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9 Research products, page 1 of 1

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Marron, Alan; Cassarino, Lucie; Hatton, Jade; Curnow, Paul; Hendry, Katharine R.;
    Project: WT , EC | BIOCOMPLEX (247333), EC | ICY-LAB (678371)

    The marine silicon cycle is intrinsically linked with carbon cycling in the oceans via biological production of silica by a wide range of organisms. The stable silicon isotopic composition (denoted by δ30Si) of siliceous microfossils extracted from sediment cores can be used as an archive of past oceanic silicon cycling. However, the silicon isotopic composition of biogenic silica has only been measured in diatoms, sponges and radiolarians, and isotopic fractionation relative to seawater is entirely unknown for many other silicifiers. Furthermore, the biochemical pathways and mechanisms that determine isotopic fractionation during biosilicification remain poorly understood. Here, we present the first measurements of the silicon isotopic fractionation during biosilicification by loricate choanoflagellates, a group of protists closely related to animals. We cultured two species of choanoflagellates, Diaphanoeca grandis and Stephanoeca diplocostata, which showed consistently greater isotopic fractionation (approximately −5 ‰ to −7 ‰) than cultured diatoms (−0.5 ‰ to −2.1 ‰). Instead, choanoflagellate silicon isotopic fractionation appears to be more similar to sponges grown under similar dissolved silica concentrations. Our results highlight that there is a taxonomic component to silicon isotope fractionation during biosilicification, possibly via a shared or related biochemical transport pathway. These findings have implications for the use of biogenic silica δ30Si produced by different silicifiers as proxies for past oceanic change.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Beever, D.A.; Wildman, M.;
    Publisher: BioMed Central
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: WT , EC | COMBACTE-CARE (115620), EC | COMBACTE-NET (115523), EC | SENSE-Cog (668648)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pham, Minh H.; Elshehabi, Morad; Haertner, Linda; Del Din, Silvia; Srulijes, Karin; Heger, Tanja; Synofzik, Matthis; Hobert, Markus A.; Faber, Gert S.; Hansen, Clint; +9 more
    Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
    Project: WT , EC | FAIR-PARK-II (633190)

    IntroductionInertial measurement units (IMUs) positioned on various body locations allow detailed gait analysis even under unconstrained conditions. From a medical perspective, the assessment of vulnerable populations is of particular relevance, especially in the daily-life environment. Gait analysis algorithms need thorough validation, as many chronic diseases show specific and even unique gait patterns. The aim of this study was therefore to validate an acceleration-based step detection algorithm for patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and older adults in both a lab-based and home-like environment.MethodsIn this prospective observational study, data were captured from a single 6-degrees of freedom IMU (APDM) (3DOF accelerometer and 3DOF gyroscope) worn on the lower back. Detection of heel strike (HS) and toe off (TO) on a treadmill was validated against an optoelectronic system (Vicon) (11 PD patients and 12 older adults). A second independent validation study in the home-like environment was performed against video observation (20 PD patients and 12 older adults) and included step counting during turning and non-turning, defined with a previously published algorithm.ResultsA continuous wavelet transform (cwt)-based algorithm was developed for step detection with very high agreement with the optoelectronic system. HS detection in PD patients/older adults, respectively, reached 99/99% accuracy. Similar results were obtained for TO (99/100%). In HS detection, Bland–Altman plots showed a mean difference of 0.002 s [95% confidence interval (CI) −0.09 to 0.10] between the algorithm and the optoelectronic system. The Bland–Altman plot for TO detection showed mean differences of 0.00 s (95% CI −0.12 to 0.12). In the home-like assessment, the algorithm for detection of occurrence of steps during turning reached 90% (PD patients)/90% (older adults) sensitivity, 83/88% specificity, and 88/89% accuracy. The detection of steps during non-turning phases reached 91/91% sensitivity, 90/90% specificity, and 91/91% accuracy.ConclusionThis cwt-based algorithm for step detection measured at the lower back is in high agreement with the optoelectronic system in both PD patients and older adults. This approach and algorithm thus could provide a valuable tool for future research on home-based gait analysis in these vulnerable cohorts.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Relton, C.; Burbach, M.; Collett, C.; Flory, J.; Gerlich, S.; Holm, S.; Hunn, A.; Kim, S.Y.; Kwakkenbos, L.; May, A.; +10 more
    Publisher: BioMed Central
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: WT , CIHR , EC | TRUST (664771)

