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177 Research products, page 1 of 18

  • 2017-2021
  • English
  • Archive ouverte UNIGE
  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    José N. Pérez-Asensio; Juan C. Larrasoaña; Elias Samankassou; Francisco Javier Sierro; Daniel García-Castellanos; Gonzalo Jiménez-Moreno; Ángel Salazar; Josep Maria Salvany; Santiago Ledesma; M. Pilar Mata; +2 more
    Countries: Spain, Switzerland

    The Gibraltar Arc is a complex tectonic region, and several competing models have been proposed to explain its evolution. We studied the sedimentary fill of the Guadalquivir Basin to identify tectonic processes that were occurring when the reopening of the Strait of Gibraltar led to the reestablishment of Mediterranean outflow. We present a chronostratigraphic framework for the Lower Pliocene sediments from the lower Guadalquivir Basin (SW Spain). The updated chronology is based on magnetobiostratigraphic data from several boreholes. Our results show that the studied interval in the La Matilla core is in the early Pliocene section, providing better constraints on the sedimentary evolution of the basin during that period. Migrating depositional facies led to a younger onset of sandy deposition basinward. At the northwestern passive margin, a 0.7 m.y. period of sedimentary bypass related to a sharp decrease in sedimentation rates and lower sea levels resulted from the tectonic uplift of the forebulge. In contrast, high sedimentation rates with continuous deep-marine sedimentation are recorded at the basin center due to continuous tectonic subsidence and west-southwestward progradation of axial depositional systems. The marginal forebulge uplift, continuous tectonic basinal subsidence, and southward progradation of clinoforms in the early Pliocene can be explained by the pull of a lithospheric slab beneath the Gibraltar Arc as the Strait of Gibraltar opened. These findings are, to our knowledge, the first reported sedimentary expression of slab pull beneath the Betics related to the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar after the Messinian salinity crisis. © 2018 Geological Society of America. This study was supported by the Research Project CGL2012-30875 (GUADALTYC) of the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad of Spain and the Research Groups RNM-190 of the Junta de Andalucía and GRC Geociències Marines (2017 SGR 315) of the Generalitat de Catalunya. José N. Pérez-Asensio was funded by a postdoctoral contract from the University of Geneva (Switzerland), and the Beatriu de Pinós postdoctoral fellowship funded by the Agency for Management of University and Research Grants (AGAUR) from the Generalitat de Catalunya, and the European Union through the Marie Curie-COFUND Programmes. Peer reviewed

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Flavia Fiorillo; Laura Hendriks; Irka Hajdas; Mariangela Vandini; Eric Huysecom;
    Countries: Italy, Switzerland

    In 2014, a painting attributed to the seventeenth century Dutch artist Jan Ruyscher appeared on the art market. Despite a prestigious career, Ruyscher, who possibly was a pupil of Rembrandt and Hercules Seghers, vanished from art history after his death and was only rediscovered in the 1930s. In this research paper, the combination of multiple analytical techniques ranging from radiocarbon dating of the support material to multispectral imaging and spectroscopic analyses (XRF, SEM-EDS, FTIR and Raman) of the pictorial layer offers a comprehensive analysis of the object. Radiocarbon analyses of the wooden panel indicated that the tree was probably cut down in the mid-eighteenth century, whereas spectroscopic analyses pinpointed the twentieth century as a timeframe for the application of the pictorial layers. The applied methodology sheds new light on the story of the object itself. The painting was created at the earliest in the 1930s possibly as a consequence of the rediscovery of Ruyscher, and the deliberate use of an aged panel supports an intent to deceive and hence classifies the object as a forgery. The painting under study was furthermore compared with artworks of renowned forgers in an attempt to identify the forger in disguise. ISSN:0197-1360 ISSN:1945-2330

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Marie Leyder;
    Country: Switzerland

