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  • 2013-2022
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  • Hyper Article en Ligne
  • Mémoires en Sciences de l'Information et de la Communication
  • COVID-19

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Katarzyna Polak; Noémie Greze; Maëlle Lachat; Delphine Merle; Steve Chiumento; Christelle Bertrand-Gaday; Bernadette Nadine Trentin; Robert Z. Mamoun;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    AbstractExtracellular vesicles (EVs) emerge as essential mediators of intercellular communication. DNA vaccines encoding antigens presented on EVs efficiently induce T-cell responses and EV-based vaccines containing the Spike (S) proteins of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) are highly immunogenic in mice. Thus, EVs may serve as vaccine platforms against emerging diseases, going beyond traditional strategies, with the antigen displayed identically to the original protein embedded in the viral membrane and presented as such to the immune system. Compared to their viral and pseudotyped counterparts, EV-based vaccines overcome many safety issues including pre-existing immunity against these vectors. Here, we applied our technology in natural EV’s engineering, to express the S proteins of SARS-CoV-2 embedded in the EVs, which mimic the virus with its fully native spikes. Immunizations with a two component CoVEVax vaccine, comprising DNA vector (DNAS-EV) primes, allowing in situ production of Spike harbouring EVs, and a boost using S-EVs produced in mammalian cells, trigger potent neutralizing and cellular responses in mice, in the absence of any adjuvants. CoVEVax would be the prototype of vaccines, where the sole exchange of the envelope proteins on EVs leads to the generation of new vaccine candidates against emerging viruses.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mariana Galvão Ferrarini; Aguiar-Pulido; Eric T. Dawson; Andrea Guarracino; Andreas Gruber; Lukas Heumos; Alexander Kanitz; Amit Kumar Lal; Brett E. Pickett; Rita Rebollo; +15 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    As part of the virtual BioHackathon 2020, we formed a working group that focused on the analysis of gene expression in the context of COVID-19. More specifically, we performed transcriptome analyses on published datasets in order to better understand the interaction between the human host and the SARS-CoV-2 virus.The ideas proposed during this hackathon were divided into five projects. Projects 1 and 2 aimed to identify human genes that are important in the process of viral infection of human cells. Projects 3 and 4 aimed to take the candidate genes identified in projects 1 and 2, as well as by independent studies, and relate them to clinical information and to possible therapeutic interventions. Finally, Project 5 aimed to package and containerize software and workflows used and generated here in a reusable manner, ultimately providing scalable and reproducible workflows.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Lobbé, Quentin; Chavalarias, David; Delanoë, Alexandre; Ferrand, Gabriel; Cohen-Boulakia, Sarah; Ravaud, Philippe; Boutron, Isabelle;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    This paper aims at reconstructing the evolution of all the available COVID-19 vaccines trials extracted from the COVID-NMA database by applying the phylomemy reconstruction process. We visualize the textual contents of 1,794 trials descriptions and explore their collective structure along with their semantic dynamics. We map the continuous progress of the main COVID-19 vaccine platforms from their early-stage trials in February 2020 to their most recent combinations driven by the rise of variants of concern, third dose issues and heterologous vaccinations. This paper brings insights for the global coordination between research teams especially in crisis situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Becher, Michael; Longuet Marx, Nicolas; Pons, Vincent; Brouard, Sylvain; Foucault, Martial; Galasso, Vincenzo; Kerrouche, Éric; León Alfonso, Sandra; Stegmueller, Daniel;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
  • English
    Authors: 
    HUA, Ping;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    By using panel data of 15 Chinese manufacturing industries over the 2005-2014 period from OECD TiVA and WIOD databases, the impact of China's GVCs participation on labor productivity is estimated. We find that while the productivity elasticity of the share of sector's foreign value added relative to sector's exports known as sector backward linkages is negative, that relative to China's gross exports named structure backward linkage is positive. As the annual average growth rates of both backward linkages are negative, China's backward linkages have contributed to productivity growth of 6.41% per year on average. We find that the positive productivity elasticity of the share of domestic intermediate goods embodied in exports of third countries relative to sector's exports, named sector forward linages together with a positive annual average growth rate, and that relative to China's exports named structure forward linkages together with a negative annual average growth rate, have increased productivity of 1.97% per year on average. We find finally that GVCs position is improved from 0.3 in 2005 to 0.7 in 2014. China's GVCs participation exerted positive productivity effects via optimizing resource allocation inside sectors towards more efficiency ones, via moving up from low productivity backward linkages to higher productivity forward linkages and via improving its position. This diminished the risk to be entrenched in low-profitability low productivity growth GVCs activities in China. However, the productivity contribution of backward linkages 3 times higher than that of forward linkage suggests that the future positive productivity impact of GVCs moving up may be much more difficult in a less favorable context (trade war between China and USA, reindustrialization and trade protection related to Covid-19 for example).

