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35 Research products, page 1 of 4

  • 2018-2022
  • Chinese
  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage

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  • Open Access Chinese
    Publisher: 神奈川大学日本常民文化研究所非文字資料研究センター

    Into the 21st century, the Chinese government has actively developed and implemented a series of protective measures against intangible cultural heritage and achieved remarkable results in the world. After nearly 20 years of development, China has developed from the elementary stage of “providing rescue and protection and building regulatory frameworks”, to the present in-depth stage of “consolidating rescue and protection achievements and improving the level of heritage protection”, in work of intangible cultural heritage protection. Meanwhile, Chinaʼs heritage protection has also been crystallized into the “Chinese experience”, which has helped China to accomplish pioneering undertaking. Based on the pilot project “Chinese Intangible Cultural Heritage Inheritors Research and Training Program” in 2015, this paper analyzes the modes of the Academy of Arts & Design, Tsinghua University in implementing this pilot project to extract the “experience of Tsinghua University” with exemplary significance and promotion value, in hope of providing some useful reference for other universities involved in this research and training program to make innovation with their own characteristics. 进入21世纪以来,针对非遗保护,中国政府积极组织和实施了一系列保护措施,取得了世界瞩目的不菲成效。经过近二十年的保护发展,中国的非遗保护工作也由过去的― “抢救保护、建章立制”的基础工作阶段进入了现在的― “巩固抢救保护成果、提高保护传承水平”的纵深发展阶段,同时也凝聚为“中国经验”进而成就了中国创举。论文即试以2015年试点的“中国非物质文化遗产传承人群研修研习培训计划”项目为契入点,通过对该计划的参与高校―清华大学美术学院所实施的一系列探索模式的研究分析,进而提炼出其具有示范意义和推广价值的创新模式― “清华经验”,以期为其他正在开展研培计划的参与高校进行富有本校特色的创新之路提供些许有益的参考。 論文

  • Open Access Chinese
    Authors: 
    CHEN Shuan, WU Huaina, CHEN Renpeng, SHEN Shuilong, LIU Yuan;
    Publisher: Editorial Office of Journal of Shanghai Jiao Tong University

    Overlying excavation will inevitably cause uplift of the existing tunnel due to the stress relief and rebound of soil, and the impact will be more significant when the long-distance is in line. Based on the Timoshenko simplified model of tunnel which considers the shearing dislocation between rings, and combining with the Winkler foundation model, an analytical model for soil-tunnel interaction analysis of overlying excavation was established. Based on the superposition principle, the model proposed was applied to a case study of tunnel deformation induced by overlying long-distance collinear excavation. By comparing the calculated results with the measured data, the accuracy of the proposed model was verified. The analysis results show that after the construction of the upper main structure, the uplift deformation of the tunnel has significantly decreased, but the local differential settlement increases, resulting in a significant increase in the internal force of the tunnel and the deformation of the annular joint. The groundwater leakage generally occurrs not at the location with the maximum uplift of tunnel, but between the location with the maximum opening of joint and the location with the maximum shearing dislocation. As a result, not only the total deformation but also the opening and dislocation deformation of joints caused by differential settlement should be concerned in practice. Although the shear deformation generally accounts for about 21.41% of tunnel deformation, the induced shearing dislocation is significant compared with the opening caused by bending, which can be more important for waterproof in joints. The analytic model should not neglect the shearing deformation of the tunnel.

  • Research data . 2022
    Chinese
    Authors: 
    Liu, Qi; Yimeng Yuan; Yuanhua Zhang; Qin, Xuan; Wang, Hui; Ningning Xv; Yanjiao Yu;
    Publisher: Science Data Bank

    The ancient amber artifacts of the Han Dynasty (202 BCE–220 CE) by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to confirm their origins. 对汉代(公元前202年-公元220年)的古代琥珀制品采用傅里叶变换红外光谱法分析以确认其来源。

  • Open Access Chinese
    Authors: 
    Chenchao Zhou; Qun Chen; Zhanhuai Li; Bo Zhao; Yongjun Xu; Yang Qin;
    Publisher: The Northwestern Polytechnical University

    Online reviews play an increasingly important role in users' purchase decisions. E-commerce websites provide massive user reviews, but it is hard for individuals to make full use of the information. Therefore, it is an urgent task to classify, analyze and summarize the massive comments. In this paper, a model based on attention mechanism and bi-directional long short-term memory (BLSTM) is used to identify the categories of these review objects for the classification of the reviews. The model first uses BLSTM to train the review in the form of word vectors; then according to the part-of-speech, the output vectors of the BLSTM are given corresponding weights. The weights as prior knowledge can guide the learning of attention mechanism to enhance the classification accuracy; finally, the attention mechanism is used to capture category-related important features which are used for category determination. Experiments on the SemEval data set show that our model outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on aspect category detection.

  • Open Access Chinese
    Authors: 
    JING Quan; LIU Jihai;
    Publisher: Editorial Office of Medical Journal of Peking Union Medical College Hospital

    By reviewing and studying relevant historical materials, this study presents the advanced and fruitful clinical teaching in Peking Union Medical College Hospital(PUMCH) nearly a hundred years ago. It proved that the clinical teaching of PUMCH had reached the internationally advanced level in 1925. The bed-side teaching, case discussion, multidisciplinary joint ward round, interdisciplinary teaching, and resident training system still have practical significance presently. As it turns out, many of the teachers who were passionate about teaching and students who were actively involved in teaching went on to become medical masters. The spirit of taking teaching as an honor, responsibility and mission has been passed on and deeply rooted in the spirit of PUMCH and has remained unchanged for a century.

