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  • 2013-2022
  • English
  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
  • Rural Digital Europe

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    G. Tataris; Nikolaos Soulakellis; K. Chaidas;
    Publisher: Copernicus Publications

    Abstract. The recovery phase of an earthquake-affected settlement is a time-consuming and complex process that requires monitoring, which is now possible using UAS. The purpose of this paper is to present the methodology followed and the results obtained by the exploitation of UAS for rapid multitemporal 3D mapping during the recovery phase of Vrisa traditional settlement, Lesvos island, Greece, which was highly damaged by the earthquake (Mw=6.3) on 12th June 2017. More analytically, three (3) flight campaigns covering the period July 2017 – May 2020 took place by means of an UAS for collecting high-resolution images on: i) 19th May 2019, ii) 29th September 2019, iii) 17th May 2020. Structure from Motion (SfM) and Multi Stereo View (MSV) methods have been applied and produced: i) Digital Surface Models – DSMs, ii) 3D Point Clouds – 3DPC and iii) Orthophoto-maps, of Vrisa. In parallel, GIS capabilities has been exploit to calculate building volumes based on: a) DSM produced by UAS image processing, b) DEM produced by 233 RTK measurements and c) building footprints derived by the digitization of the orthophoto-map of 25th July 2017. The methodology developed and implemented achieves extremely reliable results in a relatively easy, fast and economically feasible way, which is confirmed with great precision by field work. By applying the above-described methodology, it was possible to monitoring the recovery phase during July 2017 and May 2020 which 302/340 buildings that had been severely damaged by the earthquake have been demolished. A small number of new buildings have also been rebuilded and small number of buildings that have just begun excavations for their construction. An important parameter for obtaining reliable data and comparable results is the correct selection of flight parameters and their maintenance at all times when it is decided to take data, without affecting the accuracy of the results from taking photos or videos. Automation in the future of the proposed methodology can significantly accelerate the achievement of reliable results without the intermediate interpretation of orthophoto-maps.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Giovanna Bucci;
    Publisher: MDPI AG

    In the southern area of the Ferrara District, Italy, remote sensing investigations associated with geo-archaeological drilling in underwater archaeological studies, have helped to broad our understanding of the historical evolution and cultural heritage of inland waterways. In working on prototype sites, we have taken a multidisciplinary approach of surveillance and preventive archaeology, and have collaborated with archaeologists, geologists, hydro-biologists, and engineers. In this area of research, often lakes, lagoons, and rivers are characterized by low visibility. Some Quaternary events have deeply modified Ferrara’s landscape. Analysis of preserved samples from micro-drillings, underwater direct and indirect surveys, and the cataloguing of historical artefacts, are giving to the researchers a remarkable ancient chronology line. Recent studies confirmed anthropization sequences from the 1st Century B.C. to the 6th Century A.D. Waterscape archaeology, a multidisciplinary science devoted to the study of the human use of wetlands and anthropological connection with the water environment, testifies the ways in which people, in the past, constructed and used the water environment. In this article, we describe underwater cultural heritage research using 3D side scan sonar surveys and artifacts analysis, comparing data from direct diving investigations and stratigraphic data from micro-geological drillings on sites of Lago Tramonto, Gambulaga, Portomaggiore (Ferrara).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aoife Daly; Marta Domínguez-Delmás; Wendy van Duivenvoorde;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | TIMBER (677152), ARC | Linkage Projects - Grant ... (LP130100137)

