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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bálint, Gabriel;
    Country: Finland

    With the increased popularity and lower cost of PV panels, Novia University of Applied Sciences is planning to install a PV system on the roof of the university building. This thesis aimed to create a low-cost solar data logger for the project's feasibility study. The device created uses an ESP32 as a controller and logs the data through MQTT protocol. The sensor is based on a 5 W PV panel and uses an INA219 combined with a MOSFET-based electronic load to obtain the partial I-V characteristics in under five seconds with a resolution of 64 I-V data points. This data allows quantifying the ideality of the environmental conditions for PV power generation. The logger is battery-powered and can use PV power to recharge the battery. The manufacturing of a prototype was partially done. The short-term operation in laboratory conditions was validated. Long-term outdoors testing of a complete model and validating the measured magnitude are pending. The manufacturing cost of a prototype is estimated to be about 75 €. The concept of this device is an interesting alternative to traditional pyranometers, which measure solar irradiance and can prove to be useful to assess potential areas of PV power harvesting or monitor already existing systems.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aziza, Jani S.R.;
    Country: Finland

    The main aim of this thesis was to optimize the energy consumption of a pre-studied novel multi-loop aquaponic system by operation and design modification, with a purpose to advance aquaponics as a method towards sustainable food production. Compared to traditional aquaculture and hydroponics, practices that do not share their resource utilization, aquaponics can be an energy efficient method for food production. Though aquaponics is a major area of interest, is insufficient study has been carried out on the optimization of the systems overall energy consumption. A project was initiated for a medium-scale deep water culture (DWC) novel aquaponic system in the National Center for Mariculture (NCM) in Eilat, Israel. The research institution is a branch of the non-profit governmental corporation Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research (IOLR). The corporation works under the Ministry of Environment regulations. A preliminary study was conducted on the novel aquaponic system during the construction process. The system was characterized, and the novel aquaponics water treatment apparatus was investigated for energy efficiency improvements. A Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) in NCM premises was utilized to conduct necessary analytical research on-site. Unit power and operation time was characterized. Nitrogen treatment units were evaluated, specifically analysing protein skimmer and nitrification biofilter. Alternative technologies were examined for the biofiltration unit. The direct outcome of this study enhanced the approach towards alternative solutions for the water circulation treatment system of the initial model. The results of this thesis optimized aquaponics energy efficiency and were applied in practice on the design and construction of the novel multi-loop aquaponics system. Furthermore, the thesis results further assisted in the development of a novel RAS with onsite nutrient recovery concept.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fan, Pengyu;
    Country: Finland

    At present, the dual problems caused by the shortage of non-renewable resources of fossil fuels and the negative impact of fossil fuels on the ecological environment are becoming increasingly serious, making the development and application of renewable energy an important part of the energy strategies of countries around the world. Biodiesel is a typical renewable and clean fuel, which is produced from some natural and renewable raw materials (vegetable oil, waste oil and microbial grease). Biodiesel is easy to burn, non-toxic and biodegradable. Compared with petroleum-based regular diesel, biodiesel has high cetane number, low aromatic content, better low-temperature startability and low greenhouse gas emissions. It has received considerable attention in controlling pollution caused by petroleum combustion. Among the methods for preparing biodiesel, transesterification is the most commonly used technique. The aim of this thesis work was to further investigate the application of transesterification technology in industrial production and its impact on the environment. Heterogeneous catalysts are more promising than homogeneous catalysts because they can be easily separated from the product and reused in several cycles, thus reducing the overall production cost. Immobilization of lipases on nanocatalysts increases their activity and surface area and has the advantage of easy catalyst recovery and multi-cycle reuse, at the same time enzyme stability can be improved by immobilization. Liquid lipase formulations for biodiesel production are growing rapidly because they have better miscibility with the reactants, reduce mass transfer limitations and increase reaction rates. Selection of the right catalyst is a key factor in biodiesel synthesis. Heterogeneous catalysts and lipase catalysts are excellent choices.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Seitovaara, Janek;
    Country: Finland

