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  • Publication . Preprint . Article . Other literature type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Daniel Nevo; Malka Gorfine;
    Project: NIH | Alzheimer's Disease Patie... (5U01AG006781-29)

    An emerging challenge for time-to-event data is studying semi-competing risks, namely when two event times are of interest: a non-terminal event time (e.g. age at disease diagnosis), and a terminal event time (e.g. age at death). The non-terminal event is observed only if it precedes the terminal event, which may occur before or after the non-terminal event. Studying treatment or intervention effects on the dual event times is complicated because for some units, the non-terminal event may occur under one treatment value but not under the other. Until recently, existing approaches (e.g., the survivor average causal effect) generally disregarded the time-to-event nature of both outcomes. More recent research focused on principal strata effects within time-varying populations under Bayesian approaches. In this paper, we propose alternative non time-varying estimands, based on a single stratification of the population. We present a novel assumption utilizing the time-to-event nature of the data, which is weaker than the often-invoked monotonicity assumption. We derive results on partial identifiability, suggest a sensitivity analysis approach, and give conditions under which full identification is possible. Finally, we present non-parametric and semi-parametric estimation methods for right-censored data. 35 pages, 3 figure, 3 tables

  • Publication . Article . Presentation . Other literature type . Conference object . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English

    We investigate the special case of diamond relay comprising a Gaussian channel with identical frequency response from the user to the relays and fronthaul links with limited rate from the relays to the destination. We use the oblivious compress and forward (CF) with distributed compression and decode and forward (DF) where each relay decodes the whole message and sends half of its bits to the destination. We derive achievable rate by using time-sharing between DF and CF. It is proved that optimal CF-DF time sharing is advantageous over superposition of CF and DF. The optimal time sharing proportion between DF and CF and power and rate allocations are different at each frequency and are fully determined.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hagai Perets; Evgeni Grishin;
    Project: EC | SNeX (865932)

    Recent surveys show that wide ($>10^4$ AU) binaries and triples are abundant in the field. We study the long-term evolution of wide hierarchical triple systems and the role played by the Galactic tidal (GT) field. We find that when the timescales of the secular von-Ziepel-Lidov-Kozai and the GT oscillations are comparable, triple evolution becomes chaotic which leads to extreme eccentricities. Consequently, the close pericentre approaches of the inner-binary components lead to strong interactions, mergers and collisions. We use a novel secular evolution code to quantify the key parameters and carry out a population-synthesis study of low and intermediate-mass wide-orbit triples. We find that in $\sim9\%$ of low-mass wide-triples the inner main-sequence binaries collide or tidally-inspiral within $10\ \rm Gyr$, with direct collisions are $6$ times more likely to occur. For the intermediate-mass sample, $\sim7.6\%$ of the systems merge or inspiral with roughly equal probabilities. We discuss the relative fractions of different stellar merger/inspiral outcomes as a function of their evolutionary stage (Main-Sequence, MS; Red-Giant, RG; or White-Dwarf, WD), their transient electromagnetic signatures and the final products of the merger/inspiral. In particular, the rate of WD-WD direct-collisions that lead to type-Ia Supernovae is comparable to other dynamical channels and accounts for at most $0.1\%$ of the observed rate. RG inspirals provide a novel channel for the formation of eccentric common-envelope-evolution binaries. The catalysis of mergers/collisions in triples due to GT could explain a significant fraction, or even the vast majority, of blue-stragglers in the field, produce progenitors for cataclysmic-variables, and give-rise to mergers/collisions of double-RG binaries. Accepted to MNRAS

  • Publication . Article . Conference object . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Wu, Chengshuai; Gruene, Lars; Kriecherbauer, Thomas; Margaliot, Michael;

    A time-varying nonlinear dynamical system is called a totally positive differential system (TPDS) if its Jacobian admits a special sign pattern: it is tri-diagonal with positive entries on the super- and sub-diagonals. If the vector field of a TPDS is T-periodic then every bounded trajectory converges to a T-periodic solution. In particular, when the vector field is time-invariant every bounded trajectory of a TPDS converges to an equlbrium. Here, we use the spectral theory of oscillatory matrices to analyze the behavior near a periodic solution of a TPDS. This yields information on the perturbation directions that lead to the fastest and slowest convergence to or divergence from the periodic solution. We demonstrate the theoretical results using a model from systems biology called the ribosome flow model.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ron Levie; Haim Avron;
    Publisher: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
    Country: Germany