  • English
    Authors: 
    Mondello, Gérard;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    The Covid-19 pandemic upset both the economies of most countries, but also the field of medical science. As never, public opinion has interfered in the choice of therapeutic trials as evidenced by the controversies surrounding protocols using hydroxychloroquine. The public's choice for these treatments is explained as the application of a kind of individual "Pascal's wager". This article analyses the formation of the belief system of individuals by applying ambiguity theory's insights and information entropy. It shows that the public's choices are the result of efficient communication strategies chosen by these treatments' promoters.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Martin Henseler; Helene Maisonnave; Asiya Maskaeva;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has affected the tourism sector by closing borders, reducing both the transportation of tourists and tourist demand. Developing countries, such as Tanzania, where the tourism sector contributes a high share to gross domestic product, are facing considerable economic consequences. Tourism interlinks domestic sectors such as transport, accommodation, beverages and food, and retail trade and thus plays an important role in household income. Our study assessed the macroeconomic impacts of COVID-19 on the tourism sector and the Tanzanian economy as a case study of an impacted developing economy. We used a computable general equilibrium model framework to simulate the economic impacts resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic and quantitatively analysed the economic impacts.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Arnault Pachot; Adélaïde Albouy-Kissi; Benjamin Albouy-Kissi; Frédéric Chausse;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; The disruption of supplies during the Covid-19 crisis has led to shortages but has also shown the adaptability of some companies, which have succeeded in adapting their production chains quickly to produce goods experiencing shortages: hydroalcoholic gel, masks, and medical gowns. These productive jumps from product A to product B are feasible because of the know-how proximity between the two classes of products. The proximities were computed from the analysis of co-exports and resulted in the construction of the product space. Based on the product space, as well as the customer-supplier relationships resulting from the input-output matrices, we propose a recommender system for companies. The goal is to promote distributed manufacturing by recommending a list of local suppliers to each company. As there is not always a local supplier for a desired product class, we consider the proximity between products to identify, in the absence of a supplier, a substitute supplier able to adapt its production tools to provide the required product. Our experiments are based on French data, from which we build a graph of synergies illustrating the potential productive links between companies. Finally, we show that our approach offers new perspectives to determine the level of territories' industrial resilience considering potential productive jumps.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Milesi-Gaches, David;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Public transports were strongly impacted by the Covid-19 pandemic through, for example, networks shut down, or lockdown and distancing measures. Transport scenarios are helpful tools on which policies, development and management strategies are built. To see if we can still rely on pre-2020 scenarios in a post-pandemic world, it is important to explore if the epidemic, pandemic or infectious (EPI) risk was addressed or discussed. Hence, this paper proposes a systematic review to explore how the EPI risk and health are discussed in transport scenarios and transport scenario guidance documents. Both scientific and grey literatures were reviewed, through 17 search engines, with French and English keywords. Data were then processed through a Factor Analysis of Mixed Data (FAMD). The sample of 110 documents underlines a poor consideration for the EPI risk, with only 4 papers addressing, 7 mentioning and 37 indirectly mentioning the EPI risk, despite an important consideration for health (101 documents discussed health, with an average number of 3.45 health topics addressed). When discussed, the EPI risk is always addressed through the prism of health although it is recognized as a global disruptor for the whole society. Indeed, the more health topics are addressed, the more it is likely to find the EPI risk addressed in public transport scenarios or guidance documents.; Les transports publics ont été fortement impactés par la pandémie de Covid-19 à travers, par exemple, des fermetures de réseaux, ou des mesures de confinement et de distanciation. Les scénarios de transport sont des outils utiles sur lesquels reposent les politiques, les stratégies de développement et de gestion. Pour voir si nous pouvons toujours nous appuyer sur des scénarios pré-2020 dans un monde post-pandémique, il est important d'explorer si le risque épidémique, pandémique ou infectieux a été abordé ou discuté. Par conséquent, cet article propose une revue systématique pour explorer comment le risque épidémique et la santé sont discutés dans les scénarios de transport et les documents de guidance sur les scénarios de transport. La