  • Chinese
    Authors: 
    Zhaoqiang Ju;
    Publisher: Science Data Bank

    Irrigation with saline water is increasingly popular for reclaiming saline-alkali soil and for increasing crop productivity in some countries and regions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the alteration of salt ions distribution within different soil aggregate fractions after irrigation with freezing saline water. The experimental site is located on the coastal plain in Haixing County, Hebei Province, China. In a field experiment after irrigation with freezing saline water for 6 years, soil samples (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm depths) were collected from three treatments: freezing saline water irrigation with plastic film mulching (IM); freezing saline irrigation without plastic film mulching (IO); and no saline irrigation and no mulching (CK). The bulk soils were separated into five size classes (i.e., 5-8, 2-5, 1-2, 0.25-1 and <0.25 mm) by the dry-sieving method. Then, the salinity and ion (i.e., Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, HCO3-, SO42- and Cl-) concentrations within each aggregate size class were determined following the methods of Lao (1988). The total salt content was calculated as the sum of the cations and anions. 咸水灌溉可以作为一种改良盐碱地和提高作物生产力的技术越来越受重视。本研究旨在研究多年冰冻咸水灌溉后不同土壤团聚体组分中盐离子分布的变化。咸水结冰灌溉试验位于河北省沧州市中科院海兴盐碱地资源高效利用研究基地,研究开始于2008年,试验设对照CK(无灌溉无覆膜CK)、灌溉无覆膜(IO)、灌溉和覆膜(IM)三个处理,三次重复;小区面积40m2。冰冻咸水灌水量为180mm,灌水时气温-10.3℃;覆盖地膜于3月土壤表面冰层融化且入渗完成后。土样采集工作于2014年4月,每个小区分层取原状土壤,层次:0-10cm,10-20cm,20-30cm;在实验室分别测定土壤团聚体和含盐量。每个小区两个重复。土壤干团聚体的测定:采用干筛分法。土壤分级为5.0, 2.0, 1.0和 0.25 mm系列样品筛,每一粒级的土壤收集称重计算百分数。土壤含盐量的测定:采用土/水比1:5进行浸提,浸提液用化学滴定法测定,其中HCO3-含量用双指示剂滴定,Cl-含量用AgNO3滴定,SO42+含量用EDTA间接络合滴定,Ca2+和Mg2+含量用EDTA滴定,K+和Na+含量用阴阳离子平衡法求得,再以各阴阳离子的浓度之和求得总含盐量。

  • Publication . Book . 2020
    Open Access Chinese
    Authors: 
    曹必宏, Cao Bihong;
    Publisher: Presses de l’Inalco