    AbstractThis paper focuses on signal processing tasks in which the signal is transformed from the signal space to a higher dimensional coefficient space (also called phase space) using a continuous frame, processed in the coefficient space, and synthesized to an output signal. We show how to approximate such methods, termed phase space signal processing methods, using a Monte Carlo method. As opposed to standard discretizations of continuous frames, based on sampling discrete frames from the continuous system, the proposed Monte Carlo method is directly a quadrature approximation of the continuous frame. We show that the Monte Carlo method allows working with highly redundant continuous frames, since the number of samples required for a certain accuracy is proportional to the dimension of the signal space, and not to the dimension of the phase space. Moreover, even though the continuous frame is highly redundant, the Monte Carlo samples are spread uniformly, and hence represent the coefficient space more faithfully than standard frame discretizations.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Juan Polo; Piero Naldesi; Anna Minguzzi; Luigi Amico;
    Countries: Italy, France

    Abstract We study a quantum many-body system of attracting bosons confined in a ring-shaped potential and interrupted by a weak link. With such architecture, the system defines atomtronic quantum interference devices harnessing quantum solitonic currents. We demonstrate that the system is characterized by the specific interplay between the interaction and the strength of the weak link. In particular, we find that, depending on the operating conditions, the current can be a universal function of the relative size between the strength of the impurity and interaction. The low lying many-body states are studied through a quench dynamical protocol that is the atomtronic counterpart of Rabi interferometry. With this approach, we demonstrate how our system defines a two level system of coupled solitonic currents. The current states are addressed through the analysis of the momentum distribution.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Omri Lesser; Yuval Oreg;
    Project: EC | LEGOTOP (788715)

    Majorana zero modes in condensed matter systems have been the subject of much interest in recent years. Their non-Abelian exchange statistics, making them a unique state of matter, and their potential applications in topological quantum computation, earned them attention from both theorists and experimentalists. It is generally understood that in order to form Majorana zero modes in quasi-one-dimensional topological insulators, time-reversal symmetry must be broken. The straightforward mechanisms for doing so -- applying magnetic fields or coupling to ferromagnets -- turned out to have many unwanted side effects, such as degradation of superconductivity and the formation of sub-gap states, which is part of the reason Majorana zero modes have been eluding direct experimental detection for a long time. Here we review several proposal that rely on controlling the phase of the superconducting order parameter, either as the sole mechanism for time-reversal-symmetry breaking, or as an additional handy knob used to reduce the applied magnetic field. These proposals hold practical promise to improve Majorana formation, and they shed light on the physics underlying the formation of the topological superconducting state. 14 pages, 8 figures. Invited review for Journal of Physics D Special Issue on Topological Materials

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ofer Aharony; Shai M. Chester; Erez Y. Urbach;
    Publisher: APS

    We construct an explicit bulk dual in anti-de Sitter space, with couplings of order $1/N$, for the $SU(N)$-singlet sector of QED in $d$ space-time dimensions ($2 < d < 4$) coupled to $N$ scalar fields. We begin from the bulk dual for the theory of $N$ complex free scalar fields that we constructed in our previous work, and couple this to $U(1)$ gauge fields living on the boundary in order to get the bulk dual of scalar QED (in which the $U(1)$ gauge fields become the boundary value of the bulk vector fields). As in our previous work, the bulk dual is non-local but we can write down an explicit action for it. We focus on the CFTs arising at low energies (or, equivalently, when the $U(1)$ gauge coupling goes to infinity). For $d=3$ we discuss also the addition of a Chern-Simons term for $U(1)$, modifying the boundary conditions for the bulk gauge field. We also discuss the generalization to QCD, with $U(N_c)$ gauge fields coupled to $N$ scalar fields in the fundamental representation (in the large $N$ limit with fixed $N_c$). Comment: 28 pages plus appendices, 3 figures

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Doruk Efe Gökmen; Zohar Ringel; Sebastian D. Huber; Maciej Koch-Janusz;
    Publisher: American Physical Society
    Country: Switzerland
    Project: EC | TopMechMat (771503), EC | COMPLEX ML (896004)