    The purpose of this study was to build a case-style business analysis regarding energy cost and savings in the professional dishwashing process. The market, dishwashing process and the behaviour of the user and manufacturers were studied, along with the details of the machine and the process. The research showed that there is no clear way to compare, for example machines with each other due to lack of standardized comparison rules or even guidelines. However, the research concluded common result in energy loss during the dishwashing process mainly from convection and through hot air inevitably due to poor insulation and the design of the dishwasher. Also the room temperature in which the items to be washed, had clear effect on the relative need to heat the water thus consuming energy. The savings model was built by combining the average data from outlined professional dishwasher type and the collected data from customers around Pirkanmaa. It revealed an opportunity to reduce energy consumption in relation to the energy price, by modifying the users pattern of working – for example by bringing in training and optimizing the use of the dishwasher.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Khanteche, Yassin Amir;
    Country: Finland

    Climate change has had a drastic impact on the demand for sustainable homes, communities, and cities. Numerous strategies and targets have been set by global organizations such as the United Nations (UN), with their Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), these goals are set to be completed by 2030. The objective of this thesis is to investigate sustainable floating homes and communities as a potential solution to climate adaptation. Nordic countries were selected due to their leading position in Sustainable Development in European Union and European countries. The research was carried out using a narrative literature review of various scientific articles and online sources, exploring the technical aspects along with some of the social, economic, and environmental benefits of having these sustainable floating houses and communities. The findings in this paper identified the most optimal period for utilizing off-grid technical systems such as energy production via solar panels was between May to July due to good weather conditions. Similarly, other suitable technical solutions for floating homes were identified including Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), water and wastewater treatment methods, waste management, and food production methods. Sustainable floating homes and communities could play a role in meeting some of the SDGs set by the UN, promoting individual health and wellbeing, developing sustainable businesses, and raising awareness of the need to look after the environment.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Parkkinen, Eetu;
    Country: Finland

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoitus oli luoda monitekniselle yritykselle omien taloudellisten toimintojensa EU-taksonomianmukaisuusarviointityökalu. Työkalu arvioi yrityksen taloudellisia toimintoja EU-taksonomian ilmastonmuutoksen sopeutumiseen keskittyneen suunnittelutoiminnan ja siihen liittyvän teknisen konsultoinnin kriteerien pohjalta. Luotua työkalua tullaan tulevaisuudessa käyttämään myös yrityksen taksonomiakelvollisten projektien taksonomian mukaisuuden arvioinnissa. Opinnäytetyön tiedonkeruumenetelminä on käytetty yrityksen asiantuntijoiden haastatteluja, relevantteja kansainvälisiä lähteitä ja kyselymenetelmää. EU-taksonomianmukaisuusarviointityökalua testasi kaksi projektin johtajaa yrityksen sisältä. Testitulokset saatiin koottua heidän vastauksistaan luotuihin kysymyksiin mainituista EU-taksonomian ilmastonmuutoksen sopeutumiskriteereistä. Testaus tehtiin, sillä haluttiin todentaa, että työkalu toimii kunnolla. The purpose of the thesis was to create a tool for assessing the compliance of the company’s economic activities with the EU Taxonomy Regulation. The tool assesses the company’s economic activities based on the criteria of EU Taxonomy: Engineering activities and related technical consultancy dedicated to adaptation to climate change. In the future, the created tool model will also be used to assess the Taxonomy compliance of the company's Taxonomy eligible projects. The data collection methods of the thesis were interviews with the company’s experts, use of relevant international sources and the survey method. The EU-Taxonomy Compliance Assessment tool tested by two project managers inside the company. The test results were compiled from their answers to the created questions based on above mentioned EU-Taxonomy climate adaptation criteria. The test was made to verify that the tool was working properly. Työ tehtiin toimeksiantona, mutta yritys ei halua nimeään nähtäville.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ying, Dai;
    Country: Finland

    A promising technology, photocatalytic hydrogen production allows the direct conversion of solar energy into chemically clean fuels. The property of quantum dots as photocatalysts is crucial to photocatalytic hydrogen production. In the present work, InP/ZnS quantum dots ware chosen as a photocatalyst for photocatalytic hydrogen production because of the advantages of low toxicity, safe environmental conditions and good hydrogen production performance. It was found that adjusting the degree of aggregation of InP/ZnS quantum dots by changing the pH and using synthetic reticulated aggregates instead of isolated quantum dots is an effective way to increase hydrogen production. It was concluded experimentally that when the InP/ZnS quantum dot system were in pH=3 and paired with sodium(L)-ascorbate as electron donor, excellent hydrogen performance was obtained with 1.6 times the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution of ordinary InP/ZnS quantum dots.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Laurén, Fanny;
    Country: Finland