    西藏和其他藏族聚居地在长期历史发展过程中,形成了大量有关西藏和藏族各类事务的档案,其形成时间主要是清代和民国时期,尤以民国时期档案最多,并集中典藏在中国第一、第二历史档案馆,以及西藏和其他藏族集中聚居的四川、青海、甘肃、云南等省各档案馆、图书馆中。中国第一历史档案馆所藏清代西藏及藏事档案有3万余件,主要是清朝中央政府对西藏及藏族聚居地区的施政文书,其中有皇帝册封达赖和班禅等人的诏书、敕谕,治理西藏各种谕令;历世达赖喇嘛、班禅额尔德尼、章嘉呼图克图、哲布尊丹巴等大活佛等上呈皇帝的奏疏、表文;清驻藏办事大臣、西宁办事大臣、库伦办事大臣及各地督抚、将军等大员和军机处、内阁、理藩院等部院衙门,为处理西藏及藏事上呈皇帝的题奏本章;有关衙门记录西藏重大事务的档册,以及西藏及藏族聚居地区经济、社会、文化等方面的情况。这些档案主要用汉文和满文书写,也有少量是用藏文和蒙古文书写,档案形成时间起于天命七年(1622年),迄于宣统三年(1911年)。中国第二历史档案馆所藏西藏和藏事档案在3万件以上,档案形成时间为清光绪十四年(1888)十二月至1949年,主要为民国中央政府及所属部院等机关与西藏噶厦地方政府、达赖喇嘛、班禅额尔德尼以及四川、西康、青海、甘肃等藏区省份来往文少书,记载和反映了晚清和民国时期中央政府治理西藏的方针政策和具体措施,以及中央政府关于西藏的重大事件、重要问题的处理情况。同时,也记载和反映了这一时期与西藏毗邻的四川、青海、甘肃、云南等省藏区的政治、经济、宗教、文化、教育和社会发展历史。西藏地区所藏近代西藏和藏事档案,主要集中在西藏自治区档案馆及拉萨市、日喀则、林芝、山南、阿里、那曲、昌都地区和各县档案馆,各大寺庙也保存有不少近代历史档案,其中尤以西藏自治区档案馆所藏数量最多也最为重要。该馆所藏以藏文为主的西藏和平解放前的旧政权档案,共有300多万卷(册),以藏文为主,还有八思巴文、汉文、满文、蒙文、阿拉伯文、印地文、尼泊尔文、英文、俄文等10余种文字。其内容主要有:西藏行政区划,国民政府对西藏行使主权,宗教事务,西藏重大历史事件及抵抗侵略,西藏地区的农奴制度、司法制度、社会状况、农牧和手工业等经济状况、矿产资源,以及西藏与内地民族间往来等。四川藏区档案史料主要保存在四川省档案馆、甘孜藏族自治州档案馆、阿坝藏族羌族自治州档案馆以及康定、德格、巴塘、马尔康、木里、理塘、乡城、炉霍、稻城等县档案馆中,以民国时期档案为主。其中四川省档案馆所藏涉及藏事的西康档案有1万余卷,形成时间从明洪武二十一年(1388年)起,至民国三十八年(1949年)止。云南藏区近代档案主要保存在迪庆州各县档案馆、图书文化馆、公安局及州档案馆以及噶丹松赞林寺、东竹林寺等寺院中。该批档案涉及年代从清朝乾隆三年(1738年)十月起至1949年止,约11300余件,且绝大多数档案为民国时期,记录了清代和民国时期中央政府及云南地方政府对藏族的政策,从政治、军事、经济、文化等不同方面反映了中央政府对云南藏区的有效管理与统治,以及藏族同胞在这一历史时期的生活情形及与各民族关系等方面的历史状况。甘肃省所藏近代藏事档案,甘肃省各地、市、县等各级档案馆、图书馆、文化馆及拉卜楞寺等众多藏传佛教寺院均有收藏,其中尤以甘肃省档案馆、图书馆,甘南藏族自治州档案馆、夏河县档案馆、天祝藏族自治县档案馆、临夏回族自治州档案馆所藏最多,总数在8000件左右,其主要内容包括清末和民国时期国家政务、国民党党务、民政、行政、户政、疆域、地政、礼俗、民族、部落、土司、宗教、寺院、警政、保安、禁烟、社会、建设、营建、人事、监察、司法、军事、外交、经济、文化、教育、卫生、体育及人物诸方面,反映和记载了甘肃藏族人民生活地区政治、军事、经济、司法治安、民政、宗教、文化教育卫生等各方面社会发展的历史概貌。青海省所存清代和民国时期西藏及藏事档案,主要保存在青海省档案馆,形成于雍正二年(1724年)至民国三十八年(1949年),以民国时期档案为主。这些档案史料,反映和记载了清代和民国时期青海省藏族地区政治、经济、军事、司法、文化、宗教、民族关系及青海与西藏关系、青海与四川阿坝地区关系、青海与甘肃拉卜楞地区关系等诸方面的基本情况;也记录了清代和民国时期青海地方政府对藏族的政策,从各个不同侧面反映了清朝政府和民国政府对青海藏区二百余年的统治以及藏族同胞在这一历史时期的生活、生活、发展演变及民族关系各方面的历史状况。为更好的开发利用中国境内各保藏机构所存西藏和藏事档案资料,为学术研究服务,各档案馆在中国藏学研究中心的支持下,积极编纂出版馆藏相关档案文献目录和专题档案汇编,为研究西藏和藏区历史,提供了大量第一手重要史料。主要有《西藏和藏事档案史料目录丛书》(8册),收录档案条目95000余条,计约820万字;《元以来西藏地方与中央政府关系档案史料汇编》(7册)《清末十三世达赖喇嘛档案史料选编》《九世班禅圆寂致祭和十世班禅坐床档案选编》《十三世达赖圆寂致祭和十四世达赖转世坐床档案汇编》《九世班禅内地活动及返藏受阻档案选编》《西藏亚东关档案选编》《民国时期西藏及藏区经济开发建设档案选编》《中国第二历史档案馆所存西藏和藏事档案汇编》等专题档案汇编。这一系列档案史料的编辑出版,对推动国内外藏学研究工作向纵深发展发挥了重要作用。 During the long process of Tibet and other Tibetan settlements’ historical development, a large number of archives related to Tibet and Tibetan affairs have been built, mainly in the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China, but especially the latter. These files have been carefully preserved in several Chinese national historical archives, as well as in other provincial archives and libraries in Tibet Autonomous Region, Sichuan, Qinghai, Gansu and Yunnan.The First Historical Archives of China houses more than 30,000 archives on Tibet and Tibetan affairs during the Qing Dynasty. Many of them are administrative documents issued by the central government to Tibet and the areas inhabited by Tibetans, including imperial edicts and other governing orders issued by the emperors to Dalai Lamas, Panchen Lamas and senior officers. There are also many reports and memorials to the emperors on their dealings with Tibet and Tibetan affairs, which were submitted by all the previous Great Living Buddhas, Amban of Tibet, Xining, Kulun, as well as the Grand Council, Cabinet, Li Fan Yuan and governors from all over the country. Archives were formed by the relevant bureaus’ and provide records of major Tibetan affairs as well as the economic, social and cultural context in Tibet and areas inhabited by Tibetans. During 1622 to 1911, these archives were mainly written in Chinese and Manchu, while a few of them were written in Tibetan and Mongolian.In the Second Historical Archives of China, more than 30,000 Tibet and Tibetan affairs archives were created from 1888 (the 14th year of Qing Emperor Guangxu) to 1949. They mainly represent files exchanged between the central government (including its subordinate departments) and Kashag, Dalai Lama, Panchen Erdene, and other Tibetan settlements such as Sichuan, Xikang, Qinghai and Gansu provinces. They record and reflect the central government's policies and specific measures of governing Tibet during that period. Furthermore, they also document the political, economic, religious, cultural, educational and social development of Tibetan areas adjacent to Tibet in Sichuan, Qinghai, Gansu and Yunnan provinces.The archives of modern Tibet and Tibetan affairs collected in Tibet are mainly concentrated in the archives of Tibet Autonomous Region, Lhasa, Xigaze, Linzhi, Shannan, Ali, Naqu, Changdu and other counties. Many are also kept in major temples. Among them, the Tibet Autonomous archives conserves the largest and most important archives. It contains more than 3 million volumes of documents that belonged to the old regime, and are mainly in Tibetan. They include: Tibet's administrative divisions, the exercise of sovereignty over Tibet by the National Government, religious affairs, major historic events in Tibet, and Tibetan feudal serfdom, the judicial system, social conditions, economic conditions related to agriculture, animal husbandry and handicrafts, mineral resources, as well as Tibet's exchanges with non-Tibetan Chinese regions.The historical documents in Sichuan Tibetan areas in the Republic of China are mainly kept in the provincial archives of Sichuan and Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture’s archives, Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Kangding, Dege, Batang, Marcand, Muli, Litang, Xiangcheng Luhuo, Daocheng, etc. Among them, are the Xikang Tibet archives. They are preserved in the Sichuan Provincial Archives and include more than 10,000 documents. They were created between 1388 (the 21st year of Ming Hongwu) and 1949. The historical archives in the Yunnan Tibetan areas are mainly kept in the county archives, libraries and cultural centres, public security bureaus and Diqing prefectural archives, as well as the temples of Gardan Songzanlin and East Chikurinji. About 11,300 files, mostly compiled in the Republic of China, record the policies of the central government and the Yunnan local government towards Tibetans and reflect their effective management and rule in Yunnan. They cover political, military, economic, cultural aspects, as well as the living conditions of Tibetan compatriots and their relationship to various ethnic groups during this historical period.The archives of modern Tibetan affairs in Gansu Province are collected in various archives, libraries, cultural centres and many Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in Gansu Province. Most of them are stored in Gansu Provincial Archives, Gansu Provincial Library, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture Archives, Xiahe County Archives, Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County Archives and Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefectural Archives. Approximately 8,000 documents make up these archives. Their content primarily includes documents related to state administration, Kuomintang party affairs, civil affairs, administration, household administration, territory, land administration, customs, ethnic minorities, tribes, chieftains, religion, temples, police administration, security, opium banning, society, construction, personnel systems, supervision, the judiciary, military affairs, the economy, culture, education, sanitation, sports activities and famous people, outlining all the aspects of social development.The archives of Tibet and Tibetan affairs in Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China in Qinghai Province are mainly kept in Qinghai Provincial Archives, which were built from 1724 (the 2nd year of Qing Yongzheng ) to 1949. These historical materials reflect and record the basic situation of Tibetan areas in Qinghai Province during the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China in terms of politics, economics, military affairs, the judiciary, culture, religion, ethnic, relations, Qinghai-Tibet relations, Qinghai-Aba area relations, Qinghai‑Labrang area relations, etc. They also record more than 200 years of policies in Qinghai Tibetan areas during the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China, as well as the history of economic life, development, evolution of Tibetan compatriots and various ethnic relations. In order to better the development and utilisation of Tibet and Tibetan affairs for the purpose of academic research, the archives are stored in various domestic preservation institutions. They have been actively compiled and catalogues of relevant archives as well as a compilation of special archives have been published with the coordination and support of the China Tibetology Research Center. The publications mainly include The Historical Materials Catalogue Series of Tibet and Tibetan Affairs Archives (8 volumes); Compilation of Historical Records on the Relationship between Local and Central Tibetan Government since the Yuan Dynasty (7 volumes); Selected Records of the 13th Dalai Lama in the Late Qing Dynasty; Selected Records of the 9th Panchen Lama's Parinirvana Rites and the 10th Panchen Lama's Enthronement; Compilation of the 13th Dalai Lama's Parinirvana Rites & the 14th Dalai Lama's Reincarnation and Enthronement; Selected Records of the 9th Panchen Lama's Activities in Interior Areas and Blocked Return to Tibet; Selected Records of Yatung Customs in Tibet, Selected Records of Tibet and Tibetan Economic Development and Construction in the Period of the Republic of China and Compilation of Tibet and Tibetan Affairs Preserved in the Second Historical Archives of China, etc. This series of archival compilations and publications has played an important role in promoting international Tibetology research. Au cours du long processus du développement historique du Tibet et d’autres régions où se rassemblèrent les Tibétains (c’est‑à‑dire, une partie des préfectures, villes et districts des provinces Sichuan, Qinghai et Gansu), un nombre considérable d’archives relatives au Tibet et aux affaires tibétaines ont été constituées, principalement sous la dynastie des Qing et la République de Chine. Ces corpus sont conservés avec grand soin dans plusieurs dépôts d’archives historiques nationaux de Chine, des dépôts d’archives provinciaux et des bibliothèques de la Région autonome du Tibet, du Sichuan, du Qinghai, du Gansu et du Yunnan. Cette notice présente de manière systématique la quantité et le contenu principal des documents relatifs au Tibet et aux affaires tibétaines de la période qui va de 1840 à 1949, en particulier la période de la République de Chine, et qui sont conservés dans le Premier dépôt des archives historiques de Chine, le Deuxième dépôt des archives historiques de Chine, les Archives de la Région autonome du Tibet, les dépôts d’archives de la province du Sichuan, d’une partie de ses préfectures, villes et districts ; les dépôts d’archives et les bibliothèques dépendants de la province du Gansu ; le dépôt d’archives provincial du Qinghai ; et les dépôts d’archives de la préfecture autonome des Tibétains Diqing du Yunnan, ainsi que de ses districts. En outre, la présente notice donne aussi des détails sur les catalogues archivistiques et les collections spéciales compilées et éditées par les dépôts et les bibliothèques ci-dessus nommés. J’espère que cette notice fournira des références servant à renforcer les études historiographiques sur le Tibet, ainsi que d’autres régions où se rassemblèrent les Tibétains, et sur les relations entre le gouvernement central et le gouvernement local tibétain dans la Chine moderne.