    Ocean-going ships were key to rising maritime economies of the Early Modern period, and understanding how they were built is critical to grasp the challenges faced by shipwrights and merchant seafarers. Shipwreck timbers hold material evidence of the dynamic interplay of wood supplies, craftmanship, and evolving ship designs that helped shape the Early Modern world. Here we present the results of dendroarchaeological research carried out on Batavia’s wreck timbers, currently on display at the Western Australian Shipwrecks Museum in Fremantle. Built in Amsterdam in 1628 CE and wrecked on its maiden voyage in June 1629 CE in Western Australian waters, Batavia epitomises Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC) shipbuilding. In the 17th century, the VOC grew to become the first multinational trading enterprise, prompting the rise of the stock market and modern capitalism. Oak (Quercus sp.) was the preferred material for shipbuilding in northern and western Europe, and maritime nations struggled to ensure sufficient supplies to meet their needs and sustain their ever-growing mercantile fleets and networks. Our research illustrates the compatibility of dendrochronological studies with musealisation of shipwreck assemblages, and the results demonstrate that the VOC successfully coped with timber shortages in the early 17th century through diversification of timber sources (mainly Baltic region, Lübeck hinterland in northern Germany, and Lower Saxony in northwest Germany), allocation of sourcing regions to specific timber products (hull planks from the Baltic and Lübeck, framing elements from Lower Saxony), and skillful woodworking craftmanship (sapwood was removed from all timber elements). These strategies, combined with an innovative hull design and the use of wind-powered sawmills, allowed the Dutch to produce unprecedented numbers of ocean-going ships for long-distance voyaging and interregional trade in Asia, proving key to their success in 17th-century world trade.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Soren Blau; Jon Sterenberg; Patrick Weeden; Fernando Urzedo; Richard Wright; Chris J Watson;
    Publisher: Taylor & Francis Group

    Abstract The analyses of physical evidence recovered from clandestine single and mass graves have been demonstrated to be of significant evidential and/or investigative value for both court purposes and humanitarian investigations. The detection of these types of graves is, therefore, pivotal to forensic investigations. This article reviews different remote and ground-based methods that have been used to attempt to detect deliberately concealed burial sites and summarizes the experimental research that has, to date, been undertaken in order to improve grave detection. The article then presents the preliminary findings of research being undertaken at the Australian Facility for Taphonomic Experimental Research (AFTER). This research, the first of its kind to be undertaken in the southern hemisphere, is based on experimental single and mass graves using human cadavers. The research is centred on current remote sensing methods and techniques combined with the analysis of the effects of below-ground temperature and moisture and ground-based weather data. It is hoped that identifying successful sensors and detectors will be beneficial to national and international agencies that are involved in forensic as well as humanitarian investigations that require the detection of deliberately concealed gravesites.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Johannes Persson; Henrik Thorén; Lennart Olsson;
    Publisher: Resilience Alliance
    Countries: Finland, Sweden

    Interdisciplinary research in the fields of forestry and sustainability studies often encounters seemingly incompatible ontological assumptions deriving from natural and social sciences. The perceived incompatibilities might emerge from the epistemological and ontological claims of the theories or models directly employed in the interdisciplinary collaboration, or they might be created by other epistemological and ontological assumptions that these interdisciplinary researchers find no reason to question. In this paper we discuss the benefits and risks of two possible approaches, Popperian optimism and Kuhnian pessimism, to interdisciplinary knowledge integration where epistemological and ontological differences between the sciences involved can be expected. Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lorena Gutiérrez-García; Juana Labrador-Moreno; José Blanco-Salas; Francisco Javier Monago-Lozano; Trinidad Ruiz-Téllez;
    Publisher: MDPI AG

    (Extremadura, Spain), and specifically the town of Hornachos. For this purpose, a series of workshops and interviews were held for men and women who had lived most of their lives in Hornachos and who were older than 70. Information on the food uses of wild and cultivated plants, as determined by the Cultural Significance Index (CSI) for 79 species, was extracted from the interpretation of the data collected. In addition, new uses were collected in Extremadura for 16 plants and in Spain for 3, with some of these data being of particular significance in the culinary culture of Hornachega. We conclude that the area &ldquo A food tradition not only corresponds to the vital need to be nourished every day, but is part of the particularity of a territory as a consequence of its history, traditions, natural heritage, and capacity for ecological and social resilience. In the search for culinary identity, a valorization of a rural territory of high identity potential is carried out, such as in the environmental protection area &ldquo forms an environment of great culinary identity that must be preserved, not only for its heritage interests but also for its agroecological ones, which could be translated into measures of wealth creation and development. Sierra Grande de Hornachos&rdquo

