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  • 2022-2022
  • FI
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  • HELDA - Digital Repository of the University of Helsinki

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Boström, Anna; Bergh, Anna; Hyytiäinen, Heli; Asplund, Kjell;
    Countries: Sweden, Finland

    Simple Summary Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ECSWT) is widely used in sport and companion animals to treat disorders affecting muscles, joints, and bones. Using a shockwave generator, a probe is applied to the skin over the affected area. Typically, there are one to three treatment sessions at 1- to 3-week intervals. The scientific basis for the treatment has been queried. This systematic review evaluated the scientific literature on shockwave therapy used in horses, dogs, and cats. The review revealed that only weak scientific evidence exists for favourable effects in conditions affecting bones, ligaments, tendons, and muscles in horses and dogs. No scientific article on the use of shockwave therapy in cats was available. Reasons for the weak scientific evidence were that studies were few, most involved only a small number of animals, many had methodological problems, or, when favourable results were reported, they were not replicated in independent studies. Thus, in sport and companion animals, the scientific evidence for the clinical effects of ECSWT in horses, dogs, and cats is limited. For a few indications, notably short-term pain relief, ligament ailments, and osteoarthritis, some results appear promising, warranting further exploration in high-quality studies. Background: Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ECSWT) is increasingly used to treat different types of musculoskeletal conditions in sport and companion animals. To explore the scientific basis for the treatment, we conducted a systematic review of the literature on ECSWT used in horses, dogs, and cats. Methods: Relevant articles published in 1980-2020 were identified from three major databases. Each article was assessed for risk of bias. Results: The review identified 27 relevant articles on the effects of ECSWT in horses, nine in dogs, but none in cats. Typically, ECSWT involved one to three treatment sessions at 1- to 3-week intervals. We identified studies on bone mass and bone healing, wound healing, navicular disease, ligament injury, desmitis, sesamoiditis, tendon injury, osteoarthritis, and short-term analgesic effects. Common to all indications was that the scientific evidence was very limited. For each separate indication, there were relatively few studies, many of which had methodological flaws. Where favorable results were reported, they were usually not replicated in independent studies. A few encouraging results were found. Conclusions: In sport and companion animals, the scientific evidence for clinical effects of ECSWT in horses, dogs, and cats is limited. For some applications, notably short-term pain relief, ligament ailments, and osteoarthritis, the results seem promising and warrant further exploration in high-quality studies.

  • Other research product . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Olkkola, Satu; Verkola, Marie; Biström, Mia; Grönthal, Thomas; Autio, Tiina; Kaartinen, Liisa; Raunio-Saarnisto, Mirja; Kivilahti-Mäntylä, Katariina (Fimea); Muhonen, Tita-Maria (Fimea); +1 more
    Publisher: Finnish Food Authority
    Country: Finland

    Authors and institutions participating in making the FINRES-Vet report: Finnish Food Authority: Suvi Nykäsenoja, Satu Olkkola, Marie Verkola, Mia Biström, Thomas Grönthal, Tiina Autio, Liisa Kaartinen, Mirja Raunio-Saarnisto Finnish Medicines Agency Fimea: Katariina Kivilahti-Mäntylä, Tita-Maria Muhonen Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki: Katarina Eskola Sales of veterinary antibiotics turned to a 5% increase in 2021. The result, however, was the second lowest since the monitoring began. The majority of overall sales consisted of products for individual treatment and the proportion of products for group treatment was roughly over a quarter. The biggest increase in sales was noted for orally administered sulfa-trimethoprim-combination and is partly explained by the increased manufacture of medicated feed for fur animals. Increased sales were also noted for antibiotic tablets for companion animals. Injectable penicillin continued to be the most sold veterinary antibiotic. Sales of critically important antibiotics (HPCIA, WHO) for treatment of animals decreased further and remained very low. The antibiotic resistance situation in bacteria from animals and food has remained relatively good in Finland. However, in certain bacterial species resistance was detected in moderate or high levels. Therefore, the need remains to further emphasise the preventive measures and prudent use of antibiotics. It is important to follow the Finnish recommendations for the use of antimicrobials in animals. Among salmonella from food-producing animals and campylobacter from broilers, resistance levels were low. Since 2014, the proportions of fluoroquinolone and tetracycline resistant broiler campylobacter isolates have varied. Among porcine campylobacter, fluoroquinolone resistance has increased. Resistance situation among indicator E. coli from pigs has remained good. The prevalence of ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria in slaughtered pigs increased in 2021 while no ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria were detected in pork and beef at retail. MRSA bacteria were detected more than previously in fresh pork at retail. The resistance situation among pathogenic bacteria isolated from food-producing animals remained similar to 2020. Resistance was overall low in bovine and porcine respiratory pathogens as well as in pathogens isolated from broilers. Resistance was still detected most in enterotoxigenic E. coli from pigs. Among bacteria isolated from companion animals, the changes in resistance situation were mostly small. The proportion of canine E. coli strains resistant to third-generation cephalosporins was the lowest since the start of the monitoring.