    Identifying the relevant coarse-grained degrees of freedom in a complex physical system is a key stage in developing powerful effective theories in and out of equilibrium. The celebrated renormalization group provides a framework for this task, but its practical execution in unfamiliar systems is fraught with ad hoc choices, whereas machine learning approaches, though promising, often lack formal interpretability. Recently, the optimal coarse-graining in a statistical system was shown to exist, based on a universal, but computationally difficult information-theoretic variational principle. This limited its applicability to but the simplest systems; moreover, the relation to standard formalism of field theory was unclear. Here we present an algorithm employing state-of-art results in machine-learning-based estimation of information-theoretic quantities, overcoming these challenges. We use this advance to develop a new paradigm in identifying the most relevant field theory operators describing properties of the system, going beyond the existing approaches to real-space renormalization. We evidence its power on an interacting model, where the emergent degrees of freedom are qualitatively different from the microscopic building blocks of the theory. Our results push the boundary of formally interpretable applications of machine learning, conceptually paving the way towards automated theory building. Comment: Version accepted for publication in Physical Review Letters. See also the companion manuscript arXiv:2103.16887 "Symmetries and phase diagrams with real-space mutual estimation neural estimation"

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Simeon Reusch; Robert Stein; Marek Kowalski; Sjoert van Velzen; Anna Franckowiak; Cecilia Lunardini; Kohta Murase; Walter Winter; James C. A. Miller-Jones; Mansi M. Kasliwal; +39 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Germany, France
    Project: ARC | Discovery Projects - Gran... (DP200102471), EC | Fireworks (725161), EC | MessMapp (949555), EC | USNAC (759194)

    The origins of the high-energy cosmic neutrino flux remain largely unknown. Recently, one high-energy neutrino was associated with a tidal disruption event (TDE). Here we present AT2019fdr, an exceptionally luminous TDE candidate, coincident with another high-energy neutrino. Our observations, including a bright dust echo and soft late-time x-ray emission, further support a TDE origin of this flare. The probability of finding two such bright events by chance is just 0.034%. We evaluate several models for neutrino production and show that AT2019fdr is capable of producing the observed high-energy neutrino, reinforcing the case for TDEs as neutrino sources. Physical review letters 128(22), 221101 (2022). doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.128.221101 Published by APS, College Park, Md.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
9,659 Research products, page 1 of 966
  • Publication . Preprint . Article . Other literature type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Daniel Nevo; Malka Gorfine;
    Project: NIH | Alzheimer's Disease Patie... (5U01AG006781-29)

    An emerging challenge for time-to-event data is studying semi-competing risks, namely when two event times are of interest: a non-terminal event time (e.g. age at disease diagnosis), and a terminal event time (e.g. age at death). The non-terminal event is observed only if it precedes the terminal event, which may occur before or after the non-terminal event. Studying treatment or intervention effects on the dual event times is complicated because for some units, the non-terminal event may occur under one treatment value but not under the other. Until recently, existing approaches (e.g., the survivor average causal effect) generally disregarded the time-to-event nature of both outcomes. More recent research focused on principal strata effects within time-varying populations under Bayesian approaches. In this paper, we propose alternative non time-varying estimands, based on a single stratification of the population. We present a novel assumption utilizing the time-to-event nature of the data, which is weaker than the often-invoked monotonicity assumption. We derive results on partial identifiability, suggest a sensitivity analysis approach, and give conditions under which full identification is possible. Finally, we present non-parametric and semi-parametric estimation methods for right-censored data. 35 pages, 3 figure, 3 tables

  • Publication . Article . Presentation . Other literature type . Conference object . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English

    We investigate the special case of diamond relay comprising a Gaussian channel with identical frequency response from the user to the relays and fronthaul links with limited rate from the relays to the destination. We use the oblivious compress and forward (CF) with distributed compression and decode and forward (DF) where each relay decodes the whole message and sends half of its bits to the destination. We derive achievable rate by using time-sharing between DF and CF. It is proved that optimal CF-DF time sharing is advantageous over superposition of CF and DF. The optimal time sharing proportion between DF and CF and power and rate allocations are different at each frequency and are fully determined.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hagai Perets; Evgeni Grishin;
    Project: EC | SNeX (865932)