    To combat global warming and climate change, energy generation must move from non-renewable to renewable. An energy system with purely renewable energy generation comes with its challenges as the dispatchability of renewable energy generation such as wind power makes up for challenges in balancing the balance-requiring supply and demand. Energy storage, such as hydrogen storage, can be used to store energy and later use it when needed. This thesis was commissioned by EPV Energia. The thesis aimed to propose the size of the hydrogen storage and the cost-effective use of its hydrogen to store excess energy from wind power generated by the wind farm Torkkola (52.8 MW), located in Vasa, Finland. Previous production data and electricity Day-Ahead prices were analysed to propose the size of the hydrogen storage. Process efficiencies brought from literature as well as the analysed data were used to determine the cost-effective use of the stored energy. As a result, it was found that for the analysed time period, the hydrogen storage capacity would need to be 152.27 MWh, and the electrolyser would need to be 28 MW. If the stored energy was to be sold as hydrogen, the price would need to be 1.64 more than the price of the electricity used to make hydrogen to be profitable. If the hydrogen was to be converted back to electricity, the price would need to be 2.74 times the original electricity price to be profitable. The limitations of this thesis are that the only factors when estimating the size of the hydrogen storage are the electricity Day-Ahead prices and wind power production. No other efficiency losses are considered than electrolysis, compression, and fuel cell. Future work could take into consideration the system cost of a hydrogen system – the investment, maintenance and running costs. This would give a more accurate estimation of the final cost of the stored energy. För att motarbeta global uppvärmning och klimatförändring bör man skifta energiproduktionen från icke-förnybar energiproduktion till förnybar energiproduktion. Ett energisystem med endast förnybar energi har sina utmaningar eftersom förnybar energi är varierande beroende på väderförhållanden, och är därför utmanande att uppskatta produktionsmängd. Energisystem kräver balans mellan konsumtion och produktion, vilket kan vara utmanande att uppnå med förnybar energi. Därför kan energilagring, såsom vätgaslager, användas för att förvara överloppsenergi och sedan använda energin vid behov. Det här examensarbetets uppdragsgivare är EPV Energia. Examensarbetets mål var att på basis av Day-Ahead priser för el och vindkraftsproduktionsdata från vindkraftsparken Torkkola (53,8 MW), lokaliserad i Vasa, Finland, föreslå ett lämpligt storleks vätgaslager för att lagra överloppsproducerad el. Effektgrader för väteproduktionsprocessen tagna från litteratur samt analyserade data användes för att komma fram till ett kostnadseffektivt sätt att använda den lagrade energin. Resultaten av den analyserade tidsperioden visade att kapaciteten av vätgaslagret bör vara 152,27 MWh och ha en elektrolysator med kapaciteten 28 MW. Ifall den lagrade energin blev såld som väte, bör priset på energin vara åtminstone 1,64 gånger det ursprungliga priset av elen som användes för att skapa väte till vätelagret för att vara lönsamt. Ifall det lagrade vätet konverterades tillbaka till el, bör priset av elen vara åtminstone 2,74 gånger det ursprungliga elpriset för att vara lönsamt. Begränsningar i examensarbetet är att de enda faktorerna som beaktades i uppskattningen av storleken av vätelagret var Day-Ahead priser för el och vindkraftsproduktionsdata. Inga andra effektförluster är beaktade än förlusterna i elektrolys, kompression och bränslecell. Framtida arbeten kunde beakta systemkostnaden för vätelagret: investerings-, underhålls- och driftskostnader. Detta skulle ge en mer noggrann uppskattning av priset på den lagrade energin. Ilmaston lämpenemisen ja ilmastonmuutoksen torjumiseksi energiantuotannon on siirryttävä uusiutumattomasta uusiutuvaan. Puhtaasti uusiutuvaa energiaa tuottavassa energiajärjestelmässä on haasteensa, sillä uusiutuvan energiantuotannon, kuten tuulivoiman, täsmällinen ennustaminen on vaikeaa, mikä luo haasteita tasapainoa vaativan kysynnän ja tarjonnan tasapainottamisessa. Energiavarastoa, kuten vetyvarastoa, voidaan käyttää energian varastointiin ja myöhemmin tarvittaessa käyttää varastoitua energiaa. Tämän opinnäytetyön toimeksiantaja on EPV Energia ja työn tavoitteena oli ehdottaa vetyvaraston kokoa ja varaston vedyn kustannustehokasta käyttöä keinona varastoida ylimääräistä energiaa Vaasassa sijaitsevan tuulipuiston Torkkolan (52,8 MW) tuottamasta tuulivoimasta. Aikaisemmat tuotantotiedot ja sähkön Day-Ahead-hinnat analysoitiin vetyvaraston koon ehdottamiseksi. Varastoidun energian kustannustehokasta käyttöä selvitettiin kirjallisuudesta tuotujen prosessitehokkuuksien sekä analysoitujen tietojen perusteella. Tuloksena todettiin, että analysoitavalla ajanjaksolla vetyvaraston kapasiteetin tulisi olla 152,27 MWh ja elektrolyysilaitteen 28 MW. Mikäli varastoitu energia myytäisiin vetynä, hinnan pitäisi olla 1,64 enemmän kuin vedyn tuottamiseen käytetyn sähkön hinta ollakseen kannattavaa. Jos vety muutetaan takaisin sähköksi, hinta pitäisi olla ainakin 2,74 kertaa korkeampi kuin vedyn tuottamiseen käytetyn sähkön hinta ollakseen kannattavaa. Tämän opinnäytetyön rajoitteena on, että vetyvaraston kokoa arvioitaessa ainoat tekijät ovat sähkön Day-Ahead-hinnat ja tuulivoiman tuotanto. Muita tehokkuushäviöitä kuin elektrolyysi, paineistus ja polttokenno ei oteta huomioon. Tulevaisuudessa voitaisiin ottaa huomioon vetyjärjestelmän järjestelmäkustannukset: investointi-, ylläpito- ja käyttökustannukset. Tämä antaisi tarkemman arvion varastoidun energian lopullisesta hinnasta.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Galassini, Michela;
    Country: Finland

