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  • English
    Authors: 
    Mattera, Raffaele;
    Country: Germany

    The previous literature has not devoted enough space to “motivation for training” issues, especially for amateur sports. Generally, is possible imagine some factors which influence motivation for training in professional sports like an high remuneration, fame, etc. However is more difficult find these motivation factors it in the amatorial context, because an amatorial player already has not a substantial remuneration, has a job beyond sports, etc. The main result of this paper is that a large number of players in a team encourage each other to work hard during training session. All based on the assumption that more workout brings to better performance.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Tausch, Arno;
    Country: Germany

    For a number of years now, some leading economists became interested in studying global comparative opinion data from the World Values Survey (Alesina, Algan et al, 2015; Alesina, Giuliano, et al, 2015). The interest of the economics profession in the relationship between religion and economic growth certainly is a factor contributing to the rise of the present methodological approach, also employed in this study (McCleary and Barro, 2006). Following Hayek, 1998 we think that values like hard work - which brings success-, competition, which is the essence of a free market economy together with the private ownership of business, play an overwhelming role in twenty-first century capitalism and cannot be overlooked in empirical global value research. While Islam has been studied abundantly in this context in recent years, empirical, World Values Survey based evidence on Catholicism is more scattered. Our data are from two sets of such reliable and regularly repeated global opinion surveys: The World Values Survey (WVS) and the European Social Survey (ESS). Our statistical calculations were performed by the routine and standard SPSS statistical program (SPSS XXIII), and relied on the so-called oblique rotation of the factors, underlying the correlation matrix. In each comparison, we evaluated the democratic civil society commitment of the overall population and of the practicing Roman Catholics, i.e. those Catholics who attend Sunday Mass regularly, the so-called dominicantes. Our main population-weighted global research results rather caution us against the view that the Catholic global rank and file will follow the Church’s substantially weakened leadership in endorsing a liberal asylum and migration policy. Based on European Social Survey-based criteria that include pro-immigration attitudes, Euro-multiculturalism, the rejection of racism, personal multicultural experience, and the rejection of right-wing culturalism, it is fair to suggest that in not a single European country, practicing Catholics were more liberal in their attitudes towards immigration than overall society. The global country-based evidence based on the World Values Survey also indicates that only in a limited number of countries, Catholic dominicantes are at the forefront of a democratic, open society, based on factor analytical criteria, well compatible with the theoretical literature. Our overall assessment, however, produces not only pessimistic results. One of our hypotheses is that the Roman Catholic Second Vatican Council and its commitment to inter-religious tolerance in many ways paved the way for the high degree of societal tolerance in predominantly Catholic Western countries.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jolliet, Olivier; Vigon, Bruce; Verones, Francesca; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Ridoutt, Brad; Pfister, Stephan; Canals, Llorenc Mila i; Michelsen, Ottar; McKone, Thomas E.; Levasseur, Annie; +10 more
    Publisher: Springer Verlag
    Country: Spain

