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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alexander Tarnavsky Eitan; Shirly Someck; Mario Zajac; Eran Socher; Eran Stark;

    In the intact brain, neural activity can be recorded using sensing electrodes and manipulated using light stimulation. Silicon probes with integrated electrodes and micro-LEDs enable the detection and control of neural activity using a single implanted device. Miniaturized solutions for recordings from small freely moving animals are commercially available, but stimulation is driven by large, stationary current sources. We designed and fabricated a current source chip and integrated it into a headstage PCB that weighs 1.37 g. The proposed system provides 10-bit resolution current control for 32 channels, driving micro-LEDs with up to 4.6 V and sourcing up to 0.9 mA at a refresh rate of 5 kHz per channel. When calibrated against a micro-LED probe, the system allows linear control of light output power, up to 10 micro-W per micro-LED. To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, synthetic sequences of neural spiking activity were produced by driving multiple micro-LEDs implanted in the hippocampal CA1 area of a freely moving mouse. The high spatial, temporal, and amplitude resolution of the system provides a rich variety of stimulation patterns. Combined with commercially available sampling headstages, the system provides an easy to use back-end, fully utilizing the bi-directional potential of integrated opto-electronic arrays. 11 pages, 9 figures

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alaa Jamal; Raphael Linker;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

    Abstract. Real-time in-situ measurements are increasingly used to improve the estimations of simulation models via data assimilation techniques such as particle filter. However, models that describe complex processes such as water flow contain a large number of parameters while the data available is typically very limited. In such situations, applying particle filter to a large, fixed set of parameters chosen a priori can lead to unstable behavior, i.e. inconsistent adjustment of some of the parameters that have only limited impact on the states that are being measured. To prevent this, in this study correlation-based variable selection is embedded in the particle filter, so that at each data assimilation step only a subset of the parameters is adjusted. More specifically, whenever measurements become available, the most influential (i.e., the most highly correlated) parameters are determined by correlation analysis, and only these are updated by particle filter. The proposed method was applied to a water flow model (Hydrus-1D) in which states (soil water contents) and parameters (soil hydraulic parameters) were updated via data assimilation. Two simulation case studies were conducted in order to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. Overall, the proposed method yielded parameters and states estimates that were more accurate and more consistent than those obtained when adjusting all the parameters.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Itay Glazer; Dan Mikulincer;
    Project: EC | PATHWISE (803084)

    We study random variables of the form $f(X)$, when $f$ is a degree $d$ polynomial, and $X$ is a random vector on $\mathbb{R}^{n}$, motivated towards a deeper understanding of the covariance structure of $X^{\otimes d}$. For applications, the main interest is to bound $\mathrm{Var}(f(X))$ from below, assuming a suitable normalization on the coefficients of $f$. Our first result applies when $X$ has independent coordinates, and we establish dimension-free bounds. We also show that the assumption of independence can be relaxed and that our bounds carry over to uniform measures on isotropic $L_{p}$ balls. Moreover, in the case of the Euclidean ball, we provide an orthogonal decomposition of $\mathrm{Cov}(X^{\otimes d})$. Finally, we utilize the connection between anti-concentration and decay of Fourier coefficients to prove a high-dimensional analogue of the van der Corput lemma, thus partially answering a question posed by Carbery and Wright. 28 pages. Lemma 8 is updated in Version 2

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Boris Aronov; Esther Ezra; Micha Sharir;