    Recent surveys show that wide ($>10^4$ AU) binaries and triples are abundant in the field. We study the long-term evolution of wide hierarchical triple systems and the role played by the Galactic tidal (GT) field. We find that when the timescales of the secular von-Ziepel-Lidov-Kozai and the GT oscillations are comparable, triple evolution becomes chaotic which leads to extreme eccentricities. Consequently, the close pericentre approaches of the inner-binary components lead to strong interactions, mergers and collisions. We use a novel secular evolution code to quantify the key parameters and carry out a population-synthesis study of low and intermediate-mass wide-orbit triples. We find that in $\sim9\%$ of low-mass wide-triples the inner main-sequence binaries collide or tidally-inspiral within $10\ \rm Gyr$, with direct collisions are $6$ times more likely to occur. For the intermediate-mass sample, $\sim7.6\%$ of the systems merge or inspiral with roughly equal probabilities. We discuss the relative fractions of different stellar merger/inspiral outcomes as a function of their evolutionary stage (Main-Sequence, MS; Red-Giant, RG; or White-Dwarf, WD), their transient electromagnetic signatures and the final products of the merger/inspiral. In particular, the rate of WD-WD direct-collisions that lead to type-Ia Supernovae is comparable to other dynamical channels and accounts for at most $0.1\%$ of the observed rate. RG inspirals provide a novel channel for the formation of eccentric common-envelope-evolution binaries. The catalysis of mergers/collisions in triples due to GT could explain a significant fraction, or even the vast majority, of blue-stragglers in the field, produce progenitors for cataclysmic-variables, and give-rise to mergers/collisions of double-RG binaries. Accepted to MNRAS

  • Publication . Article . Conference object . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Wu, Chengshuai; Gruene, Lars; Kriecherbauer, Thomas; Margaliot, Michael;

    A time-varying nonlinear dynamical system is called a totally positive differential system (TPDS) if its Jacobian admits a special sign pattern: it is tri-diagonal with positive entries on the super- and sub-diagonals. If the vector field of a TPDS is T-periodic then every bounded trajectory converges to a T-periodic solution. In particular, when the vector field is time-invariant every bounded trajectory of a TPDS converges to an equlbrium. Here, we use the spectral theory of oscillatory matrices to analyze the behavior near a periodic solution of a TPDS. This yields information on the perturbation directions that lead to the fastest and slowest convergence to or divergence from the periodic solution. We demonstrate the theoretical results using a model from systems biology called the ribosome flow model.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ron Levie; Haim Avron;
    Publisher: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
    Country: Germany

    AbstractThis paper focuses on signal processing tasks in which the signal is transformed from the signal space to a higher dimensional coefficient space (also called phase space) using a continuous frame, processed in the coefficient space, and synthesized to an output signal. We show how to approximate such methods, termed phase space signal processing methods, using a Monte Carlo method. As opposed to standard discretizations of continuous frames, based on sampling discrete frames from the continuous system, the proposed Monte Carlo method is directly a quadrature approximation of the continuous frame. We show that the Monte Carlo method allows working with highly redundant continuous frames, since the number of samples required for a certain accuracy is proportional to the dimension of the signal space, and not to the dimension of the phase space. Moreover, even though the continuous frame is highly redundant, the Monte Carlo samples are spread uniformly, and hence represent the coefficient space more faithfully than standard frame discretizations.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Juan Polo; Piero Naldesi; Anna Minguzzi; Luigi Amico;
    Countries: Italy, France

    Abstract We study a quantum many-body system of attracting bosons confined in a ring-shaped potential and interrupted by a weak link. With such architecture, the system defines atomtronic quantum interference devices harnessing quantum solitonic currents. We demonstrate that the system is characterized by the specific interplay between the interaction and the strength of the weak link. In particular, we find that, depending on the operating conditions, the current can be a universal function of the relative size between the strength of the impurity and interaction. The low lying many-body states are studied through a quench dynamical protocol that is the atomtronic counterpart of Rabi interferometry. With this approach, we demonstrate how our system defines a two level system of coupled solitonic currents. The current states are addressed through the analysis of the momentum distribution.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Omri Lesser; Yuval Oreg;
    Project: EC | LEGOTOP (788715)