    On 7-8\ud th\ud November 2016, 60 people with an interest in the\ud ‘\ud Trials\ud within Cohorts\ud ’\ud (TwiCs) approach for randomised controlled trial design\ud met in London. The purpose of this 2\ud nd\ud TwiCs international symposium\ud was to share perspectives and experiences on ethical aspects of the\ud TwiCs design, discuss how TwiCs relate to the current ethical frame-\ud work, provide a forum in which to discuss and debate ethical issues\ud and identify future directions for conceptual and empirical research.\ud The symposium was supported by the Wellcome Trust and the NIHR\ud CLAHRC Yorkshire and Humber and organised by members of the\ud TwiCs network led by Clare Relton and attended by people from the\ud UK, the Netherlands, Norway, Canada and USA. The two-day sympo-\ud sium enabled an international group to meet and share experiences\ud of the TwiCs design (also known as the\ud ‘\ud cohort multiple RCT design\ud ’\ud ),\ud and to discuss plans for future research. Over the two days, invited\ud plenary talks were interspersed by discussions, posters and mini pre-\ud sentations from bioethicists, triallists and health research regulators.\ud Key findings of the symposium were: (1) It is possible to make a\ud compelling case to ethics committees that TwiCs designs are ap-\ud propriate and ethical; (2) The importance of wider considerations\ud around the ethics of inefficient trial designs; and (3) some questions\ud about the ethical requirements for content and timing of informed\ud consent for a study using the TwiCs design need to be decided on\ud a case-by-case basis.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Matzaraki, Vasiliki; Kumar, Vinod; Wijmenga, Cisca; Zhernakova, Alexandra;
    Project: WT , EC | CD-LINK (322698), EC | TANDEM (305279)

    In the past 50 years, variants in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus, also known as the human leukocyte antigen (HLA), have been reported as major risk factors for complex diseases. Recent advances, including large genetic screens, imputation, and analyses of non-additive and epistatic effects, have contributed to a better understanding of the shared and specific roles of MHC variants in different diseases. We review these advances and discuss the relationships between MHC variants involved in autoimmune and infectious diseases. Further work in this area will help to distinguish between alternative hypotheses for the role of pathogens in autoimmune disease development.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jain, Saurabh; Sima, Diana M.; Sanaei Nezhad, Faezeh; Hangel, Gilbert; Bogner, Wolfgang; Williams, Stephen; Van Huffel, Sabine; Maes, Frederik; Smeets, Dirk;
    Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
    Project: WT , EC | BRAINPATH (612360), EC | CENTER-TBI (602150), EC | TRANSACT (316679)

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) provides complementary information to conventional magnetic resonance imaging. Acquiring high resolution MRSI is time consuming and requires complex reconstruction techniques.Methods: In this paper, a patch-based super-resolution method is presented to increase the spatial resolution of metabolite maps computed from MRSI. The proposed method uses high resolution anatomical MR images (T1-weighted and Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) to regularize the super-resolution process. The accuracy of the method is validated against conventional interpolation techniques using a phantom, as well as simulated and in vivo acquired human brain images of multiple sclerosis subjects.Results: The method preserves tissue contrast and structural information, and matches well with the trend of acquired high resolution MRSI.Conclusions: These results suggest that the method has potential for clinically relevant neuroimaging applications.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . 2015
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dijk, E.M.S.; Dimitropoulos, Harry; Iatropoulou, Katerina; Foufoulas, Ioannis;
    Publisher: OpenAIRE2020
    Project: WT , EC | OpenAIRE2020 (643410)

    This deliverable relates to the work carried out under task T8.3, “Research Impact Services”. The task’s focus is on the development of pilots with selected National funding agencies and infrastructure initiatives in order to serve them with the OpenAIRE research impact suite of services. A major service that OpenAIRE provides is the linking of research results to funding. Aside from importing the links from the repositories and journals, OpenAIRE designs, develops and enhances mining algorithms that identify and extract funding information from the text of scientific publications. With the help of NOADs we have initiated bi-lateral, often informal, collaborations with national funding agencies to facilitate mining extraction on their data. This is an on-going activity throughout the duration of the project. Currently the national funding agencies that we are working with are: FCT (Portugal), ARC (Australia), NHMRC (Australia), NSF & NIH (USA), SFI (Ireland), “Ministry of Science Education and Sport” & "Croatian Science Foundation” (Croatia), NWO (Netherlands), and DFG (Germany). This deliverable describes the nature of the data of the identified National funding agencies, as well as their export technologies, and provides the specification of the general-purpose OpenAIRE services required to support research impact measurements.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ramaswamy, Srikanth; Courcol, Jean-Denis; Abdellah, Marwan; Adaszewski, Stanislaw R.; Antille, Nicolas; Arsever, Selim; Atenekeng, Guy; Bilgili, Ahmet; Brukau, Yury; Chalimourda, Athanassia; +30 more
    Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
    Project: EC | HBP (604102), WT | The Open Source Brain rep... (101445)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Šidlauskienė, Virginija;
    Project: WT , EC | HELENA (230376)