    This dissertation has the purpose of finding an alternative heating system for the Solvik kindergarten to the current one: natural gas boiler. Natural gas is considered an inconvenient fuel for the current geopolitical situation, in which natural gas supplies to Finland have been cut since 20th May 2022. Furthermore, natural gas is not found to be a suitable energy source as it is discussed in the European and national carbon neutrality programmes. An alternative to the existing boiler is proposed, more specifically the other suggested option is district heating. The material, such as Excel data and building drawings, was provided by the city of Hämeenlinna. The utilized software to carry out the simulation is IDA-ICE (version 4.8). The thesis does not include timetable, profitability calculations, nor cost calculation. The modelled created in the software IDA-ICE was geometrically simplified, future simulations may be based on an accurate representation on the building to obtain more precise results, and other heating systems may be investigated.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nguyen, Tu;
    Country: Finland

    As the pace of industrialization accelerates, catalysis is the key to make “miracle happened” by using chemical to activate or speed up the chain reaction. Intrinsically, catalyst is a way to save energy, lessen harmful by-products. A good example is Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER), catalyst is the backbone unlocking the efficacy of Hydrogen (H2) production - our future energy source. In applied chemistry, reality shapes differently, understanding the background theory is the first step; then designing potential catalysts require trials, time, and effort. Occasionally, one reaction can work with several catalysts, depend on the availability and compatibility at the time. The work discussed in this thesis revolved around the utilization of Polymer characterization in modeling fine structure mold for catalyst synthesize. The experiment conducted on polystyrene (PS) spherical-shape particles to create sacrificial nano molds, given that their superior characteristic like ease of fabrication, simple materials, and the ability to control size. PS was synthesized from styrene monomer through polymerization process. Research of PS sphere synthesis by emulsion has successfully created PS particle with diameter of 150nm. The FTIR and DSL examination results show the high uniformity of PS nanoparticles. The 2D structural nanomaterials then successfully created hollow Au thin film layered structures, this Au layer has shown the ability to catalyze HER reaction, completely different from the Au layer without pores. The catalytic current density reaches 0.23 mA/cm2 at a voltage of -0.4V (vs Ag/AgCl). The collected result has opened new research directions when combining hollow materials with nano materials that catalyze the HER reaction, the OER oxygenation reaction, or the oxidation - reduction of organic substances.