    Purpose: The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) guidance flagship project of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Life Cycle Initiative aims at providing global guidance and building scientific consensus on environmental LCIA indicators. This paper presents the progress made since 2013, preliminary results obtained for each impact category and the description of a rice life cycle assessment (LCA) case study designed to test and compare LCIA indicators. Methods: The effort has been focused in a first stage on impacts of global warming, fine particulate matter emissions, water use and land use, plus cross-cutting issues and LCA-based footprints. The paper reports the process and progress and specific results obtained in the different task forces (TFs). Additionally, a rice LCA case study common to all TF has been developed. Three distinctly different scenarios of producing and cooking rice have been defined and underlined with life cycle inventory data. These LCAs help testing impact category indicators which are being developed and/or selected in the harmonisation process. The rice LCA case study further helps to ensure the practicality of the finally recommended impact category indicators. Results and discussion: The global warming TF concludes that analysts should explore the sensitivity of LCA results to metrics other than GWP. The particulate matter TF attained initial guidance of how to include health effects from PM2.5 exposures consistently into LCIA. The biodiversity impacts of land use TF suggests to consider complementary metrics besides species richness for assessing biodiversity loss. The water use TF is evaluating two stress-based metrics, AWaRe and an alternative indicator by a stakeholder consultation. The cross-cutting issues TF agreed upon maintaining disability-adjusted life years (DALY) as endpoint unit for the safeguard subject 'human health'. The footprint TF defined main attributes that should characterise all footprint indicators. 'Rice cultivation' and 'cooking' stages of the rice LCA case study contribute most to the environmental impacts assessed. Conclusions: The results of the TF will be documented in white papers and some published in scientific journals. These white papers represent the input for the Pellston workshop', taking place in Valencia, Spain, from 24 to 29 January 2016, where best practice, harmonised LCIA indicators and an update on the general LCIA framework will be discussed and agreed on. With the diversity in results and the multi-tier supply chains, the rice LCA case study is well suited to test candidate recommended indicators and to ensure their applicability in common LCA case studies.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Palie, Willem;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    il s'agit d'un type de produit dont les métadonnées ne correspondent pas aux métadonnées attendues dans les autres types de produit : DISSERTATION; La disponibilité en eau en sous-bois un paramètre important dans la réussite de la régénération. Les scénarios de réchauffements climatiques prévoient une augmentation des épisodes de sécheresse en Europe. Dans ce contexte, le modèle RReShar (Regeneration and Resource Sharing) a été développé. Ce dernier est un modèle de régénération forestière et de partage des ressources. Il réalisait jusqu’à maintenant un bilan en eau succinct afin de pouvoir simulé la compétition des arbres adultes, de la régénération et de la végétation de sous-bois pour l’eau. L’objectif de ce stage a été de concevoir un modèle de bilan hydrique à partir de la littérature, de l’implémenter et de tester son fonctionnement. L’interception de la pluie, simulée à l’aide du modèle de Merriam, simule les interceptions en fonction du taux de recouvrement de façon cohérente. Toutefois, les interceptions s’étendent sur l’ensemble de la parcelle. L’évapotranspiration réelle est calculée à l’aide de la méthode de Turc. Le sol comporte sept réservoirs. L’un des points à améliorer est de restituer la verticalité du processus d’interception. Il serait intéressant de confronter le modèle conçu a des données de terrain afin de pouvoir juger de l’importance des erreurs produites et d’identifier les processus à améliorer.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Wallman, Magdalena; von Streit, Bettina; van Zelm, Rosalie; Sourisseau, Sandrine; Schau, Erwin M.; Roux, Philippe; Rasanen, Kati; Payet, Jerome; Nemecek, Thomas; Maxime, Dominique; +17 more
    Country: Spain

    Pesticides are applied to agricultural fields to optimise crop yield and their global use is substantial. Their consideration in life cycle assessment (LCA) is affected by important inconsistencies between the emission inventory and impact assessment phases of LCA. A clear definition of the delineation between the product system model (life cycle inventory-LCI, technosphere) and the natural environment (life cycle impact assessment-LCIA, ecosphere) is missing and could be established via consensus building. A workshop held in 2013 in Glasgow, UK, had the goal of establishing consensus and creating clear guidelines in the following topics: (1) boundary between emission inventory and impact characterisation model, (2) spatial dimensions and the time periods assumed for the application of substances to open agricultural fields or in greenhouses and (3) emissions to the natural environment and their potential impacts. More than 30 specialists in agrifood LCI, LCIA, risk assessment and ecotoxicology, representing industry, government and academia from 15 countries and four continents, met to discuss and reach consensus. The resulting guidelines target LCA practitioners, data (base) and characterisation method developers, and decision makers. The focus was on defining a clear interface between LCI and LCIA, capable of supporting any goal and scope requirements while avoiding double counting or exclusion of important emission flows/impacts. Consensus was reached accordingly on distinct sets of recommendations for LCI and LCIA, respectively, recommending, for example, that buffer zones should be considered as part of the crop production system and the change in yield be considered. While the spatial dimensions of the field were not fixed, the temporal boundary between dynamic LCI fate modelling and steady-state LCIA fate modelling needs to be defined. For pesticide application, the inventory should report pesticide identification, crop, mass applied per active ingredient, application method or formulation type, presence of buffer zones, location/country, application time before harvest and crop growth stage during application, adherence with Good Agricultural Practice, and whether the field is considered part of the technosphere or the ecosphere. Additionally, emission fractions to environmental media on-field and off-field should be reported. For LCIA, the directly concerned impact categories and a list of relevant fate and exposure processes were identified. Next steps were identified: (1) establishing default emission fractions to environmental media for integration into LCI databases and (2) interaction among impact model developers to extend current methods with new elements/processes mentioned in the recommendations.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Nunez Pineda, M.; Pfister, S.; Vargas, M.; Anton, A.;
    Country: Spain