    Lieutenant Joseph de Dorlodot (1871-1941), a Belgian aristocrat and philanthropist, was the Director of the Belgian Correspondence and Documentation Office in Folkestone, England. This article uses the 'Joseph de Dorlodot' archive collection (Archives Generales du Royaume de Belgique, Bruxelles) to investigate the emotional support provided by the Correspondence Office during the First World War. Throughout the conflict, its mission was to facilitate the sending of mail between Belgians, to provide them with legal advice and to offer humanitarian assistance to those who were in material and emotional distress. This was particularly the case of soldiers at the front. In the spring of 1916, the Office set up a mail system between Belgian soldiers and wartime godmothers - 'marraines' - from Canada and the USA. Lieutenant de Dorlodot imposed a precise moral and political framework for correspondence, where an intimate space was created in order to strengthen patriotic sentiment on the one hand, and control masculinities and femininities on the other. Through their letter exchanges with soldiers, godmothers participated in the war effort by bringing emotional reinforcement to the front line, from their homes, through a type of caring work often ignored or at least disconnected from any notion of work in the history of the Great War.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Arena, Francesca;
    Publisher: Le Mans Université
    Country: Switzerland

    Almost entirely overlooked throughout the 20th century, neglected by contemporary medical manuals, the clitoris has gradually returned centre stage thanks to Western feminism.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bugnon, Pascale; Matvienko, Alina;
    Country: Switzerland

    In the wake of the dissolution of the USSR, not all statues and other monuments dedicated to Lenin have suffered the same fate in the former Soviet republics. In Ukraine, for example, the “decommunisation” of the country meant that almost all the Soviet emblems were lost as collateral victims of the struggle to free themselves from the influence of the imposing Russian neighbour. In Central Asia, too, statues of Lenin have often been replaced by monuments to the new leaders, establishing their own cult of personality. In Kyrgyzstan, however, the memory of Lenin and his most famous statuary representation - the Lenin statue on Ala-Too Square in the centre of the city of Bishkek - has had a special destiny: untouched for over a decade after the collapse of communism, the monument was protected by a decree as a national heritage in 2000. And finally, when, in 2003, the government after all decided to remove the monument, it was then relocated only several meters from its original location. Far from signing its death, this relocation led to a re-reading of the monument and took on a plurality of uses in an unofficial register of representation. As symbols of a potentially controversial memory, the statues have regularly aroused strong “heritage emotions” (Fabre, 2013). In the wake of the claims expressed by the “Black Lives Matters” movement, this project proposes to examine the circumstances and forms of reappropriation of this particular statuary heritage. The importance of the monument as a referent in the rhetorical confrontations around power cannot be reduced to a clear-cut alternative between construction and destruction. From graffiti to decapitation and hijacking, citizens intervene in the public space to make claims, denounce, support or ignore. In the light of these repertoires of actions, we will analyse what the statues “say” or, rather, what they are made to say.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kai Nino Streicher; Matthias Berger; Jonathan Chambers; Stefan W. Schneider; Martin Kumar Patel;
    Country: Switzerland

    Abstract In this study, the Swiss residential building stock model (SwissRes model) is used to conduct a geospatial analysis of the techno-economic potential of deep building envelope retrofit packages in Switzerland. Element and building characteristics of 8242 archetype buildings are combined with high-resolution spatio-temporal weather data. We estimate final energy demand before and after retrofit, while correcting for the energy performance gap. Levelized costs of energy savings are calculated in two ways, i.e. based on full costs and investment cost related only to thermal improvement of the envelope. Results show that, technically, a 57% reduction of the final energy demand for space heating could be achieved with the deep envelope retrofit. For full costs, less than 1% of these measures would be cost-effective, whereas for improvement costs nearly the full retrofit potential is cost-effective. We identified primarily rural and mountainous regions as well as historic city centres to show highest cost-effectiveness.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Paul Enos; Elias Samankassou;
    Country: Switzerland

