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30 Research products, page 1 of 3

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lampilahti, Janne; Manninen, Hanna Elina; Leino, Katri; Väänänen, Riikka; Manninen, Antti; Buenrostro Mazon, Stephany; Nieminen, Tuomo; Leskinen, Matti; Enroth, Joonas; Bister, Marja; +6 more
    Project: EC | ATM-GTP (742206), AKA | ‘Centre of Excellence in ... (272041), AKA | Mechanisms, pathways and ... (314798), AKA | Mechanisms, pathways and ... (314799), EC | ACTRIS-2 (654109), EC | PEGASOS (265148)

    Recent studies have shown the importance of new particle formation (NPF) to global cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) production, as well as to air pollution in megacities. In addition to the necessary presence of low-volatility vapors that can form new aerosol particles, both numerical and observational studies have shown that the dynamics of the planetary boundary layer (BL) plays an important role in NPF. Evidence from field observations suggests that roll vortices might be favorable for inducing NPF in a convective BL. However, direct observations and estimates of the potential importance of this phenomenon to the production of new aerosol particles are lacking. Here we show that rolls frequently induce NPF bursts along the horizontal circulations and that the small clusters and particles originating from these localized bursts grow in size similar to particles typically ascribed to atmospheric NPF that occur almost homogeneously at a regional scale. We outline a method to identify roll-induced NPF from measurements and, based on the collected data, estimate the impact of roll vortices on the overall aerosol particle production due to NPF at a boreal forest site (83 % ± 34 % and 26 % ± 8 % overall enhancement in particle formation for 3 and 10 nm particles, respectively). We conclude that the formation of roll vortices should be taken into account when estimating particle number budgets in the atmospheric BL.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Juan Miguel Valverde; Riccardo De Feo; Artem Shatillo; Jussi Tohka;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | GenomMed (740264), AKA | Predictive brain image an... (316258), EC | GenomMed (740264), AKA | Predictive brain image an... (316258)

    MedicDeepLabv3+ trained models. For MedicDeepLabv3+ v1.1.0, please download trained_models_v1.1.0.zip

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stolzenburg, Dominik; Simon, Mario; Ranjithkumar, Ananth; Kürten, Andreas; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Gordon, Hamish; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Finkenzeller, Henning; Pichelstorfer, Lukas; Nieminen, Tuomo; +68 more
    Project: EC | NANODYNAMITE (616075), FWF | Chemical composition of a... (P 27295), SNSF | CLOUD Infrastructure proj... (172622), AKA | From Autoxidation to Auto... (299574), NSF | Collaborative Research: C... (1801280), NSF | Collaborative Research: C... (1801329), AKA | Oxidised organic vapours ... (310682), EC | CLOUD-MOTION (764991), SNSF | CLOUD (159851), EC | COFUND-FP-CERN-2014 (665779),...

    In the present-day atmosphere, sulfuric acid is the most important vapour for aerosol particle formation and initial growth. However, the growth rates of nanoparticles (<10 nm) from sulfuric acid remain poorly measured. Therefore, the effect of stabilizing bases, the contribution of ions and the impact of attractive forces on molecular collisions are under debate. Here, we present precise growth rate measurements of uncharged sulfuric acid particles from 1.8 to 10 nm, performed under atmospheric conditions in the CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) CLOUD chamber. Our results show that the evaporation of sulfuric acid particles above 2 nm is negligible, and growth proceeds kinetically even at low ammonia concentrations. The experimental growth rates exceed the hard-sphere kinetic limit for the condensation of sulfuric acid. We demonstrate that this results from van der Waals forces between the vapour molecules and particles and disentangle it from charge–dipole interactions. The magnitude of the enhancement depends on the assumed particle hydration and collision kinetics but is increasingly important at smaller sizes, resulting in a steep rise in the observed growth rates with decreasing size. Including the experimental results in a global model, we find that the enhanced growth rate of sulfuric acid particles increases the predicted particle number concentrations in the upper free troposphere by more than 50 %.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kouznetsov, Rostislav; Sofiev, Mikhail; Vira, Julius; Stiller, Gabriele;
    Project: EC | MARCOPOLO (606953), AKA | Advanced Analysis of Stra... (139126)