    We present subquadratic algorithms, in the algebraic decision-tree model of computation, for detecting whether there exists a triple of points, belonging to three respective sets $A$, $B$, and $C$ of points in the plane, that satisfy a certain polynomial equation or two equations. The best known instance of such a problem is testing for the existence of a collinear triple of points in $A\times B\times C$, a classical 3SUM-hard problem that has so far defied any attempt to obtain a subquadratic solution, whether in the (uniform) real RAM model, or in the algebraic decision-tree model. While we are still unable to solve this problem, in full generality, in subquadratic time, we obtain such a solution, in the algebraic decision-tree model, that uses only roughly $O(n^{28/15})$ constant-degree polynomial sign tests, for the special case where two of the sets lie on two respective one-dimensional curves and the third is placed arbitrarily in the plane. Our technique is fairly general, and applies to many other problems where we seek a triple that satisfies a single polynomial equation, e.g., determining whether $A\times B\times C$ contains a triple spanning a unit-area triangle. This result extends recent work by Barba \etal~(2017) and by Chan (2018), where all three sets $A$,~$B$, and~$C$ are assumed to be one-dimensional. As a second application of our technique, we again have three $n$-point sets $A$, $B$, and $C$ in the plane, and we want to determine whether there exists a triple $(a,b,c) \in A\times B\times C$ that simultaneously satisfies two independent real polynomial equations. For example, this is the setup when testing for collinearity in the complex plane, when each of the sets $A$, $B$, $C$ lies on some constant-degree algebraic curve. We show that problems of this kind can be solved with roughly $O(n^{24/13})$ constant-degree polynomial sign tests.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hengxin Tan; Daniel Kaplan; Binghai Yan;
    Project: EC | NonlinearTopo (815869)

    Magnetic topological insulators (MnBi$_2$Te$_4$)(Bi$_2$Te$_3$)$_n$ were anticipated to exhibit magnetic energy gaps while recent spectroscopic studies did not observe them. Thus, magnetism on the surface is under debate. In this work, we propose another symmetry criterion to probe the surface magnetism. Because of both time-reversal symmetry-breaking and inversion symmetry-breaking, we demonstrate that the surface band structure violates momentum-inversion symmetry and leads to a three-fold rather than six-fold rotational symmetry on the Fermi surface if corresponding surface states couple strongly to the surface magnetism. Such a momentum-inversion symmetry violation is significant along the $\Gamma-K$ direction for surface bands on the (0001) plane. Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yotam Wolf; Yizhou Liu; Jiewen Xiao; Noejung Park; Binghai Yan;
    Project: EC | NonlinearTopo (815869)

    Chirality-induced spin selectivity (CISS) refers to the fact that electrons get spin polarized after passing through organic chiral molecules in a nanoscale device. In CISS, chiral molecules are commonly believed to be a spin filter through which one favored spin transmits and the opposite spin gets reflected, i.e., transmitted and reflected electrons exhibit opposite spin polarization. In this work, we point out that such a spin filter scenario contradicts the principle that equilibrium spin current must vanish. Instead, we find that both transmitted and reflected electrons present the same type spin polarization, which is actually ubiquitous for a two-terminal device. More accurately, chiral molecules play the role of a spin polarizer rather than a spin filter. The direction of spin polarization is determined by the molecule chirality and the electron incident direction. And the magnitude of spin polarization replies on local spin-orbit coupling in the device. Our work brings a deeper understanding on CISS and interprets recent experiments, for example, the CISS-driven anomalous Hall effect. 5 figures and supplementary information included

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alex Khanukov; Itay Mangel; Shai Wissberg; Amit Keren; Beena Kalisky;
    Project: EC | SEE_QPT (866236)

    A superconducting (SC) mixed state occurs in type-II superconductors where the upper critical field Hc2 is higher than the thermodynamic critical field Hc. When an applied field is in between these fields, the free energy depends weakly on the order parameter which therefore can be small (SC state) or zero (normal state) at different parts of the sample. In this paper we demonstrate how a normal state along a line traversing a superconductor can be turned on and off externally in zero field. The concept is based on a long, current-carrying excitation coil, piercing a ringshaped superconductor. The ring experiences zero field, but the vector potential produced by the coil generates a circular current that destroys superconductivity along a radial line starting at preexisting nucleation points in the sample. Unlike the destruction of superconductivity with magnetic field, the vector potential method is reversible and reproducible; full superconductivity is recovered upon removing the current from the coil, and different cooldowns yield the same normal lines. We suggest potential applications of this magnetic-field-free mixed state. 5 pages, 7 figures

