    Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Enn Ernits;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    The article gives an insight into the hagiology (Old Russian житие) of Alexander Nevsky (ca. 1220–1263), Grand Prince of Novgorod and Vladimir. It was probably put down in the 1280s, at the Nativity Monastery in Vladimir, where his body was initially buried and where, in the late 14th century, he was canonised. The hagiology was written by an unknown author. About twenty versions of the hagiology, dating back to the 14th–19th centuries, have been preserved, and all in all, about 500 manuscript texts. The unknown author did not describe Alexander Nevsky’s entire life but focused on certain details essential for the hagiology, such as the Battle of the Neva, driving out the German invaders from Pskov, the Battle on the Ice, a campaign in the Lithuanian territories, and diplomatic relations with the Golden Horde and Vatican. The ruler is depicted as an ideal hero – a brave commander, a wise politician, and a skilful diplomat. The author has not attempted to show Nevsky as a real person but has rather constructed him as a good Christian, a saint, and a pious man, who believes in Christ and therefore defeats all the enemies of Russia. The hagiology of Alexander Nevsky is a pathetic work written in the superlative, which, based on the then canons, glorifies the hero, yet includes many inconsistencies and exaggerations. It is especially important to emphasise that the story strongly overestimates the Battle of the Neva (1240) and the Battle on the Ice (1242), which were actually of local importance only. In the description of the Battle of the Neva an interesting detail is an Izhorian called Pelkoinen (in the hagiology Пелгусий) or Pelkoi (Пелгуй). These names are the first recordings of words in Izhorian. It can be concluded that Alexander Nevsky’s hagiology was a significant religious work in Russian political and church history, which aimed, through overestimating the hero’s deeds, to create and canonise the figure of an ideal ruler, which in turn helped to strengthen Russian statehood and Russians’ national identity.

  • Publication . Article . 2016
    Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Iivi Zajedova;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    The tradition of Estonians’ cultural festivals is a rich topic and may be considered profoundly distinctive for Estonian people. It is a unique way of maintaining and advancing the traditions of national heritage through a variety of activities. Since after World War II a forced separation took place in Estonian national culture and many citizens of the former Republic of Estonia escaped from the Soviet occupation to the Free World (thereby splitting geographically into the groups of homeland Estonians and Estonians abroad), the tradition of cultural festivals continued on both sides of the Iron Curtain, in an effort to maintain traditions under different circumstances. This special issue of the journal is the outcome of a project begun in 2012, to investigate the role of folk dance hobby activities and festival traditions in the maintenance of national culture. During the compilation of the special issue the focus shifted towards the question of the role of Estonians’ traditional festivals in the ever-changing world – their viability and transmission of the traditions of national identity both in Estonia and abroad. This issue covers the experiences of hobbyists in traditional cultural activities, their involvement in festivals, and their cultural contribution, both in Estonia and in communities outside it. Among the basic themes of the articles the following deserve special attention: the place of the Baltic countries’ song festivals in the world cultural heritage and the relationship between new and traditional songs; the role of dance festivals in the preservation and transmission of traditional dancing skills in contemporary Estonia and the nature of cultural heritage being maintained at dance festivals; the role of folk dance among the Skolt Saami, our neighbours in the North, in shaping their history, identity, and future, as well as the connections between contemporary Skolt Saami folk dance and identity; the revitalisation of old folk musical instrument traditions both in Estonia and among the Estonian diaspora; the split and repression in the realm of choir music, due to the forced separation by a foreign power; the recording of World War II refugees’ cultural events on narrow gauge film in Sweden and the identification of the filmed individuals by a group of experts. Another and not less important goal of this issue is to stimulate a more wide-ranging discussion in Estonian society about the role of hobbies and traditional festivals, especially outside Estonia, which are an integral part of Estonian national culture and Estonian folk culture.