    The paper presents a comparative study of age of air (AoA) derived from several approaches: a widely used passive-tracer accumulation method, the SF6 accumulation, and a direct calculation of an ideal-age tracer. The simulations were performed with the Eulerian chemistry transport model SILAM driven with the ERA-Interim reanalysis for 1980–2018. The Eulerian environment allowed for simultaneous application of several approaches within the same simulation and interpretation of the obtained differences. A series of sensitivity simulations revealed the role of the vertical profile of turbulent diffusion in the stratosphere, destruction of SF6 in the mesosphere, and the effect of gravitational separation of gases with strongly different molar masses. The simulations reproduced well the main features of the SF6 distribution in the atmosphere observed by the MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding) satellite instrument. It was shown that the apparent very old air in the upper stratosphere derived from the SF6 profile observations is a result of destruction and gravitational separation of this gas in the upper stratosphere and the mesosphere. These processes make the apparent SF6 AoA in the stratosphere several years older than the ideal-age AoA, which, according to our calculations, does not exceed 6–6.5 years. The destruction of SF6 and the varying rate of emission make SF6 unsuitable for reliably deriving AoA or its trends. However, observations of SF6 provide a very useful dataset for validation of the stratospheric circulation in a model with the properly implemented SF6 loss.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kupiainen, Kaarle Juhana; Aamaas, Borgar; Savolahti, Mikko; Karvosenoja, Niko; Paunu, Ville-Veikko;
    Project: AKA | Novel Assessment of Black... (296644), AKA | Keeping the Arctic White:... (286699), EC | ECLIPSE (282688)

    We present a case study where emission metric values from different studies are applied to estimate global and Arctic temperature impacts of emissions from a northern European country. This study assesses the climate impact of Finnish air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions from 2000 to 2010, as well as future emissions until 2030. We consider both emission pulses and emission scenarios. The pollutants included are SO2, NOx, NH3, non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC), black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), CO, CO2, CH4 and N2O, and our study is the first one for Finland to include all of them in one coherent dataset. These pollutants have different atmospheric lifetimes and influence the climate differently; hence, we look at different climate metrics and time horizons. The study uses the global warming potential (GWP and GWP*), the global temperature change potential (GTP) and the regional temperature change potential (RTP) with different timescales for estimating the climate impacts by species and sectors globally and in the Arctic. We compare the climate impacts of emissions occurring in winter and summer. This assessment is an example of how the climate impact of emissions from small countries and sources can be estimated, as it is challenging to use climate models to study the climate effect of national policies in a multi-pollutant situation. Our methods are applicable to other countries and regions and present a practical tool to analyze the climate impacts in multiple dimensions, such as assessing different sectors and mitigation measures. While our study focuses on short-lived climate forcers, we found that the CO2 emissions have the most significant climate impact, and the significance increases over longer time horizons. In the short term, emissions of especially CH4 and BC played an important role as well. The warming impact of BC emissions is enhanced during winter. Many metric choices are available, but our findings hold for most choices.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Leino, Katri; Lampilahti, Janne; Poutanen, Pyry; Väänänen, Riikka; Manninen, Antti; Buenrostro Mazon, Stephany; Dada, Lubna; Nikandrova, Anna; Wimmer, Daniela; Aalto, Pasi P.; +13 more
    Project: AKA | NanoBioMass - Natural Sec... (307537), EC | BACCHUS (603445), EC | ATM-GTP (742206), AKA | ‘Centre of Excellence in ... (272041), EC | ERA-PLANET (689443)

    This work presents airborne observations of sub-3 nm particles in the lower troposphere and investigates new particle formation (NPF) within an evolving boundary layer (BL). We studied particle concentrations together with supporting gas and meteorological data inside the planetary BL over a boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, southern Finland. The analysed data were collected during three flight measurement campaigns: May–June 2015, August 2015 and April–May 2017, including 27 morning and 26 afternoon vertical profiles. As a platform for the instrumentation, we used a Cessna 172 aircraft. The analysed flight data were collected horizontally within a 30 km distance from SMEAR II in Hyytiälä and vertically from 100 m above ground level up to 2700 m. The number concentration of 1.5–3 nm particles was observed to be, on average, the highest near the forest canopy top and to decrease with increasing altitude during the mornings of NPF event days. This indicates that the precursor vapours emitted by the forest play a key role in NPF in Hyytiälä. During daytime, newly formed particles were observed to grow in size and the particle population became more homogenous within the well-mixed BL in the afternoon. During undefined days with respect to NPF, we also detected an increase in concentration of 1.5–3 nm particles in the morning but not their growth in size, which indicates an interrupted NPF process during these undefined days. Vertical mixing was typically stronger during the NPF event days than during the undefined or non-event days. The results shed light on the connection between boundary layer dynamics and NPF.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mikola, Juha; Virtanen, Tarmo; Linkosalmi, Maiju; Vähä, Emmi; Nyman, Johanna; Postanogova, Olga; Räsänen, Aleksi; Kotze, D. Johan; Laurila, Tuomas; Juutinen, Sari; +2 more
    Project: EC | PAGE21 (282700), AKA | Constraining uncertaintie... (291736), AKA | ‘Centre of Excellence in ... (272041)