littérature scientifique et la littérature grise ont été passées en revue, via 17 moteurs de recherche, avec des mots-clés en français et en anglais. Les données ont ensuite été traitées par une analyse factorielle de données mixtes (AFDM). L'échantillon de 110 documents souligne une mauvaise prise en compte du risque épidémique, avec seulement 4 articles l'abordant, 7 le mentionnant et 37 le mentionnant indirectement, malgré une prise en compte importante de la santé (101 documents traitent de la santé, avec un nombre moyen de 3,45 sujets de santé abordés). Lorsqu'il est discuté, le risque épidémique est toujours abordé à travers le prisme de la santé bien qu'il soit reconnu comme un perturbateur global pour l'ensemble de la société. En effet, plus les sujets de santé sont abordés, plus il est probable de retrouver le risque épidémique abordé dans les scénarios de transport public ou les documents de guidance sur l'élaboration de scénarios.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Marie Alexandre; Romain Marlin; Mélanie Prague; Coleon Severin; Nidhal Kahlaoui; Sylvain Cardinaud; Thibaut Naninck; Benoit Delache; Mathieu Surenaud; Mathilde Galhaut; +12 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    AbstractThe definition of correlates of protection is critical for the development of next generation SARS-CoV-2 vaccine platforms. Here, we propose a new framework for identifying mechanistic correlates of protection based on mathematical modelling of viral dynamics and data mining of immunological markers. The application to three different studies in non-human primates evaluating SARS-CoV-2 vaccines based on CD40-targeting, two-component spike nanoparticle and mRNA 1273 identifies and quantifies two main mechanisms that are a decrease of rate of cell infection and an increase in clearance of infected cells. Inhibition of RBD binding to ACE2 appears to be a robust mechanistic correlate of protection across the three vaccine platforms although not capturing the whole biological vaccine effect. The model shows that RBD/ACE2 binding inhibition represents a strong mechanism of protection which required significant reduction in blocking potency to effectively compromise the control of viral replication.One Sentence SummaryA framework for modelling the immune control of viral dynamics is applied to quantify the effect of several SARS-CoV-2 vaccine platforms and to define mechanistic correlates of protection.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
575 Research products, page 1 of 58
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Katarzyna Polak; Noémie Greze; Maëlle Lachat; Delphine Merle; Steve Chiumento; Christelle Bertrand-Gaday; Bernadette Nadine Trentin; Robert Z. Mamoun;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    AbstractExtracellular vesicles (EVs) emerge as essential mediators of intercellular communication. DNA vaccines encoding antigens presented on EVs efficiently induce T-cell responses and EV-based vaccines containing the Spike (S) proteins of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) are highly immunogenic in mice. Thus, EVs may serve as vaccine platforms against emerging diseases, going beyond traditional strategies, with the antigen displayed identically to the original protein embedded in the viral membrane and presented as such to the immune system. Compared to their viral and pseudotyped counterparts, EV-based vaccines overcome many safety issues including pre-existing immunity against these vectors. Here, we applied our technology in natural EV’s engineering, to express the S proteins of SARS-CoV-2 embedded in the EVs, which mimic the virus with its fully native spikes. Immunizations with a two component CoVEVax vaccine, comprising DNA vector (DNAS-EV) primes, allowing in situ production of Spike harbouring EVs, and a boost using S-EVs produced in mammalian cells, trigger potent neutralizing and cellular responses in mice, in the absence of any adjuvants. CoVEVax would be the prototype of vaccines, where the sole exchange of the envelope proteins on EVs leads to the generation of new vaccine candidates against emerging viruses.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mariana Galvão Ferrarini; Aguiar-Pulido; Eric T. Dawson; Andrea Guarracino; Andreas Gruber; Lukas Heumos; Alexander Kanitz; Amit Kumar Lal; Brett E. Pickett; Rita Rebollo; +15 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    As part of the virtual BioHackathon 2020, we formed a working group that focused on the analysis of gene expression in the context of COVID-19. More specifically, we performed transcriptome analyses on published datasets in order to better understand the interaction between the human host and the SARS-CoV-2 virus.The ideas proposed during this hackathon were divided into five projects. Projects 1 and 2 aimed to identify human genes that are important in the process of viral infection of human cells. Projects 3 and 4 aimed to take the candidate genes identified in projects 1 and 2, as well as by independent studies, and relate them to clinical information and to possible therapeutic interventions. Finally, Project 5 aimed to package and containerize software and workflows used and generated here in a reusable manner, ultimately providing scalable and reproducible workflows.