  • Other research product . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Finnish Food Authority, Finnish Food Authority;
    Publisher: Finnish Food Authority
    Country: Finland

    This publication contains information on the animal disease situation in Finland during 2021. Topical information on occurrence of the diseases to be combated under the law and certain other infections in various animal species in Finland has been compiled. The publication also describes the measures taken to prevent and combat animal diseases. The animal disease situation of 2021 was different from the general good situation in Finland. In our country, highly pathogenic avian influenza was first diagnosed in poultry, and in Åland there were cases of IHN in salmonids and varroa mite infection in bees. Highly pathogenic avian influenza is classified as a category A animal disease under the EU Animal Health Regulation, Finland has had official freedom of disease from IHN, with the exception of the 2017—2018 continental epidemic restricted zone, and Åland has had official disease-free status from infestation with Varroa. The COVID-19 pandemic continued to present challenges for the sector’s operations. Since minks in particular are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection of fur animals, the control program of fur animals started in 2020 was continued as well as to prepare for corona infestation of fur animals. Continuous monitoring of the coronal situation in fur farms important, since epidemics that persist in large numbers of animals allow new virus variants to emerge. Although the year was challenging, it also included plenty of successes and the health level of Finnish domestic and farmed animals can still be considered good. Finland remained free of strategically important animal diseases such as enzootic bovine leucosis, IBR and BVD infections, PRRS infections in swine and Echinococcus multilocularis infection. In 2020, Finland applied for official disease freedom status for rabies, bluetongue disease and BVD. Official disease-free country status for Rabies and bluetongue disease was obtained in 2021, and intensified surveillance sampling carried out during the year of the BVD led to the obtaining of disease freedom in early 2022.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kela;
    Publisher: Kela
    Country: Finland

    The Statistical Yearbook on Unemployment Protection in Finland 2021 presents key data on the earnings-related unemployment benefits paid by unemployment funds and the basic unemployment benefits provided by the Social Insurance Institution of Finland (Kela). It contains statistical information about unemployment benefit recipients, expenditures and payment durations. undefined

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Liu, Moyan; Nieuwdorp, Max; de Vos, Willem M.; Rampanelli, Elena;
    Countries: Netherlands, Finland

    The trillions of commensal microorganisms comprising the gut microbiota have received growing attention owing to their impact on host physiology. Recent advances in our understandings of the host–microbiota crosstalk support a pivotal role of microbiota-derived metabolites in various physiological processes, as they serve as messengers in the complex dialogue between commensals and host immune and endocrine cells. In this review, we highlight the importance of tryptophan-derived metabolites in host physiology, and summarize the recent findings on the role of tryptophan catabolites in preserving intestinal homeostasis and fine-tuning immune and metabolic responses. Furthermore, we discuss the latest evidence on the effects of microbial tryptophan catabolites, describe their mechanisms of action, and discuss how perturbations of microbial tryptophan metabolism may affect the course of intestinal and extraintestinal disorders, including inflammatory bowel diseases, metabolic disorders, chronic kidney diseases, and cardiovascular diseases.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kujala, Susanna; Hakala, Outi;
    Publisher: Helsingin yliopisto Ruralia-instituutti
    Country: Finland

    Critical Metals Ltd subsidiary Recycling Industries Scandinavia AB is planning to build a vanadium recovery plant (VRP) in Pori, Finland. The plant will recover vanadium from industrial by-products and use CO2 gas captured from local manufacturing processes. The facility will realise circular economy ideas in the vanadium production. As vanadium is a valuable material for several major industries but is not produced in the EU, the European Commission has classified vanadium as a critical raw material. The aim of this study is to evaluate the regional economic impact that the vanadium recovery plant in Pori could exert. The evaluation focuses on the Satakunta region surrounding the plant, but also considers other Finnish regions along with the impact at the national level. The study period covers both investment and operation phases, starting from 2023 and continuing until 2035. The assessment, which was conducted utilising a dynamic computable general equilibrium model, RegFinDyn, considers the VRP’s direct economic impact as well as the indirect impact. Thus, the results provide a wider picture of the facility’s regional economic implications. According to the evaluation, the economy of Satakunta would benefit from the realisation of the VRP. During the investment phase (in 2023 and 2024), regional GDP, employment, and private consumption in particular would rise due to increased investments, intensive construction, and increased labour incomes. During the operative phase (2025−2035), export (domestic and foreign) would increase by about 1% compared with the baseline. Regional GDP would rise almost as much. Employment and private consumption would rise about 0.3−0.5% compared with the baseline. The VRP would have a positive impact on the regional population as well. The impact of the VRP on employment in Satakunta would be highest during the second investment year, amounting to about 650 person-years. The employment impact would be several hundred person-years (about 240−370) during the operative years as well. The positive employment impact would focus on several industries. During the investment years, employment would rise in construction in particular, but other industries would also benefit such as the manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products; the wholesale and retail trade; professional, scientific, and technical activities; the manufacture of machinery and equipment; accommodation and food service activities, along with other service activities. Respectively, in the operative phase, the employment effect would concern several industries. The plant itself would directly employ 101 people, but in addition to that, industries like the wholesale and retail trade, transportation and storage, as well as construction would benefit from the VRP, underlining the importance of the plant’s indirect effects. The VRP would affect not only Satakunta but also several other regions and the national economy. For example, the VRP would impact national GDP, employment, and export. Results reveal that the investment phase would create a relatively high peak in the national employment level, the impact clearly being bigger at the national level than in Satakunta alone. During the operative phase, the national employment impact would be several hundred (about 300−500) person-years, which is slightly more than the impact on Satakunta alone. The evaluation results suggest positive regional economic impacts, which supports the findings of earlier Finnish studies along with the societal aspirations of creating economic benefits with the transition to circularity. At the same time, this assessment highlights the significance of Pori and other medium-sized Finnish cities: activities to attract investments and business ventures to such cities are widely reflected in regional development, and they may also benefit other areas and even the national economy.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Médus, Erika;
    Publisher: Ilmatieteen laitos - Finnish Meteorological Institute
    Country: Finland