    Lofer cyclothems of the Alpine Upper Triassic have many features in common with Holocene sediments of Florida Bay. The modal ‘complete’ Lofer cycle is essentially symmetrical, having a deepening and shoaling phase, as does the cycle-in-progress in Florida Bay. Lateral discontinuity and thickness variations within members of the Lofer cyclothems indicate syn-depositional relief, possibly in the form of mud banks, the signature feature of Florida Bay sedimentation. Spatial and temporal dimensions, although poorly constrained, appear comparable. Analogous depositional textures, biota and sedimentary structures, while not unique to either environment, strengthen the inferences that can be made about the Triassic depositional environment and regarding future evolution of the modern environment. The striking similarities between the Holocene icehouse sediments and the Late Triassic greenhouse deposits suggest that sedimentation patterns at the scale of individual cycles or parasequences may be largely independent of the global climate regime.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Paul Sebo;
    Publisher: University Library System, University of Pittsburgh
    Country: Switzerland

    Objective: We recently showed that genderize.io is not a sufficiently powerful gender detection tool due to a large number of nonclassifications. In the present study, we aimed to assess whether the accuracy of inference by genderize.io can be improved by manipulating the first names in the database.Methods: We used a database containing the first names, surnames, and gender of 6,131 physicians practicing in a multicultural country (Switzerland). We uploaded the original CSV file (file #1), the file obtained after removing all diacritic marks, such as accents and cedilla (file #2), and the file obtained after removing all diacritic marks and retaining only the first term of the compound first names (file #3). For each file, we computed three performance metrics: proportion of misclassifications (errorCodedWithoutNA), proportion of nonclassifications (naCoded), and proportion of misclassifications and nonclassifications (errorCoded).Results: naCoded, which was high for file #1 (16.4%), was reduced after data manipulation (file #2: 11.7%, file #3: 0.4%). As the increase in the number of misclassifications was small, the overall performance of genderize.io (i.e., errorCoded) improved, especially for file #3 (file #1: 17.7%, file #2: 13.0%, and file #3: 2.3%).Conclusions: A relatively simple manipulation of the data improved the accuracy of gender inference by genderize.io. We recommend using genderize.io only with files that were modified in this way.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nona Naderi; Nona Naderi; Julien Knafou; Julien Knafou; Julien Knafou; Jenny Copara; Jenny Copara; Jenny Copara; Patrick Ruch; Patrick Ruch; +3 more
    Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
    Country: Switzerland
    Project: EC | CINECA (825775)

    The health and life science domains are well known for their wealth of named entities found in large free text corpora, such as scientific literature and electronic health records. To unlock the value of such corpora, named entity recognition (NER) methods are proposed. Inspired by the success of transformer-based pretrained models for NER, we assess how individual and ensemble of deep masked language models perform across corpora of different health and life science domains—biology, chemistry, and medicine—available in different languages—English and French. Individual deep masked language models, pretrained on external corpora, are fined-tuned on task-specific domain and language corpora and ensembled using classical majority voting strategies. Experiments show statistically significant improvement of the ensemble models over an individual BERT-based baseline model, with an overall best performance of 77% macro F1-score. We further perform a detailed analysis of the ensemble results and show how their effectiveness changes according to entity properties, such as length, corpus frequency, and annotation consistency. The results suggest that the ensembles of deep masked language models are an effective strategy for tackling NER across corpora from the health and life science domains.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Vicken Cheterian;
    Country: Switzerland

    Did the 1915 genocide of the Ottoman Armenians play a role in the genesis of the Karabakh war? In the early phase of the con ict, many Armenian activists and politicians drew parallels between the evolving struggles of the present and the traumatic events of 1915. This essay explores the ways in which Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkey have referred to the events of 1915 to formulate their policies towards the con ict. The essay argues that the largely suppressed past trauma was present in the mass psychology of the con icting parties, although in radically different ways, and that it shaped developing events. After depoliticising genocide commemorations in the early years of its independence, Armenia has recently witnessed an increase in references to the genocide in political discourse. The same also applies, somewhat paradoxically, to Azerbaijan, which has developed its own state-sponsored discourse of genocide, vehemently denying that the genocide took place while portraying Azerbaijan as a victim of genocide itself. This exchange of roles clearly needs further explanation.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
177 Research products, page 1 of 18
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    José N. Pérez-Asensio; Juan C. Larrasoaña; Elias Samankassou; Francisco Javier Sierro; Daniel García-Castellanos; Gonzalo Jiménez-Moreno; Ángel Salazar; Josep Maria Salvany; Santiago Ledesma; M. Pilar Mata; +2 more
    Countries: Spain, Switzerland