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    van der Schaaf, Koen; Tekinerdogan, Bedir; Catal, Cagatay;
    Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Ltd
    Countries: Qatar, Netherlands

    Cybersecurity is critical in realizing Internet of Things (IoT) applications and many different standards have been introduced specifically for this purpose. However, selecting relevant standards is not trivial and requires a broad understanding of cybersecurity and knowledge about the available standards. In this study, we present a systematic approach that guides IoT system developers in selecting relevant cybersecurity standards for their IoT projects. The systematic approach has been developed in four stages. First, the common and variant features of IoT cybersecurity have been modeled using a feature model. Second, an up-to-date overview of the IoT cybersecurity standards landscape has been mapped by combining existing overviews. Third, a text mining algorithm has been implemented. Fourth, the systematic approach has been modeled using business process modeling notation. Our case study demonstrated that this approach is effective and efficient for guiding the selection of IoT cybersecurity standards. 2021 The Authors. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Open Access funding provided by the Qatar National Library. Scopus 2-s2.0-85107878531

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Raffaella Brumana; Paola Condoleo; Alberto Grimoldi; Mattia Previtali;
    Country: Italy

    Abstract. In the last years many efforts have been invested in the cultural heritage digitization: surveying, modelling, diagnostic analysis and historic data collection. Nowadays, this effort is finalized in many cases towards the Historical Building Information Modelling. The number of informative models testifying the multifaceted richness and unicity of the architectural heritage and its components is progressively increasing. Information and Model are generally acquired under researches and analysis phases addressed to the preservation and restoration process. Unfortunately, once concluded the research such documentation is mostly left abandoned in the drawers or in the local memory of the computers, and in some cases totally missed. Just a few of them are saved in a server or in the cloud for the duration of the restoration, but without any connection with the maintenance process of historic architectures or knowledge transfer purposes and dissemination. This data loss would lead to the breaking of the cycle of past, present and future, with loss of memory and knowledge. The paper start facing the aspect of managing the information and models acquired on the case of vaulted systems. Information is collected within a semantic based hub platform to perform cross co-relation at a PanEuropean level. Such functionality allows to reconstruct the rich history of the construction techniques and skilled workers across Europe, enriched by 3 case studies surveyed in Prague region. To this purpose a Vault DB has been undertaken with a Vocabulary enriched by the granular information gained from the HBIM models, and with the vault sub-typologies highlighted by a detailed surveying.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez;
    Publisher: Universidad Complutense de Madrid

    La diplomacia digital se ha convertido en uno de los elementos fundamentales para comprender la transformación de la diplomacia contemporánea. El análisis de los principios, métodos y fines demuestra que estamos aún en una fase muy inicial de transformación digital. El artículo analiza y compara las principales actuaciones de Estados Unidos, Francia, Suecia y el Servicio Europeo de Acción Exterior.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sung Eun Cho; Young-Nam Kwag; Jong Won Jo; Sang-Kuk Han; Seung Hwan Oh; Chang Sun Kim;
    Publisher: Elsevier

    Abstract Most macrofungi are cosmopolitan, occurring in both tropical and temperate regions. Studies on diversity and distribution of the mushroom flora in Korea are mainly conducted in major national parks and forest, but there are few studies on species distributed in urbanized areas. As part of the Korea National Arboretum project, we investigated the diversity of mushrooms through examining the distribution of mushrooms in Gyeongsang Province from May to September in 2017. In this province, we surveyed urbanized areas comprising three cultural heritage protection zones (Salix chaenomeloides forest, Tongdo Temple, Placenta Chamber of King Sejong's Princes), two urban parks (Duryu and Amnam parks), and 20 legally protected trees (such as Ginko biloba, Pinus densiflora, Quercus acutissima, Salix hallaisanensis, Zelkova serrata and so on). Consequently, 37 species on legally protected trees, 48 species in urban parks, and 84 species in cultural heritage protection zones were confirmed. A total of 37 families, 90 genera, and 139 species were identified. Of those, three species were confirmed for the first time in Korea. This study provides the basic data for the preparation of protection management protocols for macrofungal flora on legally protected trees and in cultural property protection areas.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
2,326 Research products, page 1 of 233
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    G. Tataris; Nikolaos Soulakellis; K. Chaidas;
    Publisher: Copernicus Publications