  • Open Access Chinese
    Authors: 
    Hur-Li Lee; Shengang Wang;
    Publisher: National Taiwan University

    "The study reports on an analysis of a chosen corpus in the emergent domain of digital humanities (DH). In contrast to other studies of the DH literature that focus on publications in the west, this study examines 129 papers published in the proceedings of the International Conferences of Digital Archives and Digital Humanities that were held in Taiwan between 2009 and 2016. In all, 236 individual authors from 15 countries contributed at least one paper; 50 domains were represented. Three East Asian countries (Taiwan, China, and Japan) show a dominating presence, and top three domains (computer science, history, and Chinese) have the highest numbers of participants and highest numbers of first authors. Unlike their counterparts in the humanities, the papers in the study have a much higher percentage of collaborative works. More than half of the papers that are collaborative works are interdisciplinary, but only one-fifth involve international collaboration. Proportionally, computer scientists’ participation rate decreases and humanists’ rate increases, however modestly, from 2012 onward. The study also investigates digital technology’s impact on DH in various stages of the information lifecycle. More than two-thirds of the papers discuss technology’s impact in the area of consuming data from digital collections for various purposes, with the impact on building retrieval systems/online platforms coming in second at 26.6%. Among different years, the first year is exceptional in showing high interest in the impact on building digital collections, building knowledge organization systems, and building retrieval systems but low interest in the impact on data consumption. Humanists in general are more attentive to the impact on consumption than technologists, while the latter lean toward the impact on building retrieval systems. Without any claim to comprehensiveness or representativeness, the study provides a snapshot of the DH literary output."

  • Restricted Chinese
    Authors: 
    Ji, Yichao; Liu, Xinyang; Ma, Kui; Zhao, Xuezhi; Sun, Qiao;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    Description Magi Open Information Extraction Dataset (MOIED) is a Chinese Open IE dataset containing 7,618,181 records extracted from plain text across 3,319,763 webpages in various domains. Each record in the dataset consists of the (subject, predicate, object) tuple, the associated confidence score, and the context information. The dataset comprises 1,427,742 distinct facts of 272,522 entities and 117,731 predicates. A notable property of MOIED is that each distinct fact has multiple records with URLs referring to mentions in diverse contexts, which enables multiple-instance learning (MIL) and other correlative approaches. As a paragraph level Open IE dataset, at least 45.1% of the records in MOIED can only be extracted through synthesizing information from multiple sentences. Magi is an extraction engine that continuously learns from the Internet, which combines cross-referencing, timeline analysis, and other heuristics to mitigate the inevitable false positives in the extractions. All records in MOIED were randomly sampled from a database dump of magi.com in January 2020. To provide more reliable evaluation results, human annotators examined the dataset and selected 19,161 verified records for the dev and test sets. Disclaimers The dataset is expected to be used in weakly supervised scenarios since the records in the training set are not human-annotated and could be imprecise or erroneous. Records are not guaranteed to be universally correct. The correctness of extractions should be evaluated based on contexts (specified by the URLs). The extraction was made at a certain time Magi visits the URL, thus it is not guaranteed that the URL is still accessible, or the content is unmodified since the extraction was conducted. Due to legal and regulatory issues, the webpage URLs are mostly ones accessible from Mainland China, yet, the content of certain webpages, as well as the extraction results, could be in violation of law and regulation of certain countries or regions in certain ways. This dataset contains content from the Internet, for copyright reasons, please do not redistribute or use it for non-research purposes.

  • Open Access Chinese
    Authors: 
    Tao Wei; Cai Haohui;
    Publisher: Editorial Committee of Tropical Geography