    Regional and global climate models are important tools to study the past climate and estimate the impacts of future climate change. Climate models can also provide input for other models that simulate, for instance, hydrological cycle or road weather. Recently, running climate models with fine grid spacings (< 4 km) has become affordable at climatic scales (10 years or more) due to increased computational resources. With such grid resolutions, deep convection can be resolved explicitly leading to an improved representation of heavy precipitation. Heavy precipitation events can cause major environmental and socioeconomic hazards due to flooding, landslides, and erosion, and therefore, their accurate representation in climate models is crucial. It has been shown that extreme precipitation events have become globally more frequent over recent decades as a result of global warming, and they are expected to intensify further in the future due to climate change. Motivated by the expected better representation of heavy precipitation compared to previous methods, high-resolution regional climate model simulations covering 1998–2018 were performed for the first time over the Nordic region with a regional climate model, HARMONIE-Climate (HCLIM). In this thesis, the skill of HCLIM in representing the features of the present-day climate was evaluated by comparing the model simulations to several observations. Moreover, the applicability of the HCLIM data to drive a road weather model, RoadSurf, was investigated. Because running high-resolution climate models is computationally expensive, the added value provided by such models needs to be quantified. Therefore, this thesis assessed the benefits of a high-resolution HCLIM setup with explicitly resolved deep convection at 3 km grid spacing over a setup with 12 km grid spacing and deep convection parameterization. In addition, past trends in observed extreme precipitation between 1901 and 2020 were investigated in order to put the future trends in context. The results of this thesis indicate that precipitation extremes have intensified in the Nordic-Baltic region. Extreme events also occur later in the year compared to the beginning of the last century. Precipitation extremes and other present-day climate characteristics over the Nordic region were well captured by HCLIM. In addition, the HCLIM-driven RoadSurf model demonstrated a good skill in representing road weather in the region. The high-resolution HCLIM setup was shown to improve especially high-intensity sub-daily precipitation events in line with studies conducted over other regions. The results support the use of HCLIM and RoadSurf models to produce climate change impact projections for the Nordic region. Furthermore, the results of this thesis emphasize the need for high-resolution convection-permitting regional climate models to reliably simulate high-intensity precipitation events. Alueelliset ja globaalit ilmastomallit ovat tärkeitä työkaluja sekä menneen ilmaston tutkimiseen että tulevaisuuden ilmastonmuutoksen vaikutusten arvioimiseen. Ilmastomalleilla tuotettua dataa voidaan myös käyttää lähtötietoina muissa malleissa, jotka simuloivat esimerkiksi hydrologista kiertoa tai tiesäätä. Viime vuosina kasvaneet laskentaresurssit ovat mahdollistaneet suhteellisen pitkien ilmastoajojen (yli 10 vuotta) simuloimisen korkean erotuskyvyn ilmastomalleilla (laskentahila alle 4 km). Tarkan erotuskyvyn ansiosta syvä konvektio voidaan simuloida ilman parametrisointia eli konvektion esittämistä yksinkertaistetusti, mikä parantaa erityisesti rankkasateiden kuvausta mallissa. Rankkasateet voivat johtaa suuriin ympäristö- ja sosio-ekonomisiin haittoihin, kuten tulviin, maanvyörymiin sekä eroosiotapahtumiin. Tämän vuoksi on tärkeää, että rankkasateet kuvataan ilmastomalleissa mahdollisimman tarkasti. Rankkasateiden on arvioitu yleistyneen maailmanlaajuisesti viime vuosikymmeninä ilmaston lämpenemisestä johtuen, ja niiden odotetaan voimistuvan edelleen ilmastonmuutoksen vaikutuksesta. Motivoituneena hienohilaisten mallien kyvystä simuloida rankkasadetapahtumia aikaisempia menetelmiä luotettavammin, tässä työssä tuotettiin ensimmäistä kertaa korkean erotuskyvyn ilmastomallisimulaatioita Pohjoismaiden ylle vuosille 1998–2018 alueellisella ilmastomallilla, HARMONIE-Climate:lla (HCLIM). Tässä työssä arvioitiin sitä, kuinka hyvin HCLIM simuloi nykyisen ilmaston piirteet vertaamalla mallisimulaatioita useisiin havaintoaineistoihin. Lisäksi tutkittiin, onko HCLIM-mallin tuottamaa dataa mahdollista hyödyntää RoadSurf-tiesäämallin lähtötietona. Koska tarkan resoluution käyttäminen ilmastomalleissa vaatii huomattavia laskentaresursseja, hienohilaisten mallien tarjoamasta lisäarvosta tarvitaan tietoa. Tässä työssä arvioitiin, millaisia hyötyjä saadaan simuloimalla syvä konvektio eksplisiittisesti 3 km laskentahilalla verrattuna 12 kilometrin laskentahilaan, jossa syvä konvektio on parametrisoitu. Lisäksi selvitettiin, kuinka rankkasateet ovat muuttuneet vuosina 1901–2020, jotta tulevaisuuden muutokset voidaan laittaa kontekstiin. Tämän työn tulokset osoittavat, että rankkasateet ovat voimistuneet Pohjoismaiden ja Baltian alueella. Rankkasadetapahtumia myös esiintyy myöhemmin vuodesta viime vuosisadan alkuun verrattuna. Tulosten perusteella HCLIM kykenee simuloimaan rankkasateet sekä muut nykypäivän ilmastolliset piirteet luotettavasti. Lisäksi HCLIM-dataa hyödyntävän RoadSurf-mallin osoitettiin olevan kyvykäs arvioimaan tiesääolosuhteita. Tarkan laskentahilan käyttäminen HCLIM-mallissa paransi etenkin lyhytkestoisten rankkasateiden kuvausta, mikä on linjassa muille alueille tuotettujen tutkimusten kanssa. Tulosten perusteella HCLIM- ja RoadSurf-malleja voidaan käyttää ilmastonmuutosennusteiden laatimiseen sekä ilmastonmuutoksen vaikutusten arvioimiseen Pohjoismaissa. Tämän työn tulokset korostavat myös sitä, että korkeaa erotuskykyä tarvitaan alueellisissa ilmastomalleissa, jotta rankkasateet voidaan simuloida luotettavasti.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ranta, Mette; Kruskopf, Milla; Kortesalmi, Marilla; Kalmi, Panu; Lonka, Kirsti;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Finland