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828 Research products, page 1 of 83
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bálint, Gabriel;
    Country: Finland

    With the increased popularity and lower cost of PV panels, Novia University of Applied Sciences is planning to install a PV system on the roof of the university building. This thesis aimed to create a low-cost solar data logger for the project's feasibility study. The device created uses an ESP32 as a controller and logs the data through MQTT protocol. The sensor is based on a 5 W PV panel and uses an INA219 combined with a MOSFET-based electronic load to obtain the partial I-V characteristics in under five seconds with a resolution of 64 I-V data points. This data allows quantifying the ideality of the environmental conditions for PV power generation. The logger is battery-powered and can use PV power to recharge the battery. The manufacturing of a prototype was partially done. The short-term operation in laboratory conditions was validated. Long-term outdoors testing of a complete model and validating the measured magnitude are pending. The manufacturing cost of a prototype is estimated to be about 75 €. The concept of this device is an interesting alternative to traditional pyranometers, which measure solar irradiance and can prove to be useful to assess potential areas of PV power harvesting or monitor already existing systems.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aziza, Jani S.R.;
    Country: Finland

    The main aim of this thesis was to optimize the energy consumption of a pre-studied novel multi-loop aquaponic system by operation and design modification, with a purpose to advance aquaponics as a method towards sustainable food production. Compared to traditional aquaculture and hydroponics, practices that do not share their resource utilization, aquaponics can be an energy efficient method for food production. Though aquaponics is a major area of interest, is insufficient study has been carried out on the optimization of the systems overall energy consumption. A project was initiated for a medium-scale deep water culture (DWC) novel aquaponic system in the National Center for Mariculture (NCM) in Eilat, Israel. The research institution is a branch of the non-profit governmental corporation Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research (IOLR). The corporation works under the Ministry of Environment regulations. A preliminary study was conducted on the novel aquaponic system during the construction process. The system was characterized, and the novel aquaponics water treatment apparatus was investigated for energy efficiency improvements. A Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) in NCM premises was utilized to conduct necessary analytical research on-site. Unit power and operation time was characterized. Nitrogen treatment units were evaluated, specifically analysing protein skimmer and nitrification biofilter. Alternative technologies were examined for the biofiltration unit. The direct outcome of this study enhanced the approach towards alternative solutions for the water circulation treatment system of the initial model. The results of this thesis optimized aquaponics energy efficiency and were applied in practice on the design and construction of the novel multi-loop aquaponics system. Furthermore, the thesis results further assisted in the development of a novel RAS with onsite nutrient recovery concept.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Fan, Pengyu;
    Country: Finland

    At present, the dual problems caused by the shortage of non-renewable resources of fossil fuels and the negative impact of fossil fuels on the ecological environment are becoming increasingly serious, making the development and application of renewable energy an important part of the energy strategies of countries around the world. Biodiesel is a typical renewable and clean fuel, which is produced from some natural and renewable raw materials (vegetable oil, waste oil and microbial grease). Biodiesel is easy to burn, non-toxic and biodegradable. Compared with petroleum-based regular diesel, biodiesel has high cetane number, low aromatic content, better low-temperature startability and low greenhouse gas emissions. It has received considerable attention in controlling pollution caused by petroleum combustion. Among the methods for preparing biodiesel, transesterification is the most commonly used technique. The aim of this thesis work was to further investigate the application of transesterification technology in industrial production and its impact on the environment. Heterogeneous catalysts are more promising than homogeneous catalysts because they can be easily separated from the product and reused in several cycles, thus reducing the overall production cost. Immobilization of lipases on nanocatalysts increases their activity and surface area and has the advantage of easy catalyst recovery and multi-cycle reuse, at the same time enzyme stability can be improved by immobilization. Liquid lipase formulations for biodiesel production are growing rapidly because they have better miscibility with the reactants, reduce mass transfer limitations and increase reaction rates. Selection of the right catalyst is a key factor in biodiesel synthesis. Heterogeneous catalysts and lipase catalysts are excellent choices.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Seitovaara, Janek;
    Country: Finland