    Purpose: Regionalised characterisation factors (CFs) for watersheds around the world are available to assess water-use-related environmental impacts. The main problem with using the watershed regionalisation level arises when a single CF is generated for large watersheds in countries where water availability and demand are not uniform. Additionally, water availability and use vary over time because of the effects of climate change and changing human lifestyles. These two factors are currently not taken into account in CFs, but should be included for the sake of the accuracy of LCA results. The aim of this research was to provide water stress index CFs at the sub-watershed spatial level for three temporal scenarios (present, short-term future and mid-term future) for Spain (Southern Europe), a country with considerably variability in water availability that is especially vulnerable to climate change effects. Methods: CFs were calculated following the water stress index (WSI) definition of Pfister et al. (2009). The WSI was calculated on a yearly basis for 117 sub-watersheds - compared to 56 regionalisation units provided in the original method - and for (i) the current situation: current water use and availability; (ii) short-term future: projections for 2015; and (iii) mid-term future: projections for 2030. The uncertainties of the CFs were calculated for each sub-watershed. Results and discussion: Temporal trend analysis of the CFs showed a general relaxation of water stress over the short-term when compared to the current situation, followed by a new increase. Major differences were noticed in the WSIs calculated by Pfister et al. (2009) using global data and maps and the WSIs calculated in this study using national and regional data. The WSIs under consideration of uncertainty were higher than the deterministic result for intermediate WSIs. Conclusions and outlook: The CFs generated are useful compared with the CFs previously available because they improve evaluation of the water-use-related impacts of present and future technologies with the life cycle stages located in Spain. We encourage LCA developers to update WSIs for other countries using information at the national level that is usually freely accessible. / Dans l'Analyse de Cycle de Vie (ACV), il y a des facteurs de caractérisation (FC) à l'échelle du bassin-versant pour le monde entier et basés sur des données des années 1990. Dans ce travail, des facteurs de caractérisation de stress hydrique à l'échelle du sous-bassin versant pour trois scénarios temporels (présent, futur à court terme et futur à moyen terme) ont été développés pour l'Espagne.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Reckendrees, Alfred;
    Publisher: Munich Personal RePEc Archive. MPRA
    Countries: Germany, Denmark