    The aim of this study was to examine entrepreneurship in the context of future Finnish teachers’ readiness to teach 21st century (broad-based) competencies. Teachers’ self-efficacy in teaching entrepreneurial skills and financial matters is vital for their pupils to actively participate and flourish in future society. The study utilized survey data of future teachers’ expectancy-values in teaching seven broad-based competencies of the current national curriculum and their financial literacy. Future teachers expressed high interest in all competencies but reported the least self-efficacy and highest cost in teaching ICT as well as working life and entrepreneurship competencies. Teaching self-efficacy (TSE) in entrepreneurial competencies was predicted by subjective evaluations of financial capability and TSE in consumer skills. Teaching STEM subjects as well as male gender were related to better objective financial knowledge. We discuss the implications of observed financial capability, lack in self-efficacy, and high experienced cost of teaching these competencies. Support for future teachers’ readiness to teach working life skills, entrepreneurship, and financial literacy through phenomenon-based school subject collaboration, formal teacher training, and digital applications are emphasized.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Holmberg, Johanna; Pelander, Lena; Ljungvall, Ingrid; Harlos, Caroline; Spillmann, Thomas; Häggström, Jens;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Country: Finland

    Information about prevalence and breed predisposition of canine chronic enteropathy (CE) is limited. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate period prevalence, breed disposition, clinical features, diagnostic results, and treatment response of CE in dogs presenting at two Swedish animal hospitals during 2013–2018. A medical record search was performed to identify CE dogs including those with ≥3 visits because of gastrointestinal disease and/or that had undergone gastroduodenoscopy/colonoscopy during 2013–2018. Dog characteristics, case history, physical examination, laboratory variables, therapeutic protocol, and treatment response were recorded. Inclusion criteria for CE were met by 814 dogs. Period prevalence of CE was 1.1% of total number of dogs. Breeds with the highest relative risk included Norwegian Lundehund, West Highland White Terrier, and Miniature Poodle. Median age at presentation was 3.8 (IQR 1.8–6.8) years. French Bulldogs and Miniature Schnauzers presented at a younger age (<2.5 years) compared to other breeds (p < 0.05). In a subset of dogs, serum hypoalbuminemia (116/662, 17.5%), hypocobalaminemia (98/647, 15.1%), and increased C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations (145/267, 54.3%) were diagnosed. Treatment outcome was classified in 72.9% of dogs and characterized as immunosuppressant-responsive (55.2%), food-responsive (11.4%), non-responsive (5.2%), and antibiotic-responsive (1.1%). Non-responsive dogs were more likely to present with anemia hypoproteinemia/albuminemia, increased CRP, and ascites (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the prevalence of dogs with CE at Swedish hospitals agreed with earlier reports, but risk breeds differed slightly and, compared to other breeds, a younger age of CE onset was found in two breeds. The largest proportion of dogs was immunosuppressant-responsive and the smallest antibiotic-responsive.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Qi, Ling; Zheng, Haotian; Ding, Dian; Ye, Dechao; Wang, Shuxiao;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Country: Finland

    PM2.5 retrieval from satellite-observed aerosol optical depth (AOD) is still challenging due to the strong impact of meteorology. We investigate influences of meteorology changes on the inter-annual variations of AOD and surface PM2.5 in China between 2006 and 2017 using a nested 3D chemical transport model, GEOS-Chem, by fixing emissions at the 2006 level. We then identify major meteorological elements controlling the inter-annual variations of AOD and surface PM2.5 using multiple linear regression. We find larger influences of meteorology changes on trends of AOD than that of surface PM2.5. On the seasonal scale, meteorology changes are beneficial to AOD and surface PM2.5 reduction in spring (1–50%) but show an adverse effect on aerosol reduction in summer. In addition, major meteorological elements influencing variations of AOD and PM2.5 are similar between spring and fall. In winter, meteorology changes are favorable to AOD reduction (−0.007 yr−1, −1.2% yr−1; p < 0.05) but enhanced surface PM2.5 between 2006 and 2017. The difference in winter is mainly attributed to the stable boundary layer that isolates surface PM2.5 from aloft. The significant decrease in AOD over the years is related to the increase in meridional wind speed at 850 hPa in NCP (p < 0.05). The increase of surface PM2.5 in NCP in winter is possibly related to the increased temperature inversion and more stable stratification in the boundary layer. This suggests that previous estimates of wintertime surface PM2.5 using satellite measurements of AOD corrected by meteorological elements should be used with caution. Our findings provide potential meteorological elements that might improve the retrieval of surface PM2.5 from satellite-observed AOD on the seasonal scale.