    The purpose of this study was to build a case-style business analysis regarding energy cost and savings in the professional dishwashing process. The market, dishwashing process and the behaviour of the user and manufacturers were studied, along with the details of the machine and the process. The research showed that there is no clear way to compare, for example machines with each other due to lack of standardized comparison rules or even guidelines. However, the research concluded common result in energy loss during the dishwashing process mainly from convection and through hot air inevitably due to poor insulation and the design of the dishwasher. Also the room temperature in which the items to be washed, had clear effect on the relative need to heat the water thus consuming energy. The savings model was built by combining the average data from outlined professional dishwasher type and the collected data from customers around Pirkanmaa. It revealed an opportunity to reduce energy consumption in relation to the energy price, by modifying the users pattern of working – for example by bringing in training and optimizing the use of the dishwasher.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Khanteche, Yassin Amir;
    Country: Finland

    Climate change has had a drastic impact on the demand for sustainable homes, communities, and cities. Numerous strategies and targets have been set by global organizations such as the United Nations (UN), with their Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), these goals are set to be completed by 2030. The objective of this thesis is to investigate sustainable floating homes and communities as a potential solution to climate adaptation. Nordic countries were selected due to their leading position in Sustainable Development in European Union and European countries. The research was carried out using a narrative literature review of various scientific articles and online sources, exploring the technical aspects along with some of the social, economic, and environmental benefits of having these sustainable floating houses and communities. The findings in this paper identified the most optimal period for utilizing off-grid technical systems such as energy production via solar panels was between May to July due to good weather conditions. Similarly, other suitable technical solutions for floating homes were identified including Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), water and wastewater treatment methods, waste management, and food production methods. Sustainable floating homes and communities could play a role in meeting some of the SDGs set by the UN, promoting individual health and wellbeing, developing sustainable businesses, and raising awareness of the need to look after the environment.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Parkkinen, Eetu;
    Country: Finland

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoitus oli luoda monitekniselle yritykselle omien taloudellisten toimintojensa EU-taksonomianmukaisuusarviointityökalu. Työkalu arvioi yrityksen taloudellisia toimintoja EU-taksonomian ilmastonmuutoksen sopeutumiseen keskittyneen suunnittelutoiminnan ja siihen liittyvän teknisen konsultoinnin kriteerien pohjalta. Luotua työkalua tullaan tulevaisuudessa käyttämään myös yrityksen taksonomiakelvollisten projektien taksonomian mukaisuuden arvioinnissa. Opinnäytetyön tiedonkeruumenetelminä on käytetty yrityksen asiantuntijoiden haastatteluja, relevantteja kansainvälisiä lähteitä ja kyselymenetelmää. EU-taksonomianmukaisuusarviointityökalua testasi kaksi projektin johtajaa yrityksen sisältä. Testitulokset saatiin koottua heidän vastauksistaan luotuihin kysymyksiin mainituista EU-taksonomian ilmastonmuutoksen sopeutumiskriteereistä. Testaus tehtiin, sillä haluttiin todentaa, että työkalu toimii kunnolla. The purpose of the thesis was to create a tool for assessing the compliance of the company’s economic activities with the EU Taxonomy Regulation. The tool assesses the company’s economic activities based on the criteria of EU Taxonomy: Engineering activities and related technical consultancy dedicated to adaptation to climate change. In the future, the created tool model will also be used to assess the Taxonomy compliance of the company's Taxonomy eligible projects. The data collection methods of the thesis were interviews with the company’s experts, use of relevant international sources and the survey method. The EU-Taxonomy Compliance Assessment tool tested by two project managers inside the company. The test results were compiled from their answers to the created questions based on above mentioned EU-Taxonomy climate adaptation criteria. The test was made to verify that the tool was working properly. Työ tehtiin toimeksiantona, mutta yritys ei halua nimeään nähtäville.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ying, Dai;
    Country: Finland

    A promising technology, photocatalytic hydrogen production allows the direct conversion of solar energy into chemically clean fuels. The property of quantum dots as photocatalysts is crucial to photocatalytic hydrogen production. In the present work, InP/ZnS quantum dots ware chosen as a photocatalyst for photocatalytic hydrogen production because of the advantages of low toxicity, safe environmental conditions and good hydrogen production performance. It was found that adjusting the degree of aggregation of InP/ZnS quantum dots by changing the pH and using synthetic reticulated aggregates instead of isolated quantum dots is an effective way to increase hydrogen production. It was concluded experimentally that when the InP/ZnS quantum dot system were in pH=3 and paired with sodium(L)-ascorbate as electron donor, excellent hydrogen performance was obtained with 1.6 times the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution of ordinary InP/ZnS quantum dots.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Laurén, Fanny;
    Country: Finland