    Abstract. The recovery phase of an earthquake-affected settlement is a time-consuming and complex process that requires monitoring, which is now possible using UAS. The purpose of this paper is to present the methodology followed and the results obtained by the exploitation of UAS for rapid multitemporal 3D mapping during the recovery phase of Vrisa traditional settlement, Lesvos island, Greece, which was highly damaged by the earthquake (Mw=6.3) on 12th June 2017. More analytically, three (3) flight campaigns covering the period July 2017 – May 2020 took place by means of an UAS for collecting high-resolution images on: i) 19th May 2019, ii) 29th September 2019, iii) 17th May 2020. Structure from Motion (SfM) and Multi Stereo View (MSV) methods have been applied and produced: i) Digital Surface Models – DSMs, ii) 3D Point Clouds – 3DPC and iii) Orthophoto-maps, of Vrisa. In parallel, GIS capabilities has been exploit to calculate building volumes based on: a) DSM produced by UAS image processing, b) DEM produced by 233 RTK measurements and c) building footprints derived by the digitization of the orthophoto-map of 25th July 2017. The methodology developed and implemented achieves extremely reliable results in a relatively easy, fast and economically feasible way, which is confirmed with great precision by field work. By applying the above-described methodology, it was possible to monitoring the recovery phase during July 2017 and May 2020 which 302/340 buildings that had been severely damaged by the earthquake have been demolished. A small number of new buildings have also been rebuilded and small number of buildings that have just begun excavations for their construction. An important parameter for obtaining reliable data and comparable results is the correct selection of flight parameters and their maintenance at all times when it is decided to take data, without affecting the accuracy of the results from taking photos or videos. Automation in the future of the proposed methodology can significantly accelerate the achievement of reliable results without the intermediate interpretation of orthophoto-maps.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Giovanna Bucci;
    Publisher: MDPI AG

    In the southern area of the Ferrara District, Italy, remote sensing investigations associated with geo-archaeological drilling in underwater archaeological studies, have helped to broad our understanding of the historical evolution and cultural heritage of inland waterways. In working on prototype sites, we have taken a multidisciplinary approach of surveillance and preventive archaeology, and have collaborated with archaeologists, geologists, hydro-biologists, and engineers. In this area of research, often lakes, lagoons, and rivers are characterized by low visibility. Some Quaternary events have deeply modified Ferrara’s landscape. Analysis of preserved samples from micro-drillings, underwater direct and indirect surveys, and the cataloguing of historical artefacts, are giving to the researchers a remarkable ancient chronology line. Recent studies confirmed anthropization sequences from the 1st Century B.C. to the 6th Century A.D. Waterscape archaeology, a multidisciplinary science devoted to the study of the human use of wetlands and anthropological connection with the water environment, testifies the ways in which people, in the past, constructed and used the water environment. In this article, we describe underwater cultural heritage research using 3D side scan sonar surveys and artifacts analysis, comparing data from direct diving investigations and stratigraphic data from micro-geological drillings on sites of Lago Tramonto, Gambulaga, Portomaggiore (Ferrara).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aoife Daly; Marta Domínguez-Delmás; Wendy van Duivenvoorde;
    Country: Netherlands
    Project: EC | TIMBER (677152), ARC | Linkage Projects - Grant ... (LP130100137)