    The Gibraltar Arc is a complex tectonic region, and several competing models have been proposed to explain its evolution. We studied the sedimentary fill of the Guadalquivir Basin to identify tectonic processes that were occurring when the reopening of the Strait of Gibraltar led to the reestablishment of Mediterranean outflow. We present a chronostratigraphic framework for the Lower Pliocene sediments from the lower Guadalquivir Basin (SW Spain). The updated chronology is based on magnetobiostratigraphic data from several boreholes. Our results show that the studied interval in the La Matilla core is in the early Pliocene section, providing better constraints on the sedimentary evolution of the basin during that period. Migrating depositional facies led to a younger onset of sandy deposition basinward. At the northwestern passive margin, a 0.7 m.y. period of sedimentary bypass related to a sharp decrease in sedimentation rates and lower sea levels resulted from the tectonic uplift of the forebulge. In contrast, high sedimentation rates with continuous deep-marine sedimentation are recorded at the basin center due to continuous tectonic subsidence and west-southwestward progradation of axial depositional systems. The marginal forebulge uplift, continuous tectonic basinal subsidence, and southward progradation of clinoforms in the early Pliocene can be explained by the pull of a lithospheric slab beneath the Gibraltar Arc as the Strait of Gibraltar opened. These findings are, to our knowledge, the first reported sedimentary expression of slab pull beneath the Betics related to the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar after the Messinian salinity crisis. © 2018 Geological Society of America. This study was supported by the Research Project CGL2012-30875 (GUADALTYC) of the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad of Spain and the Research Groups RNM-190 of the Junta de Andalucía and GRC Geociències Marines (2017 SGR 315) of the Generalitat de Catalunya. José N. Pérez-Asensio was funded by a postdoctoral contract from the University of Geneva (Switzerland), and the Beatriu de Pinós postdoctoral fellowship funded by the Agency for Management of University and Research Grants (AGAUR) from the Generalitat de Catalunya, and the European Union through the Marie Curie-COFUND Programmes. Peer reviewed

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Flavia Fiorillo; Laura Hendriks; Irka Hajdas; Mariangela Vandini; Eric Huysecom;
    Countries: Italy, Switzerland

    In 2014, a painting attributed to the seventeenth century Dutch artist Jan Ruyscher appeared on the art market. Despite a prestigious career, Ruyscher, who possibly was a pupil of Rembrandt and Hercules Seghers, vanished from art history after his death and was only rediscovered in the 1930s. In this research paper, the combination of multiple analytical techniques ranging from radiocarbon dating of the support material to multispectral imaging and spectroscopic analyses (XRF, SEM-EDS, FTIR and Raman) of the pictorial layer offers a comprehensive analysis of the object. Radiocarbon analyses of the wooden panel indicated that the tree was probably cut down in the mid-eighteenth century, whereas spectroscopic analyses pinpointed the twentieth century as a timeframe for the application of the pictorial layers. The applied methodology sheds new light on the story of the object itself. The painting was created at the earliest in the 1930s possibly as a consequence of the rediscovery of Ruyscher, and the deliberate use of an aged panel supports an intent to deceive and hence classifies the object as a forgery. The painting under study was furthermore compared with artworks of renowned forgers in an attempt to identify the forger in disguise. ISSN:0197-1360 ISSN:1945-2330

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Marie Leyder;
    Country: Switzerland