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952 Research products, page 1 of 96
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Boström, Anna; Bergh, Anna; Hyytiäinen, Heli; Asplund, Kjell;
    Countries: Sweden, Finland

    Simple Summary Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ECSWT) is widely used in sport and companion animals to treat disorders affecting muscles, joints, and bones. Using a shockwave generator, a probe is applied to the skin over the affected area. Typically, there are one to three treatment sessions at 1- to 3-week intervals. The scientific basis for the treatment has been queried. This systematic review evaluated the scientific literature on shockwave therapy used in horses, dogs, and cats. The review revealed that only weak scientific evidence exists for favourable effects in conditions affecting bones, ligaments, tendons, and muscles in horses and dogs. No scientific article on the use of shockwave therapy in cats was available. Reasons for the weak scientific evidence were that studies were few, most involved only a small number of animals, many had methodological problems, or, when favourable results were reported, they were not replicated in independent studies. Thus, in sport and companion animals, the scientific evidence for the clinical effects of ECSWT in horses, dogs, and cats is limited. For a few indications, notably short-term pain relief, ligament ailments, and osteoarthritis, some results appear promising, warranting further exploration in high-quality studies. Background: Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ECSWT) is increasingly used to treat different types of musculoskeletal conditions in sport and companion animals. To explore the scientific basis for the treatment, we conducted a systematic review of the literature on ECSWT used in horses, dogs, and cats. Methods: Relevant articles published in 1980-2020 were identified from three major databases. Each article was assessed for risk of bias. Results: The review identified 27 relevant articles on the effects of ECSWT in horses, nine in dogs, but none in cats. Typically, ECSWT involved one to three treatment sessions at 1- to 3-week intervals. We identified studies on bone mass and bone healing, wound healing, navicular disease, ligament injury, desmitis, sesamoiditis, tendon injury, osteoarthritis, and short-term analgesic effects. Common to all indications was that the scientific evidence was very limited. For each separate indication, there were relatively few studies, many of which had methodological flaws. Where favorable results were reported, they were usually not replicated in independent studies. A few encouraging results were found. Conclusions: In sport and companion animals, the scientific evidence for clinical effects of ECSWT in horses, dogs, and cats is limited. For some applications, notably short-term pain relief, ligament ailments, and osteoarthritis, the results seem promising and warrant further exploration in high-quality studies.

  • Other research product . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Olkkola, Satu; Verkola, Marie; Biström, Mia; Grönthal, Thomas; Autio, Tiina; Kaartinen, Liisa; Raunio-Saarnisto, Mirja; Kivilahti-Mäntylä, Katariina (Fimea); Muhonen, Tita-Maria (Fimea); +1 more
    Publisher: Finnish Food Authority
    Country: Finland

    Authors and institutions participating in making the FINRES-Vet report: Finnish Food Authority: Suvi Nykäsenoja, Satu Olkkola, Marie Verkola, Mia Biström, Thomas Grönthal, Tiina Autio, Liisa Kaartinen, Mirja Raunio-Saarnisto Finnish Medicines Agency Fimea: Katariina Kivilahti-Mäntylä, Tita-Maria Muhonen Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki: Katarina Eskola Sales of veterinary antibiotics turned to a 5% increase in 2021. The result, however, was the second lowest since the monitoring began. The majority of overall sales consisted of products for individual treatment and the proportion of products for group treatment was roughly over a quarter. The biggest increase in sales was noted for orally administered sulfa-trimethoprim-combination and is partly explained by the increased manufacture of medicated feed for fur animals. Increased sales were also noted for antibiotic tablets for companion animals. Injectable penicillin continued to be the most sold veterinary antibiotic. Sales of critically important antibiotics (HPCIA, WHO) for treatment of animals decreased further and remained very low. The antibiotic resistance situation in bacteria from animals and food has remained relatively good in Finland. However, in certain bacterial species resistance was detected in moderate or high levels. Therefore, the need remains to further emphasise the preventive measures and prudent use of antibiotics. It is important to follow the Finnish recommendations for the use of antimicrobials in animals. Among salmonella from food-producing animals and campylobacter from broilers, resistance levels were low. Since 2014, the proportions of fluoroquinolone and tetracycline resistant broiler campylobacter isolates have varied. Among porcine campylobacter, fluoroquinolone resistance has increased. Resistance situation among indicator E. coli from pigs has remained good. The prevalence of ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria in slaughtered pigs increased in 2021 while no ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria were detected in pork and beef at retail. MRSA bacteria were detected more than previously in fresh pork at retail. The resistance situation among pathogenic bacteria isolated from food-producing animals remained similar to 2020. Resistance was overall low in bovine and porcine respiratory pathogens as well as in pathogens isolated from broilers. Resistance was still detected most in enterotoxigenic E. coli from pigs. Among bacteria isolated from companion animals, the changes in resistance situation were mostly small. The proportion of canine E. coli strains resistant to third-generation cephalosporins was the lowest since the start of the monitoring.