    Ocean-going ships were key to rising maritime economies of the Early Modern period, and understanding how they were built is critical to grasp the challenges faced by shipwrights and merchant seafarers. Shipwreck timbers hold material evidence of the dynamic interplay of wood supplies, craftmanship, and evolving ship designs that helped shape the Early Modern world. Here we present the results of dendroarchaeological research carried out on Batavia’s wreck timbers, currently on display at the Western Australian Shipwrecks Museum in Fremantle. Built in Amsterdam in 1628 CE and wrecked on its maiden voyage in June 1629 CE in Western Australian waters, Batavia epitomises Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC) shipbuilding. In the 17th century, the VOC grew to become the first multinational trading enterprise, prompting the rise of the stock market and modern capitalism. Oak (Quercus sp.) was the preferred material for shipbuilding in northern and western Europe, and maritime nations struggled to ensure sufficient supplies to meet their needs and sustain their ever-growing mercantile fleets and networks. Our research illustrates the compatibility of dendrochronological studies with musealisation of shipwreck assemblages, and the results demonstrate that the VOC successfully coped with timber shortages in the early 17th century through diversification of timber sources (mainly Baltic region, Lübeck hinterland in northern Germany, and Lower Saxony in northwest Germany), allocation of sourcing regions to specific timber products (hull planks from the Baltic and Lübeck, framing elements from Lower Saxony), and skillful woodworking craftmanship (sapwood was removed from all timber elements). These strategies, combined with an innovative hull design and the use of wind-powered sawmills, allowed the Dutch to produce unprecedented numbers of ocean-going ships for long-distance voyaging and interregional trade in Asia, proving key to their success in 17th-century world trade.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Soren Blau; Jon Sterenberg; Patrick Weeden; Fernando Urzedo; Richard Wright; Chris J Watson;
    Publisher: Taylor & Francis Group

    Abstract The analyses of physical evidence recovered from clandestine single and mass graves have been demonstrated to be of significant evidential and/or investigative value for both court purposes and humanitarian investigations. The detection of these types of graves is, therefore, pivotal to forensic investigations. This article reviews different remote and ground-based methods that have been used to attempt to detect deliberately concealed burial sites and summarizes the experimental research that has, to date, been undertaken in order to improve grave detection. The article then presents the preliminary findings of research being undertaken at the Australian Facility for Taphonomic Experimental Research (AFTER). This research, the first of its kind to be undertaken in the southern hemisphere, is based on experimental single and mass graves using human cadavers. The research is centred on current remote sensing methods and techniques combined with the analysis of the effects of below-ground temperature and moisture and ground-based weather data. It is hoped that identifying successful sensors and detectors will be beneficial to national and international agencies that are involved in forensic as well as humanitarian investigations that require the detection of deliberately concealed gravesites.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Johannes Persson; Henrik Thorén; Lennart Olsson;
    Publisher: Resilience Alliance
    Countries: Finland, Sweden

    Interdisciplinary research in the fields of forestry and sustainability studies often encounters seemingly incompatible ontological assumptions deriving from natural and social sciences. The perceived incompatibilities might emerge from the epistemological and ontological claims of the theories or models directly employed in the interdisciplinary collaboration, or they might be created by other epistemological and ontological assumptions that these interdisciplinary researchers find no reason to question. In this paper we discuss the benefits and risks of two possible approaches, Popperian optimism and Kuhnian pessimism, to interdisciplinary knowledge integration where epistemological and ontological differences between the sciences involved can be expected. Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lorena Gutiérrez-García; Juana Labrador-Moreno; José Blanco-Salas; Francisco Javier Monago-Lozano; Trinidad Ruiz-Téllez;
    Publisher: MDPI AG

    (Extremadura, Spain), and specifically the town of Hornachos. For this purpose, a series of workshops and interviews were held for men and women who had lived most of their lives in Hornachos and who were older than 70. Information on the food uses of wild and cultivated plants, as determined by the Cultural Significance Index (CSI) for 79 species, was extracted from the interpretation of the data collected. In addition, new uses were collected in Extremadura for 16 plants and in Spain for 3, with some of these data being of particular significance in the culinary culture of Hornachega. We conclude that the area &ldquo A food tradition not only corresponds to the vital need to be nourished every day, but is part of the particularity of a territory as a consequence of its history, traditions, natural heritage, and capacity for ecological and social resilience. In the search for culinary identity, a valorization of a rural territory of high identity potential is carried out, such as in the environmental protection area &ldquo forms an environment of great culinary identity that must be preserved, not only for its heritage interests but also for its agroecological ones, which could be translated into measures of wealth creation and development. Sierra Grande de Hornachos&rdquo