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Lobbé, Quentin; Chavalarias, David; Delanoë, Alexandre; Ferrand, Gabriel; Cohen-Boulakia, Sarah; Ravaud, Philippe; Boutron, Isabelle;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    This paper aims at reconstructing the evolution of all the available COVID-19 vaccines trials extracted from the COVID-NMA database by applying the phylomemy reconstruction process. We visualize the textual contents of 1,794 trials descriptions and explore their collective structure along with their semantic dynamics. We map the continuous progress of the main COVID-19 vaccine platforms from their early-stage trials in February 2020 to their most recent combinations driven by the rise of variants of concern, third dose issues and heterologous vaccinations. This paper brings insights for the global coordination between research teams especially in crisis situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Becher, Michael; Longuet Marx, Nicolas; Pons, Vincent; Brouard, Sylvain; Foucault, Martial; Galasso, Vincenzo; Kerrouche, Éric; León Alfonso, Sandra; Stegmueller, Daniel;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
  • English
    Authors: 
    HUA, Ping;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    By using panel data of 15 Chinese manufacturing industries over the 2005-2014 period from OECD TiVA and WIOD databases, the impact of China's GVCs participation on labor productivity is estimated. We find that while the productivity elasticity of the share of sector's foreign value added relative to sector's exports known as sector backward linkages is negative, that relative to China's gross exports named structure backward linkage is positive. As the annual average growth rates of both backward linkages are negative, China's backward linkages have contributed to productivity growth of 6.41% per year on average. We find that the positive productivity elasticity of the share of domestic intermediate goods embodied in exports of third countries relative to sector's exports, named sector forward linages together with a positive annual average growth rate, and that relative to China's exports named structure forward linkages together with a negative annual average growth rate, have increased productivity of 1.97% per year on average. We find finally that GVCs position is improved from 0.3 in 2005 to 0.7 in 2014. China's GVCs participation exerted positive productivity effects via optimizing resource allocation inside sectors towards more efficiency ones, via moving up from low productivity backward linkages to higher productivity forward linkages and via improving its position. This diminished the risk to be entrenched in low-profitability low productivity growth GVCs activities in China. However, the productivity contribution of backward linkages 3 times higher than that of forward linkage suggests that the future positive productivity impact of GVCs moving up may be much more difficult in a less favorable context (trade war between China and USA, reindustrialization and trade protection related to Covid-19 for example).

  • English
    Authors: 
    Mondello, Gérard;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    The Covid-19 pandemic upset both the economies of most countries, but also the field of medical science. As never, public opinion has interfered in the choice of therapeutic trials as evidenced by the controversies surrounding protocols using hydroxychloroquine. The public's choice for these treatments is explained as the application of a kind of individual "Pascal's wager". This article analyses the formation of the belief system of individuals by applying ambiguity theory's insights and information entropy. It shows that the public's choices are the result of efficient communication strategies chosen by these treatments' promoters.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Martin Henseler; Helene Maisonnave; Asiya Maskaeva;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has affected the tourism sector by closing borders, reducing both the transportation of tourists and tourist demand. Developing countries, such as Tanzania, where the tourism sector contributes a high share to gross domestic product, are facing considerable economic consequences. Tourism interlinks domestic sectors such as transport, accommodation, beverages and food, and retail trade and thus plays an important role in household income. Our study assessed the macroeconomic impacts of COVID-19 on the tourism sector and the Tanzanian economy as a case study of an impacted developing economy. We used a computable general equilibrium model framework to simulate the economic impacts resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic and quantitatively analysed the economic impacts.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Arnault Pachot; Adélaïde Albouy-Kissi; Benjamin Albouy-Kissi; Frédéric Chausse;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; The disruption of supplies during the Covid-19 crisis has led to shortages but has also shown the adaptability of some companies, which have succeeded in adapting their production chains quickly to produce goods experiencing shortages: hydroalcoholic gel, masks, and medical gowns. These productive jumps from product A to product B are feasible because of the know-how proximity between the two classes of products. The proximities were computed from the analysis of co-exports and resulted in the construction of the product space. Based on the product space, as well as the customer-supplier relationships resulting from the input-output matrices, we propose a recommender system for companies. The goal is to promote distributed manufacturing by recommending a list of local suppliers to each company. As there is not always a local supplier for a desired product class, we consider the proximity between products to identify, in the absence of a supplier, a substitute supplier able to adapt its production tools to provide the required product. Our experiments are based on French data, from which we build a graph of synergies illustrating the potential productive links between companies. Finally, we show that our approach offers new perspectives to determine the level of territories' industrial resilience considering potential productive jumps.