    It is an era of "heritage" that we live in. After nearly two decades of practice and exploration, the social and academic circles have accumulated rich experience in the protection of intangible cultural heritage, especially the scholars of ethnology and art, who have made outstanding contributions to the development of intangible cultural heritage (ICH) protection system with local characteristics. However, comprehensive and critical geographical studies have paid less attention to this topic with less contribution. Firstly, this paper reviews the practice of intangible cultural heritage protection since 2003, starting from the birth of the concept of "intangible cultural heritage" and the revival of Chinese traditional folklore culture. The research progress of China's intangible cultural heritage is analyzed through the database of CNKI. And it is found that the intangible cultural heritage research has experienced two periods-rapid prosperity and steady growth, but relatively few papers have been published in high-quality and geographical journals. Due to the large number of related papers, it is impossible or unnecessary to exhaust all research topics. Therefore, based on the research and practical experience, three key topics in the academic research of intangible cultural heritage are summarized: "characteristics and the construction of meaning", "transmission and the reflection on systems", and "development and community initiative". And Section 3.1 focuses on the basic characteristics of intangible cultural heritage, the importance of intangible cultural heritage as social construction, and the significance of "making" intangible cultural heritage. The current basic laws and regulations for the protection and transmission of China's intangible cultural heritage-representative projects and representative transmitters of intangible cultural heritage are re-examined. It is called for respect for the views and opinions of community group when turning to the "community" in intangible cultural heritage. And it is believed that Chinese scholars have formed a new method and new theoretical system of intangible cultural heritage research with local Chinese characteristics, by actively learning from the academic achievements of western critical heritage research. Secondly, intangible cultural heritage has been incorporated into the national political system as an important cultural resource to promote the implementation of major national strategies. Rethinking the significance and role of intangible cultural heritage under the three geographical national strategies of rural revitalization, urban development and cultural nation, it is found that as a unique cultural resource, intangible cultural heritage plays an important role in promoting the implementation of major national strategies and urban and rural development. And it is believed that the social significance and academic value of intangible cultural heritage should be further explored continuously. Finally, five possible topics for geographers to study intangible cultural heritage are proposed in this paper-transmitters' daily life, social justice, mobility, natural and cultural interaction and international communication, so as to encourage and inspire the geographical research of intangible cultural heritage in the future.

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  • Open Access Chinese
    Publisher: 神奈川大学日本常民文化研究所非文字資料研究センター

    Into the 21st century, the Chinese government has actively developed and implemented a series of protective measures against intangible cultural heritage and achieved remarkable results in the world. After nearly 20 years of development, China has developed from the elementary stage of “providing rescue and protection and building regulatory frameworks”, to the present in-depth stage of “consolidating rescue and protection achievements and improving the level of heritage protection”, in work of intangible cultural heritage protection. Meanwhile, Chinaʼs heritage protection has also been crystallized into the “Chinese experience”, which has helped China to accomplish pioneering undertaking. Based on the pilot project “Chinese Intangible Cultural Heritage Inheritors Research and Training Program” in 2015, this paper analyzes the modes of the Academy of Arts & Design, Tsinghua University in implementing this pilot project to extract the “experience of Tsinghua University” with exemplary significance and promotion value, in hope of providing some useful reference for other universities involved in this research and training program to make innovation with their own characteristics. 进入21世纪以来,针对非遗保护,中国政府积极组织和实施了一系列保护措施,取得了世界瞩目的不菲成效。经过近二十年的保护发展,中国的非遗保护工作也由过去的― “抢救保护、建章立制”的基础工作阶段进入了现在的― “巩固抢救保护成果、提高保护传承水平”的纵深发展阶段,同时也凝聚为“中国经验”进而成就了中国创举。论文即试以2015年试点的“中国非物质文化遗产传承人群研修研习培训计划”项目为契入点,通过对该计划的参与高校―清华大学美术学院所实施的一系列探索模式的研究分析,进而提炼出其具有示范意义和推广价值的创新模式― “清华经验”,以期为其他正在开展研培计划的参与高校进行富有本校特色的创新之路提供些许有益的参考。 論文

  • Open Access Chinese
    Authors: 
    CHEN Shuan, WU Huaina, CHEN Renpeng, SHEN Shuilong, LIU Yuan;
    Publisher: Editorial Office of Journal of Shanghai Jiao Tong University

    Overlying excavation will inevitably cause uplift of the existing tunnel due to the stress relief and rebound of soil, and the impact will be more significant when the long-distance is in line. Based on the Timoshenko simplified model of tunnel which considers the shearing dislocation between rings, and combining with the Winkler foundation model, an analytical model for soil-tunnel interaction analysis of overlying excavation was established. Based on the superposition principle, the model proposed was applied to a case study of tunnel deformation induced by overlying long-distance collinear excavation. By comparing the calculated results with the measured data, the accuracy of the proposed model was verified. The analysis results show that after the construction of the upper main structure, the uplift deformation of the tunnel has significantly decreased, but the local differential settlement increases, resulting in a significant increase in the internal force of the tunnel and the deformation of the annular joint. The groundwater leakage generally occurrs not at the location with the maximum uplift of tunnel, but between the location with the maximum opening of joint and the location with the maximum shearing dislocation. As a result, not only the total deformation but also the opening and dislocation deformation of joints caused by differential settlement should be concerned in practice. Although the shear deformation generally accounts for about 21.41% of tunnel deformation, the induced shearing dislocation is significant compared with the opening caused by bending, which can be more important for waterproof in joints. The analytic model should not neglect the shearing deformation of the tunnel.

  • Research data . 2022
    Chinese
    Authors: 
    Liu, Qi; Yimeng Yuan; Yuanhua Zhang; Qin, Xuan; Wang, Hui; Ningning Xv; Yanjiao Yu;
    Publisher: Science Data Bank

    The ancient amber artifacts of the Han Dynasty (202 BCE–220 CE) by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to confirm their origins. 对汉代(公元前202年-公元220年)的古代琥珀制品采用傅里叶变换红外光谱法分析以确认其来源。

  • Open Access Chinese
    Authors: 
    Chenchao Zhou; Qun Chen; Zhanhuai Li; Bo Zhao; Yongjun Xu; Yang Qin;
    Publisher: The Northwestern Polytechnical University

    Online reviews play an increasingly important role in users' purchase decisions. E-commerce websites provide massive user reviews, but it is hard for individuals to make full use of the information. Therefore, it is an urgent task to classify, analyze and summarize the massive comments. In this paper, a model based on attention mechanism and bi-directional long short-term memory (BLSTM) is used to identify the categories of these review objects for the classification of the reviews. The model first uses BLSTM to train the review in the form of word vectors; then according to the part-of-speech, the output vectors of the BLSTM are given corresponding weights. The weights as prior knowledge can guide the learning of attention mechanism to enhance the classification accuracy; finally, the attention mechanism is used to capture category-related important features which are used for category determination. Experiments on the SemEval data set show that our model outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on aspect category detection.

  • Open Access Chinese
    Authors: 
    JING Quan; LIU Jihai;
    Publisher: Editorial Office of Medical Journal of Peking Union Medical College Hospital

    By reviewing and studying relevant historical materials, this study presents the advanced and fruitful clinical teaching in Peking Union Medical College Hospital(PUMCH) nearly a hundred years ago. It proved that the clinical teaching of PUMCH had reached the internationally advanced level in 1925. The bed-side teaching, case discussion, multidisciplinary joint ward round, interdisciplinary teaching, and resident training system still have practical significance presently. As it turns out, many of the teachers who were passionate about teaching and students who were actively involved in teaching went on to become medical masters. The spirit of taking teaching as an honor, responsibility and mission has been passed on and deeply rooted in the spirit of PUMCH and has remained unchanged for a century.