  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Piret Voolaid;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    The aim of the paper is to analyse the collective expression of attitudes elicited by the doping scandal that concerned the esteemed Estonian cross-country skier and Olympic gold medal winner, Andrus Veer­palu. The paper provides an insight into the evolution of an athlete into a national hero on the Internet. The analysis is based on the material col­lected from Estonian online media during two years (from April 2011 to March 2013), when Andrus Veerpalu’s court case was actively followed by the Estonian sports circles and laymen alike. The data corpus includes the most relevant news texts published in the online news portal Delfi (www.delfi.ee), comments from the same online environment, posts from the Facebook fan sites, e.g., “We believe in Andrus Veerpalu”, etc. The doping accusation called forth a quasi-religious movement, which was built around the belief that the athlete was sacred and it was not allowed to attack or accuse him in any way. The main threads in the comments analysed within this study could be divided into two opposing, although intertwining categories: the serious and the ironic. Both categories included people who believed in Veerpalu’s innocence, and those who did not; in addition, there were those who displayed their superiority towards the entire discussion. The analysis addresses the transformation of an Olympic hero into a national hero, and points out narratives that treat the scandal within the present-day genres of urban legends, conspiracy theories, and Internet humour. The more or less genuine belief of people was reflected in sought-out explanations for the doping test result and counter-arguments (above all, via conspiracy stories, but also through social mobilisation in support of Veerpalu). In the post factum comments, the ma­jority expressed the feeling that their trust had been justified; they renewed their unremitting belief in the acquitted hero. But the rather complicated end to the long case was also a confusing one, and this allowed the ironic discourse to produce parodies, jokes and other critical comments. The questions central to the analysis are the following: (1) How does the audience interpret information provided by the media and which topics do the interpretations initiate in turn? (2) How does the notion of belief emerge in the discussion, which narratives and stereotypes are believed in, and how is the belief rationalised? (3) Which folkloric and other cultural (transmedial) texts have taken inspiration from this doping scandal?

  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Lauri Liiders;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    This paper provides an overview of the first detailed case study of a Buddhist congregation in Estonia. The object of this study is Triratna Buddhist Community in Estonia, which was established here in 1989 and is part of international Triratna Buddhist Community (formerly known as Friends of the Western Buddhist Order) created in the United Kingdom in 1967. Mainly through oral history and participant observation methods as well as analysis of data presented by different written and oral sources the researcher strives to give an overview of various aspects of activity connected with one particular Buddhist group in Estonia, including its practice, ordination rituals, beliefs and membership characteristics. It also includes a detailed overview of the congregation’s history and its relationship with members of Triratna congregations in Finland and the UK. It presents Buddhism as an emerging new religion in Estonia through a case study of a Western Buddhist ecumenical congregation.

Advanced search in
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arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
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Include:
4 Research products, page 1 of 1
  • Publication . Article . 2019
    Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Enn Ernits;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    The article gives an insight into the hagiology (Old Russian житие) of Alexander Nevsky (ca. 1220–1263), Grand Prince of Novgorod and Vladimir. It was probably put down in the 1280s, at the Nativity Monastery in Vladimir, where his body was initially buried and where, in the late 14th century, he was canonised. The hagiology was written by an unknown author. About twenty versions of the hagiology, dating back to the 14th–19th centuries, have been preserved, and all in all, about 500 manuscript texts. The unknown author did not describe Alexander Nevsky’s entire life but focused on certain details essential for the hagiology, such as the Battle of the Neva, driving out the German invaders from Pskov, the Battle on the Ice, a campaign in the Lithuanian territories, and diplomatic relations with the Golden Horde and Vatican. The ruler is depicted as an ideal hero – a brave commander, a wise politician, and a skilful diplomat. The author has not attempted to show Nevsky as a real person but has rather constructed him as a good Christian, a saint, and a pious man, who believes in Christ and therefore defeats all the enemies of Russia. The hagiology of Alexander Nevsky is a pathetic work written in the superlative, which, based on the then canons, glorifies the hero, yet includes many inconsistencies and exaggerations. It is especially important to emphasise that the story strongly overestimates the Battle of the Neva (1240) and the Battle on the Ice (1242), which were actually of local importance only. In the description of the Battle of the Neva an interesting detail is an Izhorian called Pelkoinen (in the hagiology Пелгусий) or Pelkoi (Пелгуй). These names are the first recordings of words in Izhorian. It can be concluded that Alexander Nevsky’s hagiology was a significant religious work in Russian political and church history, which aimed, through overestimating the hero’s deeds, to create and canonise the figure of an ideal ruler, which in turn helped to strengthen Russian statehood and Russians’ national identity.