    Lieutenant Joseph de Dorlodot (1871-1941), a Belgian aristocrat and philanthropist, was the Director of the Belgian Correspondence and Documentation Office in Folkestone, England. This article uses the 'Joseph de Dorlodot' archive collection (Archives Generales du Royaume de Belgique, Bruxelles) to investigate the emotional support provided by the Correspondence Office during the First World War. Throughout the conflict, its mission was to facilitate the sending of mail between Belgians, to provide them with legal advice and to offer humanitarian assistance to those who were in material and emotional distress. This was particularly the case of soldiers at the front. In the spring of 1916, the Office set up a mail system between Belgian soldiers and wartime godmothers - 'marraines' - from Canada and the USA. Lieutenant de Dorlodot imposed a precise moral and political framework for correspondence, where an intimate space was created in order to strengthen patriotic sentiment on the one hand, and control masculinities and femininities on the other. Through their letter exchanges with soldiers, godmothers participated in the war effort by bringing emotional reinforcement to the front line, from their homes, through a type of caring work often ignored or at least disconnected from any notion of work in the history of the Great War.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Arena, Francesca;
    Publisher: Le Mans Université
    Country: Switzerland

    Almost entirely overlooked throughout the 20th century, neglected by contemporary medical manuals, the clitoris has gradually returned centre stage thanks to Western feminism.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bugnon, Pascale; Matvienko, Alina;
    Country: Switzerland

    In the wake of the dissolution of the USSR, not all statues and other monuments dedicated to Lenin have suffered the same fate in the former Soviet republics. In Ukraine, for example, the “decommunisation” of the country meant that almost all the Soviet emblems were lost as collateral victims of the struggle to free themselves from the influence of the imposing Russian neighbour. In Central Asia, too, statues of Lenin have often been replaced by monuments to the new leaders, establishing their own cult of personality. In Kyrgyzstan, however, the memory of Lenin and his most famous statuary representation - the Lenin statue on Ala-Too Square in the centre of the city of Bishkek - has had a special destiny: untouched for over a decade after the collapse of communism, the monument was protected by a decree as a national heritage in 2000. And finally, when, in 2003, the government after all decided to remove the monument, it was then relocated only several meters from its original location. Far from signing its death, this relocation led to a re-reading of the monument and took on a plurality of uses in an unofficial register of representation. As symbols of a potentially controversial memory, the statues have regularly aroused strong “heritage emotions” (Fabre, 2013). In the wake of the claims expressed by the “Black Lives Matters” movement, this project proposes to examine the circumstances and forms of reappropriation of this particular statuary heritage. The importance of the monument as a referent in the rhetorical confrontations around power cannot be reduced to a clear-cut alternative between construction and destruction. From graffiti to decapitation and hijacking, citizens intervene in the public space to make claims, denounce, support or ignore. In the light of these repertoires of actions, we will analyse what the statues “say” or, rather, what they are made to say.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kai Nino Streicher; Matthias Berger; Jonathan Chambers; Stefan W. Schneider; Martin Kumar Patel;
    Country: Switzerland

    Abstract In this study, the Swiss residential building stock model (SwissRes model) is used to conduct a geospatial analysis of the techno-economic potential of deep building envelope retrofit packages in Switzerland. Element and building characteristics of 8242 archetype buildings are combined with high-resolution spatio-temporal weather data. We estimate final energy demand before and after retrofit, while correcting for the energy performance gap. Levelized costs of energy savings are calculated in two ways, i.e. based on full costs and investment cost related only to thermal improvement of the envelope. Results show that, technically, a 57% reduction of the final energy demand for space heating could be achieved with the deep envelope retrofit. For full costs, less than 1% of these measures would be cost-effective, whereas for improvement costs nearly the full retrofit potential is cost-effective. We identified primarily rural and mountainous regions as well as historic city centres to show highest cost-effectiveness.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Paul Enos; Elias Samankassou;
    Country: Switzerland