    Straipsnyje pristatoma viena Europos Sąjungos ir neabejotinai Lietuvos moterų, studijuojančių ir dirbančių mokslinį darbąinžinerinių ir technologinių (IT) mokslų srityje, trūkumo problema. Nepaisant ankstesnių iniciatyvų aukštajame moksle, moterys sudaro mažumą IT mokslų ir studijų srityje. Mokslinė tyrimo problema formuluojama keliant šiuos probleminius klausimus: ar mokslo suvokimas ir visuomenėje vykstantys procesai lemia merginų IT studijų srities pasirinkimą? Ar padidinus IT studijų programų interdiscipliniškumą ir kartu technines bei technologines kompetencijas papildžius socialiniais ir perkeliamais gebėjimais, studijos tampa merginoms patrauklesnės? Tyrimas atliktas vykdant BP7 projektą HELENA: Aukštasis mokslas, orientuojantis moteris studijuoti inžinerijos ir technologinius mokslus su mokslininkų iš Austrijos, Prancūzijos, Jungtinės Karalystės, Serbijos, Ispanijos ir Lietuvos komanda. Tyrimo metodologija grindžiama kiekybinių ir kokybinių tyrimo duomenų trianguliacija, pradedant kiekybinių ir kokybinių duomenų rinkimą, pasikartojančią (iteratyvinę) pakopinę analizę institucijos, nacionaliniame ir tarpnacionaliniame lygmenyse. Vėliau numatyta ES šalių rezultatų tarptautinė lyginamoji analizė. Šiame straipsnyje pristatomas Lietuvos atvejis. Pradiniame tyrimo etape nustatyti studijų programų tradiciškumo ir inovatyvumo (interdiscipliniškumo) parametrai. Pirmojoje hipotezėje teigiama, jog studijų programos, kurių tarpdalykiškumas viršija 25 proc, yra patrauklesnės studijuoti moterims. Nustatytas priklausomas kintamasis - studenčių dalis visų studijuojančiųjų imtyje, nepriklausomas kintamasis - studijų programos tardalykiškumo laipsnis. Remiantis Godfrey, Pinault, Thaler, Wachter (2010) tyrimo metodologija, išanalizavus 126 inžinerinių ir 41 technologinių mokslų studijų sritis, iškeltai hipotezei patvirtinti atrinktos 23 studijų programos, kuriose įstojusių, studijuojančių ir studijų baigusių merginų skaičius yra arba mažas, arba akivaizdžiai didelis. Apibendrinant galima teigti, kad Lietuvos tyrimo atveju pirmoji hipotezė, teigianti, kad studijų programos, kurių tarpdalykiškumas viršija 25 proc, yra patrauklesnės studijuoti moterims, patvirtinta. Tokios studijų programos yra inovatyvios, savo turinyje komponuoja socialinių, humanitarinių, kultūros, teisės mokslų dalykus, tokius kaip Komunikacijos pagrindai, Profesinės kalbos kultūra, Teisės pagrindai, Aplinkosaugos ekonomika ir teisė, Inžinerijos ekonomika, Vadybos pagrindai, Darni plėtra, Ekologija, Profesinė sauga ir sveikata, Aplinkosaugos chemija, Aplinkosaugos sociologija, Mikro- ir makroekonomika, Ekstremalių situacijųmodeliavimas ir saugus valdymas ir pan. Antroji hipotezė pasitvirtino Lietuvos atvejo tyrimu: moterų, studijuojančių tarpdisciplininėse studijų programose, studijos yra sėkmingesnės nei studijuojančiųjų tradicinius studijų kursus. Būsimoje tyrimų stadijoje numatyta tirti tarpdisciplininių ir tradicinių studijų programų viešinimo medžiagą ir marketingą, studijų programų tikslinės grapės numatymą, karjeros, kokybiškos praktikos, skatinimo, mobilumo užsienyje galimybių pristatymą, šiuolaikinės studijų didaktikos ir kokybiško mokymo ir mokymosi sąlygų akcentavimą. The paper summarises the Lithuanian specific case studies, providing gender specific data on traditional and innovative pilot degree courses in E&T and identifying innovative study programs in engineering, then there is a comparison of traditional and interdisciplinary study courses. For that purpose an in-depth qualitative and quantitative analysis of some engineering study programmes grounded on transnational iterative methodology has been done. From this first analysis, a set of Lithuanian case studies has been selected for further analysis of students' perception of E&T studies. The paper summarises the results found after an in-depth examination of these selected case studies for a posterior evaluation of the success of pilot projects in E&T in attracting more female engineering students. The research draws up whether women are more likely than men to study engineering because of its perceived societal and cultural impact, and whether women are more attracted to engineering programs in universities that include an interdisciplinary approach, student-centred learning and the teaching and empowering studies environment.

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