    To combat global warming and climate change, energy generation must move from non-renewable to renewable. An energy system with purely renewable energy generation comes with its challenges as the dispatchability of renewable energy generation such as wind power makes up for challenges in balancing the balance-requiring supply and demand. Energy storage, such as hydrogen storage, can be used to store energy and later use it when needed. This thesis was commissioned by EPV Energia. The thesis aimed to propose the size of the hydrogen storage and the cost-effective use of its hydrogen to store excess energy from wind power generated by the wind farm Torkkola (52.8 MW), located in Vasa, Finland. Previous production data and electricity Day-Ahead prices were analysed to propose the size of the hydrogen storage. Process efficiencies brought from literature as well as the analysed data were used to determine the cost-effective use of the stored energy. As a result, it was found that for the analysed time period, the hydrogen storage capacity would need to be 152.27 MWh, and the electrolyser would need to be 28 MW. If the stored energy was to be sold as hydrogen, the price would need to be 1.64 more than the price of the electricity used to make hydrogen to be profitable. If the hydrogen was to be converted back to electricity, the price would need to be 2.74 times the original electricity price to be profitable. The limitations of this thesis are that the only factors when estimating the size of the hydrogen storage are the electricity Day-Ahead prices and wind power production. No other efficiency losses are considered than electrolysis, compression, and fuel cell. Future work could take into consideration the system cost of a hydrogen system – the investment, maintenance and running costs. This would give a more accurate estimation of the final cost of the stored energy. För att motarbeta global uppvärmning och klimatförändring bör man skifta energiproduktionen från icke-förnybar energiproduktion till förnybar energiproduktion. Ett energisystem med endast förnybar energi har sina utmaningar eftersom förnybar energi är varierande beroende på väderförhållanden, och är därför utmanande att uppskatta produktionsmängd. Energisystem kräver balans mellan konsumtion och produktion, vilket kan vara utmanande att uppnå med förnybar energi. Därför kan energilagring, såsom vätgaslager, användas för att förvara överloppsenergi och sedan använda energin vid behov. Det här examensarbetets uppdragsgivare är EPV Energia. Examensarbetets mål var att på basis av Day-Ahead priser för el och vindkraftsproduktionsdata från vindkraftsparken Torkkola (53,8 MW), lokaliserad i Vasa, Finland, föreslå ett lämpligt storleks vätgaslager för att lagra överloppsproducerad el. Effektgrader för väteproduktionsprocessen tagna från litteratur samt analyserade data användes för att komma fram till ett kostnadseffektivt sätt att använda den lagrade energin. Resultaten av den analyserade tidsperioden visade att kapaciteten av vätgaslagret bör vara 152,27 MWh och ha en elektrolysator med kapaciteten 28 MW. Ifall den lagrade energin blev såld som väte, bör priset på energin vara åtminstone 1,64 gånger det ursprungliga priset av elen som användes för att skapa väte till vätelagret för att vara lönsamt. Ifall det lagrade vätet konverterades tillbaka till el, bör priset av elen vara åtminstone 2,74 gånger det ursprungliga elpriset för att vara lönsamt. Begränsningar i examensarbetet är att de enda faktorerna som beaktades i uppskattningen av storleken av vätelagret var Day-Ahead priser för el och vindkraftsproduktionsdata. Inga andra effektförluster är beaktade än förlusterna i elektrolys, kompression och bränslecell. Framtida arbeten kunde beakta systemkostnaden för vätelagret: investerings-, underhålls- och driftskostnader. Detta skulle ge en mer noggrann uppskattning av priset på den lagrade energin. Ilmaston lämpenemisen ja ilmastonmuutoksen torjumiseksi energiantuotannon on siirryttävä uusiutumattomasta uusiutuvaan. Puhtaasti uusiutuvaa energiaa tuottavassa energiajärjestelmässä on haasteensa, sillä uusiutuvan energiantuotannon, kuten tuulivoiman, täsmällinen ennustaminen on vaikeaa, mikä luo haasteita tasapainoa vaativan kysynnän ja tarjonnan tasapainottamisessa. Energiavarastoa, kuten vetyvarastoa, voidaan käyttää energian varastointiin ja myöhemmin tarvittaessa käyttää varastoitua energiaa. Tämän opinnäytetyön toimeksiantaja on EPV Energia ja työn tavoitteena oli ehdottaa vetyvaraston kokoa ja varaston vedyn kustannustehokasta käyttöä keinona varastoida ylimääräistä energiaa Vaasassa sijaitsevan tuulipuiston Torkkolan (52,8 MW) tuottamasta tuulivoimasta. Aikaisemmat tuotantotiedot ja sähkön Day-Ahead-hinnat analysoitiin vetyvaraston koon ehdottamiseksi. Varastoidun energian kustannustehokasta käyttöä selvitettiin kirjallisuudesta tuotujen prosessitehokkuuksien sekä analysoitujen tietojen perusteella. Tuloksena todettiin, että analysoitavalla ajanjaksolla vetyvaraston kapasiteetin tulisi olla 152,27 MWh ja elektrolyysilaitteen 28 MW. Mikäli varastoitu energia myytäisiin vetynä, hinnan pitäisi olla 1,64 enemmän kuin vedyn tuottamiseen käytetyn sähkön hinta ollakseen kannattavaa. Jos vety muutetaan takaisin sähköksi, hinta pitäisi olla ainakin 2,74 kertaa korkeampi kuin vedyn tuottamiseen käytetyn sähkön hinta ollakseen kannattavaa. Tämän opinnäytetyön rajoitteena on, että vetyvaraston kokoa arvioitaessa ainoat tekijät ovat sähkön Day-Ahead-hinnat ja tuulivoiman tuotanto. Muita tehokkuushäviöitä kuin elektrolyysi, paineistus ja polttokenno ei oteta huomioon. Tulevaisuudessa voitaisiin ottaa huomioon vetyjärjestelmän järjestelmäkustannukset: investointi-, ylläpito- ja käyttökustannukset. Tämä antaisi tarkemman arvion varastoidun energian lopullisesta hinnasta.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Galassini, Michela;
    Country: Finland