  • Other research product . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Finnish Food Authority, Finnish Food Authority;
    Publisher: Finnish Food Authority
    Country: Finland

    This publication contains information on the animal disease situation in Finland during 2021. Topical information on occurrence of the diseases to be combated under the law and certain other infections in various animal species in Finland has been compiled. The publication also describes the measures taken to prevent and combat animal diseases. The animal disease situation of 2021 was different from the general good situation in Finland. In our country, highly pathogenic avian influenza was first diagnosed in poultry, and in Åland there were cases of IHN in salmonids and varroa mite infection in bees. Highly pathogenic avian influenza is classified as a category A animal disease under the EU Animal Health Regulation, Finland has had official freedom of disease from IHN, with the exception of the 2017—2018 continental epidemic restricted zone, and Åland has had official disease-free status from infestation with Varroa. The COVID-19 pandemic continued to present challenges for the sector’s operations. Since minks in particular are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection of fur animals, the control program of fur animals started in 2020 was continued as well as to prepare for corona infestation of fur animals. Continuous monitoring of the coronal situation in fur farms important, since epidemics that persist in large numbers of animals allow new virus variants to emerge. Although the year was challenging, it also included plenty of successes and the health level of Finnish domestic and farmed animals can still be considered good. Finland remained free of strategically important animal diseases such as enzootic bovine leucosis, IBR and BVD infections, PRRS infections in swine and Echinococcus multilocularis infection. In 2020, Finland applied for official disease freedom status for rabies, bluetongue disease and BVD. Official disease-free country status for Rabies and bluetongue disease was obtained in 2021, and intensified surveillance sampling carried out during the year of the BVD led to the obtaining of disease freedom in early 2022.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kela;
    Publisher: Kela
    Country: Finland

    The Statistical Yearbook on Unemployment Protection in Finland 2021 presents key data on the earnings-related unemployment benefits paid by unemployment funds and the basic unemployment benefits provided by the Social Insurance Institution of Finland (Kela). It contains statistical information about unemployment benefit recipients, expenditures and payment durations. undefined

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Liu, Moyan; Nieuwdorp, Max; de Vos, Willem M.; Rampanelli, Elena;
    Countries: Netherlands, Finland

    The trillions of commensal microorganisms comprising the gut microbiota have received growing attention owing to their impact on host physiology. Recent advances in our understandings of the host–microbiota crosstalk support a pivotal role of microbiota-derived metabolites in various physiological processes, as they serve as messengers in the complex dialogue between commensals and host immune and endocrine cells. In this review, we highlight the importance of tryptophan-derived metabolites in host physiology, and summarize the recent findings on the role of tryptophan catabolites in preserving intestinal homeostasis and fine-tuning immune and metabolic responses. Furthermore, we discuss the latest evidence on the effects of microbial tryptophan catabolites, describe their mechanisms of action, and discuss how perturbations of microbial tryptophan metabolism may affect the course of intestinal and extraintestinal disorders, including inflammatory bowel diseases, metabolic disorders, chronic kidney diseases, and cardiovascular diseases.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kujala, Susanna; Hakala, Outi;
    Publisher: Helsingin yliopisto Ruralia-instituutti
    Country: Finland

    Critical Metals Ltd subsidiary Recycling Industries Scandinavia AB is planning to build a vanadium recovery plant (VRP) in Pori, Finland. The plant will recover vanadium from industrial by-products and use CO2 gas captured from local manufacturing processes. The facility will realise circular economy ideas in the vanadium production. As vanadium is a valuable material for several major industries but is not produced in the EU, the European Commission has classified vanadium as a critical raw material. The aim of this study is to evaluate the regional economic impact that the vanadium recovery plant in Pori could exert. The evaluation focuses on the Satakunta region surrounding the plant, but also considers other Finnish regions along with the impact at the national level. The study period covers both investment and operation phases, starting from 2023 and continuing until 2035. The assessment, which was conducted utilising a dynamic computable general equilibrium model, RegFinDyn, considers the VRP’s direct economic impact as well as the indirect impact. Thus, the results provide a wider picture of the facility’s regional economic implications. According to the evaluation, the economy of Satakunta would benefit from the realisation of the VRP. During the investment phase (in 2023 and 2024), regional GDP, employment, and private consumption in particular would rise due to increased investments, intensive construction, and increased labour incomes. During the operative phase (2025−2035), export (domestic and foreign) would increase by about 1% compared with the baseline. Regional GDP would rise almost as much. Employment and private consumption would rise about 0.3−0.5% compared with the baseline. The VRP would have a positive impact on the regional population as well. The impact of the VRP on employment in Satakunta would be highest during the second investment year, amounting to about 650 person-years. The employment impact would be several hundred person-years (about 240−370) during the operative years as well. The positive employment impact would focus on several industries. During the investment years, employment would rise in construction in particular, but other industries would also benefit such as the manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products; the wholesale and retail trade; professional, scientific, and technical activities; the manufacture of machinery and equipment; accommodation and food service activities, along with other service activities. Respectively, in the operative phase, the employment effect would concern several industries. The plant itself would directly employ 101 people, but in addition to that, industries like the wholesale and retail trade, transportation and storage, as well as construction would benefit from the VRP, underlining the importance of the plant’s indirect effects. The VRP would affect not only Satakunta but also several other regions and the national economy. For example, the VRP would impact national GDP, employment, and export. Results reveal that the investment phase would create a relatively high peak in the national employment level, the impact clearly being bigger at the national level than in Satakunta alone. During the operative phase, the national employment impact would be several hundred (about 300−500) person-years, which is slightly more than the impact on Satakunta alone. The evaluation results suggest positive regional economic impacts, which supports the findings of earlier Finnish studies along with the societal aspirations of creating economic benefits with the transition to circularity. At the same time, this assessment highlights the significance of Pori and other medium-sized Finnish cities: activities to attract investments and business ventures to such cities are widely reflected in regional development, and they may also benefit other areas and even the national economy.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Médus, Erika;
    Publisher: Ilmatieteen laitos - Finnish Meteorological Institute
    Country: Finland