  • Chinese
    Authors: 
    Zhaoqiang Ju;
    Publisher: Science Data Bank

    Irrigation with saline water is increasingly popular for reclaiming saline-alkali soil and for increasing crop productivity in some countries and regions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the alteration of salt ions distribution within different soil aggregate fractions after irrigation with freezing saline water. The experimental site is located on the coastal plain in Haixing County, Hebei Province, China. In a field experiment after irrigation with freezing saline water for 6 years, soil samples (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm depths) were collected from three treatments: freezing saline water irrigation with plastic film mulching (IM); freezing saline irrigation without plastic film mulching (IO); and no saline irrigation and no mulching (CK). The bulk soils were separated into five size classes (i.e., 5-8, 2-5, 1-2, 0.25-1 and <0.25 mm) by the dry-sieving method. Then, the salinity and ion (i.e., Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, HCO3-, SO42- and Cl-) concentrations within each aggregate size class were determined following the methods of Lao (1988). The total salt content was calculated as the sum of the cations and anions. 咸水灌溉可以作为一种改良盐碱地和提高作物生产力的技术越来越受重视。本研究旨在研究多年冰冻咸水灌溉后不同土壤团聚体组分中盐离子分布的变化。咸水结冰灌溉试验位于河北省沧州市中科院海兴盐碱地资源高效利用研究基地,研究开始于2008年,试验设对照CK(无灌溉无覆膜CK)、灌溉无覆膜(IO)、灌溉和覆膜(IM)三个处理,三次重复;小区面积40m2。冰冻咸水灌水量为180mm,灌水时气温-10.3℃;覆盖地膜于3月土壤表面冰层融化且入渗完成后。土样采集工作于2014年4月,每个小区分层取原状土壤,层次:0-10cm,10-20cm,20-30cm;在实验室分别测定土壤团聚体和含盐量。每个小区两个重复。土壤干团聚体的测定:采用干筛分法。土壤分级为5.0, 2.0, 1.0和 0.25 mm系列样品筛,每一粒级的土壤收集称重计算百分数。土壤含盐量的测定:采用土/水比1:5进行浸提,浸提液用化学滴定法测定,其中HCO3-含量用双指示剂滴定,Cl-含量用AgNO3滴定,SO42+含量用EDTA间接络合滴定,Ca2+和Mg2+含量用EDTA滴定,K+和Na+含量用阴阳离子平衡法求得,再以各阴阳离子的浓度之和求得总含盐量。

  • Publication . Book . 2020
    Open Access Chinese
    Authors: 
    曹必宏, Cao Bihong;
    Publisher: Presses de l’Inalco