  • Publication . Conference object . Article . Preprint . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hagit Attiya; Ohad Ben-Baruch; Panagiota Fatourou; Danny Hendler; Eleftherios Kosmas;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    This paper presents a generic approach for deriving detectably recoverable implementations of many widely-used concurrent data structures. Such implementations are appealing for emerging systems featuring byte-addressable non-volatile main memory (NVMM), whose persistence allows to efficiently resurrect failed threads after crashes. Detectable recovery ensures that after a crash, every executed operation is able to recover and return a correct response, and that the state of the data structure is not corrupted. Our approach, called Tracking, amends descriptor objects used in existing lock-free helping schemes with additional fields that track an operation's progress towards completion and persists these fields in order to ensure detectable recovery. Tracking avoids full-fledged logging and tracks the progress of concurrent operations in a per-thread manner, thus reducing the cost of ensuring detectable recovery. We have applied Tracking to derive detectably recoverable implementations of a linked list, a binary search tree, and an exchanger. Our experimental analysis introduces a new way of analyzing the cost of persistence instructions, not by simply counting them but by separating them into categories based on the impact they have on the performance. The analysis reveals that understanding the actual persistence cost of an algorithm in machines with real NVMM, is more complicated than previously thought, and requires a thorough evaluation, since the impact of different persistence instructions on performance may greatly vary. We consider this analysis to be one of the major contributions of the paper. This paper has appeared in the Proceedings of the 27th ACM SIGPLAN Symposium on Principles and Practice of Parallel Programming (PPoPP'22).

  • Publication . Preprint . Article . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Niclas Technau; Nadav Yesha;
    Project: EC | RMAST (786758)

    A well known result in the theory of uniform distribution modulo one (which goes back to Fej\'er and Csillag) states that the fractional parts $\{n^\alpha\}$ of the sequence $(n^\alpha)_{n\ge1}$ are uniformly distributed in the unit interval whenever $\alpha>0$ is not an integer. For sharpening this knowledge to local statistics, the $k$-level correlation functions of the sequence $(\{n^\alpha\})_{n\geq1}$ are of fundamental importance. We prove that for each $k\ge2,$ the $k$-level correlation function $R_k$ is Poissonian for almost every $\alpha>4k^2-4k-1$. Comment: 30 pages, 1 figure

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Roni Con; Amir Shpilka; Itzhak Tamo;
    Project: EC | InfoNet (852953)

    In this work, we study linear error-correcting codes against adversarial insertion-deletion (insdel) errors, a topic that has recently gained a lot of attention. We construct linear codes over $\mathbb{F}_q$, for $q=\text{poly}(1/\varepsilon)$, that can efficiently decode from a $\delta$ fraction of insdel errors and have rate $(1-4\delta)/8-\varepsilon$. We also show that by allowing codes over $\mathbb{F}_{q^2}$ that are linear over $\mathbb{F}_q$, we can improve the rate to $(1-\delta)/4-\varepsilon$ while not sacrificing efficiency. Using this latter result, we construct fully linear codes over $\mathbb{F}_2$ that can efficiently correct up to $\delta < 1/54$ fraction of deletions and have rate $R = (1-54\cdot \delta)/1216$. Cheng, Guruswami, Haeupler, and Li [CGHL21] constructed codes with (extremely small) rates bounded away from zero that can correct up to a $\delta < 1/400$ fraction of insdel errors. They also posed the problem of constructing linear codes that get close to the half-Singleton bound (proved in [CGHL21]) over small fields. Thus, our results significantly improve their construction and get much closer to the bound. Comment: The content of this paper appeared in a previous version of arXiv:2107.05699. As that version was split, this paper contains the part about efficient linear codes against insertions and deletions