    This dissertation has the purpose of finding an alternative heating system for the Solvik kindergarten to the current one: natural gas boiler. Natural gas is considered an inconvenient fuel for the current geopolitical situation, in which natural gas supplies to Finland have been cut since 20th May 2022. Furthermore, natural gas is not found to be a suitable energy source as it is discussed in the European and national carbon neutrality programmes. An alternative to the existing boiler is proposed, more specifically the other suggested option is district heating. The material, such as Excel data and building drawings, was provided by the city of Hämeenlinna. The utilized software to carry out the simulation is IDA-ICE (version 4.8). The thesis does not include timetable, profitability calculations, nor cost calculation. The modelled created in the software IDA-ICE was geometrically simplified, future simulations may be based on an accurate representation on the building to obtain more precise results, and other heating systems may be investigated.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nguyen, Tu;
    Country: Finland

    As the pace of industrialization accelerates, catalysis is the key to make “miracle happened” by using chemical to activate or speed up the chain reaction. Intrinsically, catalyst is a way to save energy, lessen harmful by-products. A good example is Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER), catalyst is the backbone unlocking the efficacy of Hydrogen (H2) production - our future energy source. In applied chemistry, reality shapes differently, understanding the background theory is the first step; then designing potential catalysts require trials, time, and effort. Occasionally, one reaction can work with several catalysts, depend on the availability and compatibility at the time. The work discussed in this thesis revolved around the utilization of Polymer characterization in modeling fine structure mold for catalyst synthesize. The experiment conducted on polystyrene (PS) spherical-shape particles to create sacrificial nano molds, given that their superior characteristic like ease of fabrication, simple materials, and the ability to control size. PS was synthesized from styrene monomer through polymerization process. Research of PS sphere synthesis by emulsion has successfully created PS particle with diameter of 150nm. The FTIR and DSL examination results show the high uniformity of PS nanoparticles. The 2D structural nanomaterials then successfully created hollow Au thin film layered structures, this Au layer has shown the ability to catalyze HER reaction, completely different from the Au layer without pores. The catalytic current density reaches 0.23 mA/cm2 at a voltage of -0.4V (vs Ag/AgCl). The collected result has opened new research directions when combining hollow materials with nano materials that catalyze the HER reaction, the OER oxygenation reaction, or the oxidation - reduction of organic substances.

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