    Arctic tundra ecosystems will play a key role in future climate change due to intensifying permafrost thawing, plant growth and ecosystem carbon exchange, but monitoring these changes may be challenging due to the heterogeneity of Arctic landscapes. We examined spatial variation and linkages of soil and plant attributes in a site of Siberian Arctic tundra in Tiksi, northeast Russia, and evaluated possibilities to capture this variation by remote sensing for the benefit of carbon exchange measurements and landscape extrapolation. We distinguished nine land cover types (LCTs) and to characterize them, sampled 92 study plots for plant and soil attributes in 2014. Moreover, to test if variation in plant and soil attributes can be detected using remote sensing, we produced a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and topographical parameters for each study plot using three very high spatial resolution multispectral satellite images. We found that soils ranged from mineral soils in bare soil and lichen tundra LCTs to soils of high percentage of organic matter (OM) in graminoid tundra, bog, dry fen and wet fen. OM content of the top soil was on average 14 g dm−3 in bare soil and lichen tundra and 89 g dm−3 in other LCTs. Total moss biomass varied from 0 to 820 g m−2, total vascular shoot mass from 7 to 112 g m−2 and vascular leaf area index (LAI) from 0.04 to 0.95 among LCTs. In late summer, soil temperatures at 15 cm depth were on average 14 ∘C in bare soil and lichen tundra, and varied from 5 to 9 ∘C in other LCTs. On average, depth of the biologically active, unfrozen soil layer doubled from early July to mid-August. When contrasted across study plots, moss biomass was positively associated with soil OM % and OM content and negatively associated with soil temperature, explaining 14–34 % of variation. Vascular shoot mass and LAI were also positively associated with soil OM content, and LAI with active layer depth, but only explained 6–15 % of variation. NDVI captured variation in vascular LAI better than in moss biomass, but while this difference was significant with late season NDVI, it was minimal with early season NDVI. For this reason, soil attributes associated with moss mass were better captured by early season NDVI. Topographic attributes were related to LAI and many soil attributes, but not to moss biomass and could not increase the amount of spatial variation explained in plant and soil attributes above that achieved by NDVI. The LCT map we produced had low to moderate uncertainty in predictions for plant and soil properties except for moss biomass and bare soil and lichen tundra LCTs. Our results illustrate a typical tundra ecosystem with great fine-scale spatial variation in both plant and soil attributes. Mosses dominate plant biomass and control many soil attributes, including OM % and temperature, but variation in moss biomass is difficult to capture by remote sensing reflectance, topography or a LCT map. Despite the general accuracy of landscape level predictions in our LCT approach, this indicates challenges in the spatial extrapolation of some of those vegetation and soil attributes that are relevant for the regional ecosystem and global climate models.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Erkkilä, Kukka-Maaria; Ojala, Anne; Bastviken, David; Biermann, Tobias; Heiskanen, Jouni J.; Lindroth, Anders; Peltola, Olli; Rantakari, Miitta; Vesala, Timo; Mammarella, Ivan;
    Project: AKA | ‘Centre of Excellence in ... (272041), AKA | Carbon Cycle in Lake-Atmo... (281196), AKA | Biosphere-Atmosphere Feed... (282842), AKA | Biosphere-Atmosphere Feed... (284701), EC | METLAKE (725546), EC | GHG-LAKE (612642)