  • Publication . Article . 2016
    Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Iivi Zajedova;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    The tradition of Estonians’ cultural festivals is a rich topic and may be considered profoundly distinctive for Estonian people. It is a unique way of maintaining and advancing the traditions of national heritage through a variety of activities. Since after World War II a forced separation took place in Estonian national culture and many citizens of the former Republic of Estonia escaped from the Soviet occupation to the Free World (thereby splitting geographically into the groups of homeland Estonians and Estonians abroad), the tradition of cultural festivals continued on both sides of the Iron Curtain, in an effort to maintain traditions under different circumstances. This special issue of the journal is the outcome of a project begun in 2012, to investigate the role of folk dance hobby activities and festival traditions in the maintenance of national culture. During the compilation of the special issue the focus shifted towards the question of the role of Estonians’ traditional festivals in the ever-changing world – their viability and transmission of the traditions of national identity both in Estonia and abroad. This issue covers the experiences of hobbyists in traditional cultural activities, their involvement in festivals, and their cultural contribution, both in Estonia and in communities outside it. Among the basic themes of the articles the following deserve special attention: the place of the Baltic countries’ song festivals in the world cultural heritage and the relationship between new and traditional songs; the role of dance festivals in the preservation and transmission of traditional dancing skills in contemporary Estonia and the nature of cultural heritage being maintained at dance festivals; the role of folk dance among the Skolt Saami, our neighbours in the North, in shaping their history, identity, and future, as well as the connections between contemporary Skolt Saami folk dance and identity; the revitalisation of old folk musical instrument traditions both in Estonia and among the Estonian diaspora; the split and repression in the realm of choir music, due to the forced separation by a foreign power; the recording of World War II refugees’ cultural events on narrow gauge film in Sweden and the identification of the filmed individuals by a group of experts. Another and not less important goal of this issue is to stimulate a more wide-ranging discussion in Estonian society about the role of hobbies and traditional festivals, especially outside Estonia, which are an integral part of Estonian national culture and Estonian folk culture.

  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Piret Voolaid;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    The aim of the paper is to analyse the collective expression of attitudes elicited by the doping scandal that concerned the esteemed Estonian cross-country skier and Olympic gold medal winner, Andrus Veer­palu. The paper provides an insight into the evolution of an athlete into a national hero on the Internet. The analysis is based on the material col­lected from Estonian online media during two years (from April 2011 to March 2013), when Andrus Veerpalu’s court case was actively followed by the Estonian sports circles and laymen alike. The data corpus includes the most relevant news texts published in the online news portal Delfi (www.delfi.ee), comments from the same online environment, posts from the Facebook fan sites, e.g., “We believe in Andrus Veerpalu”, etc. The doping accusation called forth a quasi-religious movement, which was built around the belief that the athlete was sacred and it was not allowed to attack or accuse him in any way. The main threads in the comments analysed within this study could be divided into two opposing, although intertwining categories: the serious and the ironic. Both categories included people who believed in Veerpalu’s innocence, and those who did not; in addition, there were those who displayed their superiority towards the entire discussion. The analysis addresses the transformation of an Olympic hero into a national hero, and points out narratives that treat the scandal within the present-day genres of urban legends, conspiracy theories, and Internet humour. The more or less genuine belief of people was reflected in sought-out explanations for the doping test result and counter-arguments (above all, via conspiracy stories, but also through social mobilisation in support of Veerpalu). In the post factum comments, the ma­jority expressed the feeling that their trust had been justified; they renewed their unremitting belief in the acquitted hero. But the rather complicated end to the long case was also a confusing one, and this allowed the ironic discourse to produce parodies, jokes and other critical comments. The questions central to the analysis are the following: (1) How does the audience interpret information provided by the media and which topics do the interpretations initiate in turn? (2) How does the notion of belief emerge in the discussion, which narratives and stereotypes are believed in, and how is the belief rationalised? (3) Which folkloric and other cultural (transmedial) texts have taken inspiration from this doping scandal?

  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Lauri Liiders;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    This paper provides an overview of the first detailed case study of a Buddhist congregation in Estonia. The object of this study is Triratna Buddhist Community in Estonia, which was established here in 1989 and is part of international Triratna Buddhist Community (formerly known as Friends of the Western Buddhist Order) created in the United Kingdom in 1967. Mainly through oral history and participant observation methods as well as analysis of data presented by different written and oral sources the researcher strives to give an overview of various aspects of activity connected with one particular Buddhist group in Estonia, including its practice, ordination rituals, beliefs and membership characteristics. It also includes a detailed overview of the congregation’s history and its relationship with members of Triratna congregations in Finland and the UK. It presents Buddhism as an emerging new religion in Estonia through a case study of a Western Buddhist ecumenical congregation.

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