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
15,082 Research products, page 1 of 1,509
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alexander Tarnavsky Eitan; Shirly Someck; Mario Zajac; Eran Socher; Eran Stark;

    In the intact brain, neural activity can be recorded using sensing electrodes and manipulated using light stimulation. Silicon probes with integrated electrodes and micro-LEDs enable the detection and control of neural activity using a single implanted device. Miniaturized solutions for recordings from small freely moving animals are commercially available, but stimulation is driven by large, stationary current sources. We designed and fabricated a current source chip and integrated it into a headstage PCB that weighs 1.37 g. The proposed system provides 10-bit resolution current control for 32 channels, driving micro-LEDs with up to 4.6 V and sourcing up to 0.9 mA at a refresh rate of 5 kHz per channel. When calibrated against a micro-LED probe, the system allows linear control of light output power, up to 10 micro-W per micro-LED. To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, synthetic sequences of neural spiking activity were produced by driving multiple micro-LEDs implanted in the hippocampal CA1 area of a freely moving mouse. The high spatial, temporal, and amplitude resolution of the system provides a rich variety of stimulation patterns. Combined with commercially available sampling headstages, the system provides an easy to use back-end, fully utilizing the bi-directional potential of integrated opto-electronic arrays. 11 pages, 9 figures

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alaa Jamal; Raphael Linker;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

    Abstract. Real-time in-situ measurements are increasingly used to improve the estimations of simulation models via data assimilation techniques such as particle filter. However, models that describe complex processes such as water flow contain a large number of parameters while the data available is typically very limited. In such situations, applying particle filter to a large, fixed set of parameters chosen a priori can lead to unstable behavior, i.e. inconsistent adjustment of some of the parameters that have only limited impact on the states that are being measured. To prevent this, in this study correlation-based variable selection is embedded in the particle filter, so that at each data assimilation step only a subset of the parameters is adjusted. More specifically, whenever measurements become available, the most influential (i.e., the most highly correlated) parameters are determined by correlation analysis, and only these are updated by particle filter. The proposed method was applied to a water flow model (Hydrus-1D) in which states (soil water contents) and parameters (soil hydraulic parameters) were updated via data assimilation. Two simulation case studies were conducted in order to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. Overall, the proposed method yielded parameters and states estimates that were more accurate and more consistent than those obtained when adjusting all the parameters.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Itay Glazer; Dan Mikulincer;
    Project: EC | PATHWISE (803084)

    We study random variables of the form $f(X)$, when $f$ is a degree $d$ polynomial, and $X$ is a random vector on $\mathbb{R}^{n}$, motivated towards a deeper understanding of the covariance structure of $X^{\otimes d}$. For applications, the main interest is to bound $\mathrm{Var}(f(X))$ from below, assuming a suitable normalization on the coefficients of $f$. Our first result applies when $X$ has independent coordinates, and we establish dimension-free bounds. We also show that the assumption of independence can be relaxed and that our bounds carry over to uniform measures on isotropic $L_{p}$ balls. Moreover, in the case of the Euclidean ball, we provide an orthogonal decomposition of $\mathrm{Cov}(X^{\otimes d})$. Finally, we utilize the connection between anti-concentration and decay of Fourier coefficients to prove a high-dimensional analogue of the van der Corput lemma, thus partially answering a question posed by Carbery and Wright. 28 pages. Lemma 8 is updated in Version 2

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Boris Aronov; Esther Ezra; Micha Sharir;