    Freshwaters bring a notable contribution to the global carbon budget by emitting both carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. Global estimates of freshwater emissions traditionally use a wind-speed-based gas transfer velocity, kCC (introduced by Cole and Caraco, 1998), for calculating diffusive flux with the boundary layer method (BLM). We compared CH4 and CO2 fluxes from BLM with kCC and two other gas transfer velocities (kTE and kHE), which include the effects of water-side cooling to the gas transfer besides shear-induced turbulence, with simultaneous eddy covariance (EC) and floating chamber (FC) fluxes during a 16-day measurement campaign in September 2014 at Lake Kuivajärvi in Finland. The measurements included both lake stratification and water column mixing periods. Results show that BLM fluxes were mainly lower than EC, with the more recent model kTE giving the best fit with EC fluxes, whereas FC measurements resulted in higher fluxes than simultaneous EC measurements. We highly recommend using up-to-date gas transfer models, instead of kCC, for better flux estimates. BLM CO2 flux measurements had clear differences between daytime and night-time fluxes with all gas transfer models during both stratified and mixing periods, whereas EC measurements did not show a diurnal behaviour in CO2 flux. CH4 flux had higher values in daytime than night-time during lake mixing period according to EC measurements, with highest fluxes detected just before sunset. In addition, we found clear differences in daytime and night-time concentration difference between the air and surface water for both CH4 and CO2. This might lead to biased flux estimates, if only daytime values are used in BLM upscaling and flux measurements in general. FC measurements did not detect spatial variation in either CH4 or CO2 flux over Lake Kuivajärvi. EC measurements, on the other hand, did not show any spatial variation in CH4 fluxes but did show a clear difference between CO2 fluxes from shallower and deeper areas. We highlight that while all flux measurement methods have their pros and cons, it is important to carefully think about the chosen method and measurement interval, as well as their effects on the resulting flux.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kokkola, Harri; Kühn, Thomas; Laakso, Anton; Bergman, Tommi; Lehtinen, Kari E. J.; Mielonen, Tero; Arola, Antti; Stadtler, Scarlet; Korhonen, Hannele; Ferrachat, Sylvaine; +10 more
    Project: EC | BACCHUS (603445), EC | RECAP (724602), NSF | Measurement of Aerosol Ch... (0002698), UKRI | Global Aerosol Synthesis ... (NE/J023515/1), AKA | Regional Climate Impacts ... (287440), NSF | Collaborative Research: S... (0002035), EC | ECLAIR (646857), EC | CRESCENDO (641816), AKA | Extensive study on aeroso... (283031), AKA | Refining climate effects ... (308292),...

    In this paper, we present the implementation and evaluation of the aerosol microphysics module SALSA2.0 in the framework of the aerosol–chemistry–climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ. It is an alternative microphysics module to the default modal microphysics scheme M7 in ECHAM-HAMMOZ. The SALSA2.0 implementation within ECHAM-HAMMOZ is evaluated against observations of aerosol optical properties, aerosol mass, and size distributions, comparing also to the skill of the M7 implementation. The largest differences between the implementation of SALSA2.0 and M7 are in the methods used for calculating microphysical processes, i.e., nucleation, condensation, coagulation, and hydration. These differences in the microphysics are reflected in the results so that the largest differences between SALSA2.0 and M7 are evident over regions where the aerosol size distribution is heavily modified by the microphysical processing of aerosol particles. Such regions are, for example, highly polluted regions and regions strongly affected by biomass burning. In addition, in a simulation of the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo eruption in which a stratospheric sulfate plume was formed, the global burden and the effective radii of the stratospheric aerosol are very different in SALSA2.0 and M7. While SALSA2.0 was able to reproduce the observed time evolution of the global burden of sulfate and the effective radii of stratospheric aerosol, M7 strongly overestimates the removal of coarse stratospheric particles and thus underestimates the effective radius of stratospheric aerosol. As the mode widths of M7 have been optimized for the troposphere and were not designed to represent stratospheric aerosol, the ability of M7 to simulate the volcano plume was improved by modifying the mode widths, decreasing the standard deviations of the accumulation and coarse modes from 1.59 and 2.0, respectively, to 1.2 similar to what was observed after the Mt. Pinatubo eruption. Overall, SALSA2.0 shows promise in improving the aerosol description of ECHAM-HAMMOZ and can be further improved by implementing methods for aerosol processes that are more suitable for the sectional method, e.g., size-dependent emissions for aerosol species and size-resolved wet deposition.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Korrensalo, Aino; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Uljas, Salli;
    Publisher: PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science
    Project: AKA | Biosphere-Atmosphere Feed... (282842), AKA | Support for Graduate Scho... (118780), EC | INTERACT (730938), AKA | Biosphere-Atmosphere Feed... (312571)

    The presented datasets contain * chamber CO2 measurement and leaf area data of years 2012-2014 used in fitting the non-linear model * chamber CO2 measurement and leaf area data of year 2015 used for model validation * data for flux reconstruction using the model

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