    西藏和其他藏族聚居地在长期历史发展过程中,形成了大量有关西藏和藏族各类事务的档案,其形成时间主要是清代和民国时期,尤以民国时期档案最多,并集中典藏在中国第一、第二历史档案馆,以及西藏和其他藏族集中聚居的四川、青海、甘肃、云南等省各档案馆、图书馆中。中国第一历史档案馆所藏清代西藏及藏事档案有3万余件,主要是清朝中央政府对西藏及藏族聚居地区的施政文书,其中有皇帝册封达赖和班禅等人的诏书、敕谕,治理西藏各种谕令;历世达赖喇嘛、班禅额尔德尼、章嘉呼图克图、哲布尊丹巴等大活佛等上呈皇帝的奏疏、表文;清驻藏办事大臣、西宁办事大臣、库伦办事大臣及各地督抚、将军等大员和军机处、内阁、理藩院等部院衙门,为处理西藏及藏事上呈皇帝的题奏本章;有关衙门记录西藏重大事务的档册,以及西藏及藏族聚居地区经济、社会、文化等方面的情况。这些档案主要用汉文和满文书写,也有少量是用藏文和蒙古文书写,档案形成时间起于天命七年(1622年),迄于宣统三年(1911年)。中国第二历史档案馆所藏西藏和藏事档案在3万件以上,档案形成时间为清光绪十四年(1888)十二月至1949年,主要为民国中央政府及所属部院等机关与西藏噶厦地方政府、达赖喇嘛、班禅额尔德尼以及四川、西康、青海、甘肃等藏区省份来往文少书,记载和反映了晚清和民国时期中央政府治理西藏的方针政策和具体措施,以及中央政府关于西藏的重大事件、重要问题的处理情况。同时,也记载和反映了这一时期与西藏毗邻的四川、青海、甘肃、云南等省藏区的政治、经济、宗教、文化、教育和社会发展历史。西藏地区所藏近代西藏和藏事档案,主要集中在西藏自治区档案馆及拉萨市、日喀则、林芝、山南、阿里、那曲、昌都地区和各县档案馆,各大寺庙也保存有不少近代历史档案,其中尤以西藏自治区档案馆所藏数量最多也最为重要。该馆所藏以藏文为主的西藏和平解放前的旧政权档案,共有300多万卷(册),以藏文为主,还有八思巴文、汉文、满文、蒙文、阿拉伯文、印地文、尼泊尔文、英文、俄文等10余种文字。其内容主要有:西藏行政区划,国民政府对西藏行使主权,宗教事务,西藏重大历史事件及抵抗侵略,西藏地区的农奴制度、司法制度、社会状况、农牧和手工业等经济状况、矿产资源,以及西藏与内地民族间往来等。四川藏区档案史料主要保存在四川省档案馆、甘孜藏族自治州档案馆、阿坝藏族羌族自治州档案馆以及康定、德格、巴塘、马尔康、木里、理塘、乡城、炉霍、稻城等县档案馆中,以民国时期档案为主。其中四川省档案馆所藏涉及藏事的西康档案有1万余卷,形成时间从明洪武二十一年(1388年)起,至民国三十八年(1949年)止。云南藏区近代档案主要保存在迪庆州各县档案馆、图书文化馆、公安局及州档案馆以及噶丹松赞林寺、东竹林寺等寺院中。该批档案涉及年代从清朝乾隆三年(1738年)十月起至1949年止,约11300余件,且绝大多数档案为民国时期,记录了清代和民国时期中央政府及云南地方政府对藏族的政策,从政治、军事、经济、文化等不同方面反映了中央政府对云南藏区的有效管理与统治,以及藏族同胞在这一历史时期的生活情形及与各民族关系等方面的历史状况。甘肃省所藏近代藏事档案,甘肃省各地、市、县等各级档案馆、图书馆、文化馆及拉卜楞寺等众多藏传佛教寺院均有收藏,其中尤以甘肃省档案馆、图书馆,甘南藏族自治州档案馆、夏河县档案馆、天祝藏族自治县档案馆、临夏回族自治州档案馆所藏最多,总数在8000件左右,其主要内容包括清末和民国时期国家政务、国民党党务、民政、行政、户政、疆域、地政、礼俗、民族、部落、土司、宗教、寺院、警政、保安、禁烟、社会、建设、营建、人事、监察、司法、军事、外交、经济、文化、教育、卫生、体育及人物诸方面,反映和记载了甘肃藏族人民生活地区政治、军事、经济、司法治安、民政、宗教、文化教育卫生等各方面社会发展的历史概貌。青海省所存清代和民国时期西藏及藏事档案,主要保存在青海省档案馆,形成于雍正二年(1724年)至民国三十八年(1949年),以民国时期档案为主。这些档案史料,反映和记载了清代和民国时期青海省藏族地区政治、经济、军事、司法、文化、宗教、民族关系及青海与西藏关系、青海与四川阿坝地区关系、青海与甘肃拉卜楞地区关系等诸方面的基本情况;也记录了清代和民国时期青海地方政府对藏族的政策,从各个不同侧面反映了清朝政府和民国政府对青海藏区二百余年的统治以及藏族同胞在这一历史时期的生活、生活、发展演变及民族关系各方面的历史状况。为更好的开发利用中国境内各保藏机构所存西藏和藏事档案资料,为学术研究服务,各档案馆在中国藏学研究中心的支持下,积极编纂出版馆藏相关档案文献目录和专题档案汇编,为研究西藏和藏区历史,提供了大量第一手重要史料。主要有《西藏和藏事档案史料目录丛书》(8册),收录档案条目95000余条,计约820万字;《元以来西藏地方与中央政府关系档案史料汇编》(7册)《清末十三世达赖喇嘛档案史料选编》《九世班禅圆寂致祭和十世班禅坐床档案选编》《十三世达赖圆寂致祭和十四世达赖转世坐床档案汇编》《九世班禅内地活动及返藏受阻档案选编》《西藏亚东关档案选编》《民国时期西藏及藏区经济开发建设档案选编》《中国第二历史档案馆所存西藏和藏事档案汇编》等专题档案汇编。这一系列档案史料的编辑出版,对推动国内外藏学研究工作向纵深发展发挥了重要作用。 During the long process of Tibet and other Tibetan settlements’ historical development, a large number of archives related to Tibet and Tibetan affairs have been built, mainly in the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China, but especially the latter. These files have been carefully preserved in several Chinese national historical archives, as well as in other provincial archives and libraries in Tibet Autonomous Region, Sichuan, Qinghai, Gansu and Yunnan.The First Historical Archives of China houses more than 30,000 archives on Tibet and Tibetan affairs during the Qing Dynasty. Many of them are administrative documents issued by the central government to Tibet and the areas inhabited by Tibetans, including imperial edicts and other governing orders issued by the emperors to Dalai Lamas, Panchen Lamas and senior officers. There are also many reports and memorials to the emperors on their dealings with Tibet and Tibetan affairs, which were submitted by all the previous Great Living Buddhas, Amban of Tibet, Xining, Kulun, as well as the Grand Council, Cabinet, Li Fan Yuan and governors from all over the country. Archives were formed by the relevant bureaus’ and provide records of major Tibetan affairs as well as the economic, social and cultural context in Tibet and areas inhabited by Tibetans. During 1622 to 1911, these archives were mainly written in Chinese and Manchu, while a few of them were written in Tibetan and Mongolian.In the Second Historical Archives of China, more than 30,000 Tibet and Tibetan affairs archives were created from 1888 (the 14th year of Qing Emperor Guangxu) to 1949. They mainly represent files exchanged between the central government (including its subordinate departments) and Kashag, Dalai Lama, Panchen Erdene, and other Tibetan settlements such as Sichuan, Xikang, Qinghai and Gansu provinces. They record and reflect the central government's policies and specific measures of governing Tibet during that period. Furthermore, they also document the political, economic, religious, cultural, educational and social development of Tibetan areas adjacent to Tibet in Sichuan, Qinghai, Gansu and Yunnan provinces.The archives of modern Tibet and Tibetan affairs collected in Tibet are mainly concentrated in the archives of Tibet Autonomous Region, Lhasa, Xigaze, Linzhi, Shannan, Ali, Naqu, Changdu and other counties. Many are also kept in major temples. Among them, the Tibet Autonomous archives conserves the largest and most important archives. It contains more than 3 million volumes of documents that belonged to the old regime, and are mainly in Tibetan. They include: Tibet's administrative divisions, the exercise of sovereignty over Tibet by the National Government, religious affairs, major historic events in Tibet, and Tibetan feudal serfdom, the judicial system, social conditions, economic conditions related to agriculture, animal husbandry and handicrafts, mineral resources, as well as Tibet's exchanges with non-Tibetan Chinese regions.The historical documents in Sichuan Tibetan areas in the Republic of China are mainly kept in the provincial archives of Sichuan and Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture’s archives, Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Kangding, Dege, Batang, Marcand, Muli, Litang, Xiangcheng Luhuo, Daocheng, etc. Among them, are the Xikang Tibet archives. They are preserved in the Sichuan Provincial Archives and include more than 10,000 documents. They were created between 1388 (the 21st year of Ming Hongwu) and 1949. The historical archives in the Yunnan Tibetan areas are mainly kept in the county archives, libraries and cultural centres, public security bureaus and Diqing prefectural archives, as well as the temples of Gardan Songzanlin and East Chikurinji. About 11,300 files, mostly compiled in the Republic of China, record the policies of the central government and the Yunnan local government towards Tibetans and reflect their effective management and rule in Yunnan. They cover political, military, economic, cultural aspects, as well as the living conditions of Tibetan compatriots and their relationship to various ethnic groups during this historical period.The archives of modern Tibetan affairs in Gansu Province are collected in various archives, libraries, cultural centres and many Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in Gansu Province. Most of them are stored in Gansu Provincial Archives, Gansu Provincial Library, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture Archives, Xiahe County Archives, Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County Archives and Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefectural Archives. Approximately 8,000 documents make up these archives. Their content primarily includes documents related to state administration, Kuomintang party affairs, civil affairs, administration, household administration, territory, land administration, customs, ethnic minorities, tribes, chieftains, religion, temples, police administration, security, opium banning, society, construction, personnel systems, supervision, the judiciary, military affairs, the economy, culture, education, sanitation, sports activities and famous people, outlining all the aspects of social development.The archives of Tibet and Tibetan affairs in Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China in Qinghai Province are mainly kept in Qinghai Provincial Archives, which were built from 1724 (the 2nd year of Qing Yongzheng ) to 1949. These historical materials reflect and record the basic situation of Tibetan areas in Qinghai Province during the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China in terms of politics, economics, military affairs, the judiciary, culture, religion, ethnic, relations, Qinghai-Tibet relations, Qinghai-Aba area relations, Qinghai‑Labrang area relations, etc. They also record more than 200 years of policies in Qinghai Tibetan areas during the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China, as well as the history of economic life, development, evolution of Tibetan compatriots and various ethnic relations. In order to better the development and utilisation of Tibet and Tibetan affairs for the purpose of academic research, the archives are stored in various domestic preservation institutions. They have been actively compiled and catalogues of relevant archives as well as a compilation of special archives have been published with the coordination and support of the China Tibetology Research Center. The publications mainly include The Historical Materials Catalogue Series of Tibet and Tibetan Affairs Archives (8 volumes); Compilation of Historical Records on the Relationship between Local and Central Tibetan Government since the Yuan Dynasty (7 volumes); Selected Records of the 13th Dalai Lama in the Late Qing Dynasty; Selected Records of the 9th Panchen Lama's Parinirvana Rites and the 10th Panchen Lama's Enthronement; Compilation of the 13th Dalai Lama's Parinirvana Rites & the 14th Dalai Lama's Reincarnation and Enthronement; Selected Records of the 9th Panchen Lama's Activities in Interior Areas and Blocked Return to Tibet; Selected Records of Yatung Customs in Tibet, Selected Records of Tibet and Tibetan Economic Development and Construction in the Period of the Republic of China and Compilation of Tibet and Tibetan Affairs Preserved in the Second Historical Archives of China, etc. This series of archival compilations and publications has played an important role in promoting international Tibetology research. Au cours du long processus du développement historique du Tibet et d’autres régions où se rassemblèrent les Tibétains (c’est‑à‑dire, une partie des préfectures, villes et districts des provinces Sichuan, Qinghai et Gansu), un nombre considérable d’archives relatives au Tibet et aux affaires tibétaines ont été constituées, principalement sous la dynastie des Qing et la République de Chine. Ces corpus sont conservés avec grand soin dans plusieurs dépôts d’archives historiques nationaux de Chine, des dépôts d’archives provinciaux et des bibliothèques de la Région autonome du Tibet, du Sichuan, du Qinghai, du Gansu et du Yunnan. Cette notice présente de manière systématique la quantité et le contenu principal des documents relatifs au Tibet et aux affaires tibétaines de la période qui va de 1840 à 1949, en particulier la période de la République de Chine, et qui sont conservés dans le Premier dépôt des archives historiques de Chine, le Deuxième dépôt des archives historiques de Chine, les Archives de la Région autonome du Tibet, les dépôts d’archives de la province du Sichuan, d’une partie de ses préfectures, villes et districts ; les dépôts d’archives et les bibliothèques dépendants de la province du Gansu ; le dépôt d’archives provincial du Qinghai ; et les dépôts d’archives de la préfecture autonome des Tibétains Diqing du Yunnan, ainsi que de ses districts. En outre, la présente notice donne aussi des détails sur les catalogues archivistiques et les collections spéciales compilées et éditées par les dépôts et les bibliothèques ci-dessus nommés. J’espère que cette notice fournira des références servant à renforcer les études historiographiques sur le Tibet, ainsi que d’autres régions où se rassemblèrent les Tibétains, et sur les relations entre le gouvernement central et le gouvernement local tibétain dans la Chine moderne.