    We present subquadratic algorithms, in the algebraic decision-tree model of computation, for detecting whether there exists a triple of points, belonging to three respective sets $A$, $B$, and $C$ of points in the plane, that satisfy a certain polynomial equation or two equations. The best known instance of such a problem is testing for the existence of a collinear triple of points in $A\times B\times C$, a classical 3SUM-hard problem that has so far defied any attempt to obtain a subquadratic solution, whether in the (uniform) real RAM model, or in the algebraic decision-tree model. While we are still unable to solve this problem, in full generality, in subquadratic time, we obtain such a solution, in the algebraic decision-tree model, that uses only roughly $O(n^{28/15})$ constant-degree polynomial sign tests, for the special case where two of the sets lie on two respective one-dimensional curves and the third is placed arbitrarily in the plane. Our technique is fairly general, and applies to many other problems where we seek a triple that satisfies a single polynomial equation, e.g., determining whether $A\times B\times C$ contains a triple spanning a unit-area triangle. This result extends recent work by Barba \etal~(2017) and by Chan (2018), where all three sets $A$,~$B$, and~$C$ are assumed to be one-dimensional. As a second application of our technique, we again have three $n$-point sets $A$, $B$, and $C$ in the plane, and we want to determine whether there exists a triple $(a,b,c) \in A\times B\times C$ that simultaneously satisfies two independent real polynomial equations. For example, this is the setup when testing for collinearity in the complex plane, when each of the sets $A$, $B$, $C$ lies on some constant-degree algebraic curve. We show that problems of this kind can be solved with roughly $O(n^{24/13})$ constant-degree polynomial sign tests.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hengxin Tan; Daniel Kaplan; Binghai Yan;
    Project: EC | NonlinearTopo (815869)

    Magnetic topological insulators (MnBi$_2$Te$_4$)(Bi$_2$Te$_3$)$_n$ were anticipated to exhibit magnetic energy gaps while recent spectroscopic studies did not observe them. Thus, magnetism on the surface is under debate. In this work, we propose another symmetry criterion to probe the surface magnetism. Because of both time-reversal symmetry-breaking and inversion symmetry-breaking, we demonstrate that the surface band structure violates momentum-inversion symmetry and leads to a three-fold rather than six-fold rotational symmetry on the Fermi surface if corresponding surface states couple strongly to the surface magnetism. Such a momentum-inversion symmetry violation is significant along the $\Gamma-K$ direction for surface bands on the (0001) plane. Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yotam Wolf; Yizhou Liu; Jiewen Xiao; Noejung Park; Binghai Yan;
    Project: EC | NonlinearTopo (815869)

    Chirality-induced spin selectivity (CISS) refers to the fact that electrons get spin polarized after passing through organic chiral molecules in a nanoscale device. In CISS, chiral molecules are commonly believed to be a spin filter through which one favored spin transmits and the opposite spin gets reflected, i.e., transmitted and reflected electrons exhibit opposite spin polarization. In this work, we point out that such a spin filter scenario contradicts the principle that equilibrium spin current must vanish. Instead, we find that both transmitted and reflected electrons present the same type spin polarization, which is actually ubiquitous for a two-terminal device. More accurately, chiral molecules play the role of a spin polarizer rather than a spin filter. The direction of spin polarization is determined by the molecule chirality and the electron incident direction. And the magnitude of spin polarization replies on local spin-orbit coupling in the device. Our work brings a deeper understanding on CISS and interprets recent experiments, for example, the CISS-driven anomalous Hall effect. 5 figures and supplementary information included

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alex Khanukov; Itay Mangel; Shai Wissberg; Amit Keren; Beena Kalisky;
    Project: EC | SEE_QPT (866236)

    A superconducting (SC) mixed state occurs in type-II superconductors where the upper critical field Hc2 is higher than the thermodynamic critical field Hc. When an applied field is in between these fields, the free energy depends weakly on the order parameter which therefore can be small (SC state) or zero (normal state) at different parts of the sample. In this paper we demonstrate how a normal state along a line traversing a superconductor can be turned on and off externally in zero field. The concept is based on a long, current-carrying excitation coil, piercing a ringshaped superconductor. The ring experiences zero field, but the vector potential produced by the coil generates a circular current that destroys superconductivity along a radial line starting at preexisting nucleation points in the sample. Unlike the destruction of superconductivity with magnetic field, the vector potential method is reversible and reproducible; full superconductivity is recovered upon removing the current from the coil, and different cooldowns yield the same normal lines. We suggest potential applications of this magnetic-field-free mixed state. 5 pages, 7 figures