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    van der Schaaf, Koen; Tekinerdogan, Bedir; Catal, Cagatay;
    Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Ltd
    Countries: Qatar, Netherlands

    Cybersecurity is critical in realizing Internet of Things (IoT) applications and many different standards have been introduced specifically for this purpose. However, selecting relevant standards is not trivial and requires a broad understanding of cybersecurity and knowledge about the available standards. In this study, we present a systematic approach that guides IoT system developers in selecting relevant cybersecurity standards for their IoT projects. The systematic approach has been developed in four stages. First, the common and variant features of IoT cybersecurity have been modeled using a feature model. Second, an up-to-date overview of the IoT cybersecurity standards landscape has been mapped by combining existing overviews. Third, a text mining algorithm has been implemented. Fourth, the systematic approach has been modeled using business process modeling notation. Our case study demonstrated that this approach is effective and efficient for guiding the selection of IoT cybersecurity standards. 2021 The Authors. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Open Access funding provided by the Qatar National Library. Scopus 2-s2.0-85107878531

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Raffaella Brumana; Paola Condoleo; Alberto Grimoldi; Mattia Previtali;
    Country: Italy

    Abstract. In the last years many efforts have been invested in the cultural heritage digitization: surveying, modelling, diagnostic analysis and historic data collection. Nowadays, this effort is finalized in many cases towards the Historical Building Information Modelling. The number of informative models testifying the multifaceted richness and unicity of the architectural heritage and its components is progressively increasing. Information and Model are generally acquired under researches and analysis phases addressed to the preservation and restoration process. Unfortunately, once concluded the research such documentation is mostly left abandoned in the drawers or in the local memory of the computers, and in some cases totally missed. Just a few of them are saved in a server or in the cloud for the duration of the restoration, but without any connection with the maintenance process of historic architectures or knowledge transfer purposes and dissemination. This data loss would lead to the breaking of the cycle of past, present and future, with loss of memory and knowledge. The paper start facing the aspect of managing the information and models acquired on the case of vaulted systems. Information is collected within a semantic based hub platform to perform cross co-relation at a PanEuropean level. Such functionality allows to reconstruct the rich history of the construction techniques and skilled workers across Europe, enriched by 3 case studies surveyed in Prague region. To this purpose a Vault DB has been undertaken with a Vocabulary enriched by the granular information gained from the HBIM models, and with the vault sub-typologies highlighted by a detailed surveying.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez;
    Publisher: Universidad Complutense de Madrid

    La diplomacia digital se ha convertido en uno de los elementos fundamentales para comprender la transformación de la diplomacia contemporánea. El análisis de los principios, métodos y fines demuestra que estamos aún en una fase muy inicial de transformación digital. El artículo analiza y compara las principales actuaciones de Estados Unidos, Francia, Suecia y el Servicio Europeo de Acción Exterior.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sung Eun Cho; Young-Nam Kwag; Jong Won Jo; Sang-Kuk Han; Seung Hwan Oh; Chang Sun Kim;
    Publisher: Elsevier

    Abstract Most macrofungi are cosmopolitan, occurring in both tropical and temperate regions. Studies on diversity and distribution of the mushroom flora in Korea are mainly conducted in major national parks and forest, but there are few studies on species distributed in urbanized areas. As part of the Korea National Arboretum project, we investigated the diversity of mushrooms through examining the distribution of mushrooms in Gyeongsang Province from May to September in 2017. In this province, we surveyed urbanized areas comprising three cultural heritage protection zones (Salix chaenomeloides forest, Tongdo Temple, Placenta Chamber of King Sejong's Princes), two urban parks (Duryu and Amnam parks), and 20 legally protected trees (such as Ginko biloba, Pinus densiflora, Quercus acutissima, Salix hallaisanensis, Zelkova serrata and so on). Consequently, 37 species on legally protected trees, 48 species in urban parks, and 84 species in cultural heritage protection zones were confirmed. A total of 37 families, 90 genera, and 139 species were identified. Of those, three species were confirmed for the first time in Korea. This study provides the basic data for the preparation of protection management protocols for macrofungal flora on legally protected trees and in cultural property protection areas.

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