    Regional and global climate models are important tools to study the past climate and estimate the impacts of future climate change. Climate models can also provide input for other models that simulate, for instance, hydrological cycle or road weather. Recently, running climate models with fine grid spacings (< 4 km) has become affordable at climatic scales (10 years or more) due to increased computational resources. With such grid resolutions, deep convection can be resolved explicitly leading to an improved representation of heavy precipitation. Heavy precipitation events can cause major environmental and socioeconomic hazards due to flooding, landslides, and erosion, and therefore, their accurate representation in climate models is crucial. It has been shown that extreme precipitation events have become globally more frequent over recent decades as a result of global warming, and they are expected to intensify further in the future due to climate change. Motivated by the expected better representation of heavy precipitation compared to previous methods, high-resolution regional climate model simulations covering 1998–2018 were performed for the first time over the Nordic region with a regional climate model, HARMONIE-Climate (HCLIM). In this thesis, the skill of HCLIM in representing the features of the present-day climate was evaluated by comparing the model simulations to several observations. Moreover, the applicability of the HCLIM data to drive a road weather model, RoadSurf, was investigated. Because running high-resolution climate models is computationally expensive, the added value provided by such models needs to be quantified. Therefore, this thesis assessed the benefits of a high-resolution HCLIM setup with explicitly resolved deep convection at 3 km grid spacing over a setup with 12 km grid spacing and deep convection parameterization. In addition, past trends in observed extreme precipitation between 1901 and 2020 were investigated in order to put the future trends in context. The results of this thesis indicate that precipitation extremes have intensified in the Nordic-Baltic region. Extreme events also occur later in the year compared to the beginning of the last century. Precipitation extremes and other present-day climate characteristics over the Nordic region were well captured by HCLIM. In addition, the HCLIM-driven RoadSurf model demonstrated a good skill in representing road weather in the region. The high-resolution HCLIM setup was shown to improve especially high-intensity sub-daily precipitation events in line with studies conducted over other regions. The results support the use of HCLIM and RoadSurf models to produce climate change impact projections for the Nordic region. Furthermore, the results of this thesis emphasize the need for high-resolution convection-permitting regional climate models to reliably simulate high-intensity precipitation events. Alueelliset ja globaalit ilmastomallit ovat tärkeitä työkaluja sekä menneen ilmaston tutkimiseen että tulevaisuuden ilmastonmuutoksen vaikutusten arvioimiseen. Ilmastomalleilla tuotettua dataa voidaan myös käyttää lähtötietoina muissa malleissa, jotka simuloivat esimerkiksi hydrologista kiertoa tai tiesäätä. Viime vuosina kasvaneet laskentaresurssit ovat mahdollistaneet suhteellisen pitkien ilmastoajojen (yli 10 vuotta) simuloimisen korkean erotuskyvyn ilmastomalleilla (laskentahila alle 4 km). Tarkan erotuskyvyn ansiosta syvä konvektio voidaan simuloida ilman parametrisointia eli konvektion esittämistä yksinkertaistetusti, mikä parantaa erityisesti rankkasateiden kuvausta mallissa. Rankkasateet voivat johtaa suuriin ympäristö- ja sosio-ekonomisiin haittoihin, kuten tulviin, maanvyörymiin sekä eroosiotapahtumiin. Tämän vuoksi on tärkeää, että rankkasateet kuvataan ilmastomalleissa mahdollisimman tarkasti. Rankkasateiden on arvioitu yleistyneen maailmanlaajuisesti viime vuosikymmeninä ilmaston lämpenemisestä johtuen, ja niiden odotetaan voimistuvan edelleen ilmastonmuutoksen vaikutuksesta. Motivoituneena hienohilaisten mallien kyvystä simuloida rankkasadetapahtumia aikaisempia menetelmiä luotettavammin, tässä työssä tuotettiin ensimmäistä kertaa korkean erotuskyvyn ilmastomallisimulaatioita Pohjoismaiden ylle vuosille 1998–2018 alueellisella ilmastomallilla, HARMONIE-Climate:lla (HCLIM). Tässä työssä arvioitiin sitä, kuinka hyvin HCLIM simuloi nykyisen ilmaston piirteet vertaamalla mallisimulaatioita useisiin havaintoaineistoihin. Lisäksi tutkittiin, onko HCLIM-mallin tuottamaa dataa mahdollista hyödyntää RoadSurf-tiesäämallin lähtötietona. Koska tarkan resoluution käyttäminen ilmastomalleissa vaatii huomattavia laskentaresursseja, hienohilaisten mallien tarjoamasta lisäarvosta tarvitaan tietoa. Tässä työssä arvioitiin, millaisia hyötyjä saadaan simuloimalla syvä konvektio eksplisiittisesti 3 km laskentahilalla verrattuna 12 kilometrin laskentahilaan, jossa syvä konvektio on parametrisoitu. Lisäksi selvitettiin, kuinka rankkasateet ovat muuttuneet vuosina 1901–2020, jotta tulevaisuuden muutokset voidaan laittaa kontekstiin. Tämän työn tulokset osoittavat, että rankkasateet ovat voimistuneet Pohjoismaiden ja Baltian alueella. Rankkasadetapahtumia myös esiintyy myöhemmin vuodesta viime vuosisadan alkuun verrattuna. Tulosten perusteella HCLIM kykenee simuloimaan rankkasateet sekä muut nykypäivän ilmastolliset piirteet luotettavasti. Lisäksi HCLIM-dataa hyödyntävän RoadSurf-mallin osoitettiin olevan kyvykäs arvioimaan tiesääolosuhteita. Tarkan laskentahilan käyttäminen HCLIM-mallissa paransi etenkin lyhytkestoisten rankkasateiden kuvausta, mikä on linjassa muille alueille tuotettujen tutkimusten kanssa. Tulosten perusteella HCLIM- ja RoadSurf-malleja voidaan käyttää ilmastonmuutosennusteiden laatimiseen sekä ilmastonmuutoksen vaikutusten arvioimiseen Pohjoismaissa. Tämän työn tulokset korostavat myös sitä, että korkeaa erotuskykyä tarvitaan alueellisissa ilmastomalleissa, jotta rankkasateet voidaan simuloida luotettavasti.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ranta, Mette; Kruskopf, Milla; Kortesalmi, Marilla; Kalmi, Panu; Lonka, Kirsti;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Finland