  • Publication . Conference object . Article . Preprint . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hagit Attiya; Ohad Ben-Baruch; Panagiota Fatourou; Danny Hendler; Eleftherios Kosmas;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    This paper presents a generic approach for deriving detectably recoverable implementations of many widely-used concurrent data structures. Such implementations are appealing for emerging systems featuring byte-addressable non-volatile main memory (NVMM), whose persistence allows to efficiently resurrect failed threads after crashes. Detectable recovery ensures that after a crash, every executed operation is able to recover and return a correct response, and that the state of the data structure is not corrupted. Our approach, called Tracking, amends descriptor objects used in existing lock-free helping schemes with additional fields that track an operation's progress towards completion and persists these fields in order to ensure detectable recovery. Tracking avoids full-fledged logging and tracks the progress of concurrent operations in a per-thread manner, thus reducing the cost of ensuring detectable recovery. We have applied Tracking to derive detectably recoverable implementations of a linked list, a binary search tree, and an exchanger. Our experimental analysis introduces a new way of analyzing the cost of persistence instructions, not by simply counting them but by separating them into categories based on the impact they have on the performance. The analysis reveals that understanding the actual persistence cost of an algorithm in machines with real NVMM, is more complicated than previously thought, and requires a thorough evaluation, since the impact of different persistence instructions on performance may greatly vary. We consider this analysis to be one of the major contributions of the paper. This paper has appeared in the Proceedings of the 27th ACM SIGPLAN Symposium on Principles and Practice of Parallel Programming (PPoPP'22).

  • Publication . Preprint . Article . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Niclas Technau; Nadav Yesha;
    Project: EC | RMAST (786758)

    A well known result in the theory of uniform distribution modulo one (which goes back to Fej\'er and Csillag) states that the fractional parts $\{n^\alpha\}$ of the sequence $(n^\alpha)_{n\ge1}$ are uniformly distributed in the unit interval whenever $\alpha>0$ is not an integer. For sharpening this knowledge to local statistics, the $k$-level correlation functions of the sequence $(\{n^\alpha\})_{n\geq1}$ are of fundamental importance. We prove that for each $k\ge2,$ the $k$-level correlation function $R_k$ is Poissonian for almost every $\alpha>4k^2-4k-1$. Comment: 30 pages, 1 figure

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Roni Con; Amir Shpilka; Itzhak Tamo;
    Project: EC | InfoNet (852953)

    In this work, we study linear error-correcting codes against adversarial insertion-deletion (insdel) errors, a topic that has recently gained a lot of attention. We construct linear codes over $\mathbb{F}_q$, for $q=\text{poly}(1/\varepsilon)$, that can efficiently decode from a $\delta$ fraction of insdel errors and have rate $(1-4\delta)/8-\varepsilon$. We also show that by allowing codes over $\mathbb{F}_{q^2}$ that are linear over $\mathbb{F}_q$, we can improve the rate to $(1-\delta)/4-\varepsilon$ while not sacrificing efficiency. Using this latter result, we construct fully linear codes over $\mathbb{F}_2$ that can efficiently correct up to $\delta < 1/54$ fraction of deletions and have rate $R = (1-54\cdot \delta)/1216$. Cheng, Guruswami, Haeupler, and Li [CGHL21] constructed codes with (extremely small) rates bounded away from zero that can correct up to a $\delta < 1/400$ fraction of insdel errors. They also posed the problem of constructing linear codes that get close to the half-Singleton bound (proved in [CGHL21]) over small fields. Thus, our results significantly improve their construction and get much closer to the bound. Comment: The content of this paper appeared in a previous version of arXiv:2107.05699. As that version was split, this paper contains the part about efficient linear codes against insertions and deletions

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