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Milesi-Gaches, David;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Public transports were strongly impacted by the Covid-19 pandemic through, for example, networks shut down, or lockdown and distancing measures. Transport scenarios are helpful tools on which policies, development and management strategies are built. To see if we can still rely on pre-2020 scenarios in a post-pandemic world, it is important to explore if the epidemic, pandemic or infectious (EPI) risk was addressed or discussed. Hence, this paper proposes a systematic review to explore how the EPI risk and health are discussed in transport scenarios and transport scenario guidance documents. Both scientific and grey literatures were reviewed, through 17 search engines, with French and English keywords. Data were then processed through a Factor Analysis of Mixed Data (FAMD). The sample of 110 documents underlines a poor consideration for the EPI risk, with only 4 papers addressing, 7 mentioning and 37 indirectly mentioning the EPI risk, despite an important consideration for health (101 documents discussed health, with an average number of 3.45 health topics addressed). When discussed, the EPI risk is always addressed through the prism of health although it is recognized as a global disruptor for the whole society. Indeed, the more health topics are addressed, the more it is likely to find the EPI risk addressed in public transport scenarios or guidance documents.; Les transports publics ont été fortement impactés par la pandémie de Covid-19 à travers, par exemple, des fermetures de réseaux, ou des mesures de confinement et de distanciation. Les scénarios de transport sont des outils utiles sur lesquels reposent les politiques, les stratégies de développement et de gestion. Pour voir si nous pouvons toujours nous appuyer sur des scénarios pré-2020 dans un monde post-pandémique, il est important d'explorer si le risque épidémique, pandémique ou infectieux a été abordé ou discuté. Par conséquent, cet article propose une revue systématique pour explorer comment le risque épidémique et la santé sont discutés dans les scénarios de transport et les documents de guidance sur les scénarios de transport. La littérature scientifique et la littérature grise ont été passées en revue, via 17 moteurs de recherche, avec des mots-clés en français et en anglais. Les données ont ensuite été traitées par une analyse factorielle de données mixtes (AFDM). L'échantillon de 110 documents souligne une mauvaise prise en compte du risque épidémique, avec seulement 4 articles l'abordant, 7 le mentionnant et 37 le mentionnant indirectement, malgré une prise en compte importante de la santé (101 documents traitent de la santé, avec un nombre moyen de 3,45 sujets de santé abordés). Lorsqu'il est discuté, le risque épidémique est toujours abordé à travers le prisme de la santé bien qu'il soit reconnu comme un perturbateur global pour l'ensemble de la société. En effet, plus les sujets de santé sont abordés, plus il est probable de retrouver le risque épidémique abordé dans les scénarios de transport public ou les documents de guidance sur l'élaboration de scénarios.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Marie Alexandre; Romain Marlin; Mélanie Prague; Coleon Severin; Nidhal Kahlaoui; Sylvain Cardinaud; Thibaut Naninck; Benoit Delache; Mathieu Surenaud; Mathilde Galhaut; +12 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    AbstractThe definition of correlates of protection is critical for the development of next generation SARS-CoV-2 vaccine platforms. Here, we propose a new framework for identifying mechanistic correlates of protection based on mathematical modelling of viral dynamics and data mining of immunological markers. The application to three different studies in non-human primates evaluating SARS-CoV-2 vaccines based on CD40-targeting, two-component spike nanoparticle and mRNA 1273 identifies and quantifies two main mechanisms that are a decrease of rate of cell infection and an increase in clearance of infected cells. Inhibition of RBD binding to ACE2 appears to be a robust mechanistic correlate of protection across the three vaccine platforms although not capturing the whole biological vaccine effect. The model shows that RBD/ACE2 binding inhibition represents a strong mechanism of protection which required significant reduction in blocking potency to effectively compromise the control of viral replication.One Sentence SummaryA framework for modelling the immune control of viral dynamics is applied to quantify the effect of several SARS-CoV-2 vaccine platforms and to define mechanistic correlates of protection.

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