    Today the European welfare states are strongly challenged and it is heavily debated how much social security a society should provide and how much private insurance is possible. This article goes back to the origins of the German welfare state. In the 1830s, industrialists from the district of Aachen (Prussian Rhineprovince) suggested to implement collective labour rules regulating working hours and wages. In the 1860s –20 years before Bismarck– they proposed a mandatory pension system with equal contributions of employers and employees; they suggested labour conflict resolution by joint arbitration panels of employers and labour representatives. The proposals did not gain support from the Prussian ministries arguing collective agreements would violate freedom of contracting. Entrepreneurs demanding social welfare and the Prussian state defending economic liberalism – this challenges the perception of the Bismarckian welfare state as a means to reconcile labour with the German state. Yet, in the early 19th century the district of Aachen was the most advanced economic region in Prussia in regard with industrial employment and modern industrial organisation. Producing quality goods for the world markets, the industrialists aimed at stabilizing the social environment and reconciling labour with the capitalist society. Their motivation, however, was not based on philanthropy; it was guided by economic aims and collective self-interest. Analysing ‘social policy’ as a capitalist aim, the paper puts the German welfare state in a new perspective. By doing this it also wants to contribute to the discussion on the future of the modern welfare states, because if the argument presented here holds it might have implications for the possibility of privately solving social problems.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Palie, W.;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    The availability of resources in the understory is essential for the successful regeneration of the forest. However, upon the creation of a gap, an opportunistic vegetation competes with trees seedlings, for light and water mainly. Moreover, climate change subjoins an additional challenge to forest management. A forest dynamics model incorporating resource sharing (RReShar, Regeneration and Resource Sharing) has been developed in order to test the effectiveness on regeneration success of different management methods on regeneration success, over a period of 20 to 50 years and under different climatic scenarios. It implements a large number of processes. RReShar was assessed in this study, paying attention to the consistency and accuracy of the simulations. The development of different vegetation layers and their impact on the resources available were simulated and evaluated through the comparison with experimental data. The influence of the sizes of scenes and number of cells and of vegetation were tested. Simulations by RReShar are consistent in many ways. The absence of constraint on the response curve of the density of the interfering vegetations to the transmitted irradiance by the above canopy causes errors at low light levels. Despite simplicity of tree crowns, it gives acceptable estimates of the intercepted light though probably improvable. Thus the difference between experimental and simulated values is mainly caused by the lack of definition of a buffer zone at the edge of the scene. The decreasing exponential seedling mortality could also be adjusted according to the age of their mother-tree. Avenues for improving the RReShar model are proposed, such as the optimization of computational time, as a function of the number of cells per scene. / La disponibilité des ressources en sous-bois est indispensable pour la réussite de la régénération de la forêt. Toutefois, à la création d'une trouée, une végétation opportuniste entre en compétition avec les semis des arbres principalement pour la lumière et l'eau. De plus, le changement climatique apporte une difficulté supplémentaire à la gestion forestière. Un modèle de dynamique forestière intégrant le partage des ressources (RReShar, Regeneration and Resource Sharing) a donc été développé afin de pouvoir tester l'efficacité, sur 20 à 50 ans, de différents modes de gestion, sous différentes hypothèses de climat, sur la réussite de la régénération. Un nombre important de processus a été implémenté dans RReShar. Il a été éprouvé lors de cette étude, notamment en termes de cohérence et de précision des simulations. Le développement des différentes strates de végétation et leur impact sur les ressources disponibles ont été simulés et évalués par comparaison à des données mesurées. Des tests ont été effectués au niveau de l'influence des dimensions des scènes et du nombre de cellules et de végétaux présents. Les simulations réalisées par RReShar sont cohérentes sur de nombreux points. Une absence de bornage des courbes de taux de recouvrement des végétations interférentes causent des erreurs aux faibles niveaux d'éclairement. Malgré la simplicité des houppiers des arbres, il donne des résultats d'interception de la lumière acceptables mais sans doute améliorables. Ainsi, la divergence entre valeurs réelles et simulées est principalement causée par l'absence de définition d'une zone tampon par rapport au bord de la scène. Il semblerait que la mortalité exponentielle décroissante des semis serait à moduler en fonction de leur âge de leur arbre-mère. Des pistes d'amélioration du modèle RReShar sont proposés, tels que l'optimisation des temps de calcul, en fonction du nombre de cellules par scène.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Urbina, Jilber; Guillén, Montserrat;
    Country: Germany

    The cost of operational risk refers to the capital needed to afford the loss generated by ordinary activities of a firm. In this work we demonstrate how allocation principles can be used to the subdivision of the aggregate capital so that the firm can distribute this cost across its various constituents that generate operational risk. Several capital allocation principles are revised. Proportional allocation allows to calculate a relative risk premium to be charged to each unit. An example of fraud risk in the banking sector is presented and some correlation scenarios between business lines are compared.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Urbina, Jilber;
    Country: Germany

    We measure volatility spread among countries and summarize it into a volatility spillover index to provide a measurement of such interdependence. Our spillover index is based on the forecast error variance decomposition (FEVD) for a VAR model at h-step ahead forecast, and we construct it using both the orthogonalized FEVD and the generalized FEVD (GFEVD); both of them provide similar results, but the generalized version is easier to handle when a data set with more than 6 variables is involved and non theory in available to impose the restrictions needed by the orthogonal version; this is true since the GFEVD does not depend on the restrictions imposed by the Choleski decomposition. This fact makes it attractive when economic theory does not fit well with variables relationship. An R package for reproducing this chapter estimations is entirely developed.

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