    Majorana zero modes in condensed matter systems have been the subject of much interest in recent years. Their non-Abelian exchange statistics, making them a unique state of matter, and their potential applications in topological quantum computation, earned them attention from both theorists and experimentalists. It is generally understood that in order to form Majorana zero modes in quasi-one-dimensional topological insulators, time-reversal symmetry must be broken. The straightforward mechanisms for doing so -- applying magnetic fields or coupling to ferromagnets -- turned out to have many unwanted side effects, such as degradation of superconductivity and the formation of sub-gap states, which is part of the reason Majorana zero modes have been eluding direct experimental detection for a long time. Here we review several proposal that rely on controlling the phase of the superconducting order parameter, either as the sole mechanism for time-reversal-symmetry breaking, or as an additional handy knob used to reduce the applied magnetic field. These proposals hold practical promise to improve Majorana formation, and they shed light on the physics underlying the formation of the topological superconducting state. 14 pages, 8 figures. Invited review for Journal of Physics D Special Issue on Topological Materials

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ofer Aharony; Shai M. Chester; Erez Y. Urbach;
    Publisher: APS

    We construct an explicit bulk dual in anti-de Sitter space, with couplings of order $1/N$, for the $SU(N)$-singlet sector of QED in $d$ space-time dimensions ($2 < d < 4$) coupled to $N$ scalar fields. We begin from the bulk dual for the theory of $N$ complex free scalar fields that we constructed in our previous work, and couple this to $U(1)$ gauge fields living on the boundary in order to get the bulk dual of scalar QED (in which the $U(1)$ gauge fields become the boundary value of the bulk vector fields). As in our previous work, the bulk dual is non-local but we can write down an explicit action for it. We focus on the CFTs arising at low energies (or, equivalently, when the $U(1)$ gauge coupling goes to infinity). For $d=3$ we discuss also the addition of a Chern-Simons term for $U(1)$, modifying the boundary conditions for the bulk gauge field. We also discuss the generalization to QCD, with $U(N_c)$ gauge fields coupled to $N$ scalar fields in the fundamental representation (in the large $N$ limit with fixed $N_c$). Comment: 28 pages plus appendices, 3 figures

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Doruk Efe Gökmen; Zohar Ringel; Sebastian D. Huber; Maciej Koch-Janusz;
    Publisher: American Physical Society
    Country: Switzerland
    Project: EC | TopMechMat (771503), EC | COMPLEX ML (896004)

    Identifying the relevant coarse-grained degrees of freedom in a complex physical system is a key stage in developing powerful effective theories in and out of equilibrium. The celebrated renormalization group provides a framework for this task, but its practical execution in unfamiliar systems is fraught with ad hoc choices, whereas machine learning approaches, though promising, often lack formal interpretability. Recently, the optimal coarse-graining in a statistical system was shown to exist, based on a universal, but computationally difficult information-theoretic variational principle. This limited its applicability to but the simplest systems; moreover, the relation to standard formalism of field theory was unclear. Here we present an algorithm employing state-of-art results in machine-learning-based estimation of information-theoretic quantities, overcoming these challenges. We use this advance to develop a new paradigm in identifying the most relevant field theory operators describing properties of the system, going beyond the existing approaches to real-space renormalization. We evidence its power on an interacting model, where the emergent degrees of freedom are qualitatively different from the microscopic building blocks of the theory. Our results push the boundary of formally interpretable applications of machine learning, conceptually paving the way towards automated theory building. Comment: Version accepted for publication in Physical Review Letters. See also the companion manuscript arXiv:2103.16887 "Symmetries and phase diagrams with real-space mutual estimation neural estimation"

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Simeon Reusch; Robert Stein; Marek Kowalski; Sjoert van Velzen; Anna Franckowiak; Cecilia Lunardini; Kohta Murase; Walter Winter; James C. A. Miller-Jones; Mansi M. Kasliwal; +39 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Germany, France
    Project: ARC | Discovery Projects - Gran... (DP200102471), EC | Fireworks (725161), EC | MessMapp (949555), EC | USNAC (759194)

    The origins of the high-energy cosmic neutrino flux remain largely unknown. Recently, one high-energy neutrino was associated with a tidal disruption event (TDE). Here we present AT2019fdr, an exceptionally luminous TDE candidate, coincident with another high-energy neutrino. Our observations, including a bright dust echo and soft late-time x-ray emission, further support a TDE origin of this flare. The probability of finding two such bright events by chance is just 0.034%. We evaluate several models for neutrino production and show that AT2019fdr is capable of producing the observed high-energy neutrino, reinforcing the case for TDEs as neutrino sources. Physical review letters 128(22), 221101 (2022). doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.128.221101 Published by APS, College Park, Md.

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