    Lofer cyclothems of the Alpine Upper Triassic have many features in common with Holocene sediments of Florida Bay. The modal ‘complete’ Lofer cycle is essentially symmetrical, having a deepening and shoaling phase, as does the cycle-in-progress in Florida Bay. Lateral discontinuity and thickness variations within members of the Lofer cyclothems indicate syn-depositional relief, possibly in the form of mud banks, the signature feature of Florida Bay sedimentation. Spatial and temporal dimensions, although poorly constrained, appear comparable. Analogous depositional textures, biota and sedimentary structures, while not unique to either environment, strengthen the inferences that can be made about the Triassic depositional environment and regarding future evolution of the modern environment. The striking similarities between the Holocene icehouse sediments and the Late Triassic greenhouse deposits suggest that sedimentation patterns at the scale of individual cycles or parasequences may be largely independent of the global climate regime.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Paul Sebo;
    Publisher: University Library System, University of Pittsburgh
    Country: Switzerland

    Objective: We recently showed that genderize.io is not a sufficiently powerful gender detection tool due to a large number of nonclassifications. In the present study, we aimed to assess whether the accuracy of inference by genderize.io can be improved by manipulating the first names in the database.Methods: We used a database containing the first names, surnames, and gender of 6,131 physicians practicing in a multicultural country (Switzerland). We uploaded the original CSV file (file #1), the file obtained after removing all diacritic marks, such as accents and cedilla (file #2), and the file obtained after removing all diacritic marks and retaining only the first term of the compound first names (file #3). For each file, we computed three performance metrics: proportion of misclassifications (errorCodedWithoutNA), proportion of nonclassifications (naCoded), and proportion of misclassifications and nonclassifications (errorCoded).Results: naCoded, which was high for file #1 (16.4%), was reduced after data manipulation (file #2: 11.7%, file #3: 0.4%). As the increase in the number of misclassifications was small, the overall performance of genderize.io (i.e., errorCoded) improved, especially for file #3 (file #1: 17.7%, file #2: 13.0%, and file #3: 2.3%).Conclusions: A relatively simple manipulation of the data improved the accuracy of gender inference by genderize.io. We recommend using genderize.io only with files that were modified in this way.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nona Naderi; Nona Naderi; Julien Knafou; Julien Knafou; Julien Knafou; Jenny Copara; Jenny Copara; Jenny Copara; Patrick Ruch; Patrick Ruch; +3 more
    Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
    Country: Switzerland
    Project: EC | CINECA (825775)

    The health and life science domains are well known for their wealth of named entities found in large free text corpora, such as scientific literature and electronic health records. To unlock the value of such corpora, named entity recognition (NER) methods are proposed. Inspired by the success of transformer-based pretrained models for NER, we assess how individual and ensemble of deep masked language models perform across corpora of different health and life science domains—biology, chemistry, and medicine—available in different languages—English and French. Individual deep masked language models, pretrained on external corpora, are fined-tuned on task-specific domain and language corpora and ensembled using classical majority voting strategies. Experiments show statistically significant improvement of the ensemble models over an individual BERT-based baseline model, with an overall best performance of 77% macro F1-score. We further perform a detailed analysis of the ensemble results and show how their effectiveness changes according to entity properties, such as length, corpus frequency, and annotation consistency. The results suggest that the ensembles of deep masked language models are an effective strategy for tackling NER across corpora from the health and life science domains.

  • Restricted English
    Authors: 
    Vicken Cheterian;
    Country: Switzerland

    Did the 1915 genocide of the Ottoman Armenians play a role in the genesis of the Karabakh war? In the early phase of the con ict, many Armenian activists and politicians drew parallels between the evolving struggles of the present and the traumatic events of 1915. This essay explores the ways in which Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkey have referred to the events of 1915 to formulate their policies towards the con ict. The essay argues that the largely suppressed past trauma was present in the mass psychology of the con icting parties, although in radically different ways, and that it shaped developing events. After depoliticising genocide commemorations in the early years of its independence, Armenia has recently witnessed an increase in references to the genocide in political discourse. The same also applies, somewhat paradoxically, to Azerbaijan, which has developed its own state-sponsored discourse of genocide, vehemently denying that the genocide took place while portraying Azerbaijan as a victim of genocide itself. This exchange of roles clearly needs further explanation.

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