    The aim of this study was to examine entrepreneurship in the context of future Finnish teachers’ readiness to teach 21st century (broad-based) competencies. Teachers’ self-efficacy in teaching entrepreneurial skills and financial matters is vital for their pupils to actively participate and flourish in future society. The study utilized survey data of future teachers’ expectancy-values in teaching seven broad-based competencies of the current national curriculum and their financial literacy. Future teachers expressed high interest in all competencies but reported the least self-efficacy and highest cost in teaching ICT as well as working life and entrepreneurship competencies. Teaching self-efficacy (TSE) in entrepreneurial competencies was predicted by subjective evaluations of financial capability and TSE in consumer skills. Teaching STEM subjects as well as male gender were related to better objective financial knowledge. We discuss the implications of observed financial capability, lack in self-efficacy, and high experienced cost of teaching these competencies. Support for future teachers’ readiness to teach working life skills, entrepreneurship, and financial literacy through phenomenon-based school subject collaboration, formal teacher training, and digital applications are emphasized.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Holmberg, Johanna; Pelander, Lena; Ljungvall, Ingrid; Harlos, Caroline; Spillmann, Thomas; Häggström, Jens;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Country: Finland

    Information about prevalence and breed predisposition of canine chronic enteropathy (CE) is limited. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate period prevalence, breed disposition, clinical features, diagnostic results, and treatment response of CE in dogs presenting at two Swedish animal hospitals during 2013–2018. A medical record search was performed to identify CE dogs including those with ≥3 visits because of gastrointestinal disease and/or that had undergone gastroduodenoscopy/colonoscopy during 2013–2018. Dog characteristics, case history, physical examination, laboratory variables, therapeutic protocol, and treatment response were recorded. Inclusion criteria for CE were met by 814 dogs. Period prevalence of CE was 1.1% of total number of dogs. Breeds with the highest relative risk included Norwegian Lundehund, West Highland White Terrier, and Miniature Poodle. Median age at presentation was 3.8 (IQR 1.8–6.8) years. French Bulldogs and Miniature Schnauzers presented at a younger age (<2.5 years) compared to other breeds (p < 0.05). In a subset of dogs, serum hypoalbuminemia (116/662, 17.5%), hypocobalaminemia (98/647, 15.1%), and increased C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations (145/267, 54.3%) were diagnosed. Treatment outcome was classified in 72.9% of dogs and characterized as immunosuppressant-responsive (55.2%), food-responsive (11.4%), non-responsive (5.2%), and antibiotic-responsive (1.1%). Non-responsive dogs were more likely to present with anemia hypoproteinemia/albuminemia, increased CRP, and ascites (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the prevalence of dogs with CE at Swedish hospitals agreed with earlier reports, but risk breeds differed slightly and, compared to other breeds, a younger age of CE onset was found in two breeds. The largest proportion of dogs was immunosuppressant-responsive and the smallest antibiotic-responsive.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Qi, Ling; Zheng, Haotian; Ding, Dian; Ye, Dechao; Wang, Shuxiao;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Country: Finland

    PM2.5 retrieval from satellite-observed aerosol optical depth (AOD) is still challenging due to the strong impact of meteorology. We investigate influences of meteorology changes on the inter-annual variations of AOD and surface PM2.5 in China between 2006 and 2017 using a nested 3D chemical transport model, GEOS-Chem, by fixing emissions at the 2006 level. We then identify major meteorological elements controlling the inter-annual variations of AOD and surface PM2.5 using multiple linear regression. We find larger influences of meteorology changes on trends of AOD than that of surface PM2.5. On the seasonal scale, meteorology changes are beneficial to AOD and surface PM2.5 reduction in spring (1–50%) but show an adverse effect on aerosol reduction in summer. In addition, major meteorological elements influencing variations of AOD and PM2.5 are similar between spring and fall. In winter, meteorology changes are favorable to AOD reduction (−0.007 yr−1, −1.2% yr−1; p < 0.05) but enhanced surface PM2.5 between 2006 and 2017. The difference in winter is mainly attributed to the stable boundary layer that isolates surface PM2.5 from aloft. The significant decrease in AOD over the years is related to the increase in meridional wind speed at 850 hPa in NCP (p < 0.05). The increase of surface PM2.5 in NCP in winter is possibly related to the increased temperature inversion and more stable stratification in the boundary layer. This suggests that previous estimates of wintertime surface PM2.5 using satellite measurements of AOD corrected by meteorological elements should be used with caution. Our findings provide potential meteorological elements that might improve the retrieval of surface PM2.5 from satellite-observed AOD on the seasonal scale.

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