  • Open Access Chinese
    Authors: 
    Hur-Li Lee; Shengang Wang;
    Publisher: National Taiwan University

    "The study reports on an analysis of a chosen corpus in the emergent domain of digital humanities (DH). In contrast to other studies of the DH literature that focus on publications in the west, this study examines 129 papers published in the proceedings of the International Conferences of Digital Archives and Digital Humanities that were held in Taiwan between 2009 and 2016. In all, 236 individual authors from 15 countries contributed at least one paper; 50 domains were represented. Three East Asian countries (Taiwan, China, and Japan) show a dominating presence, and top three domains (computer science, history, and Chinese) have the highest numbers of participants and highest numbers of first authors. Unlike their counterparts in the humanities, the papers in the study have a much higher percentage of collaborative works. More than half of the papers that are collaborative works are interdisciplinary, but only one-fifth involve international collaboration. Proportionally, computer scientists’ participation rate decreases and humanists’ rate increases, however modestly, from 2012 onward. The study also investigates digital technology’s impact on DH in various stages of the information lifecycle. More than two-thirds of the papers discuss technology’s impact in the area of consuming data from digital collections for various purposes, with the impact on building retrieval systems/online platforms coming in second at 26.6%. Among different years, the first year is exceptional in showing high interest in the impact on building digital collections, building knowledge organization systems, and building retrieval systems but low interest in the impact on data consumption. Humanists in general are more attentive to the impact on consumption than technologists, while the latter lean toward the impact on building retrieval systems. Without any claim to comprehensiveness or representativeness, the study provides a snapshot of the DH literary output."

  • Restricted Chinese
    Authors: 
    Ji, Yichao; Liu, Xinyang; Ma, Kui; Zhao, Xuezhi; Sun, Qiao;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    Description Magi Open Information Extraction Dataset (MOIED) is a Chinese Open IE dataset containing 7,618,181 records extracted from plain text across 3,319,763 webpages in various domains. Each record in the dataset consists of the (subject, predicate, object) tuple, the associated confidence score, and the context information. The dataset comprises 1,427,742 distinct facts of 272,522 entities and 117,731 predicates. A notable property of MOIED is that each distinct fact has multiple records with URLs referring to mentions in diverse contexts, which enables multiple-instance learning (MIL) and other correlative approaches. As a paragraph level Open IE dataset, at least 45.1% of the records in MOIED can only be extracted through synthesizing information from multiple sentences. Magi is an extraction engine that continuously learns from the Internet, which combines cross-referencing, timeline analysis, and other heuristics to mitigate the inevitable false positives in the extractions. All records in MOIED were randomly sampled from a database dump of magi.com in January 2020. To provide more reliable evaluation results, human annotators examined the dataset and selected 19,161 verified records for the dev and test sets. Disclaimers The dataset is expected to be used in weakly supervised scenarios since the records in the training set are not human-annotated and could be imprecise or erroneous. Records are not guaranteed to be universally correct. The correctness of extractions should be evaluated based on contexts (specified by the URLs). The extraction was made at a certain time Magi visits the URL, thus it is not guaranteed that the URL is still accessible, or the content is unmodified since the extraction was conducted. Due to legal and regulatory issues, the webpage URLs are mostly ones accessible from Mainland China, yet, the content of certain webpages, as well as the extraction results, could be in violation of law and regulation of certain countries or regions in certain ways. This dataset contains content from the Internet, for copyright reasons, please do not redistribute or use it for non-research purposes.

  • Open Access Chinese
    Authors: 
    Tao Wei; Cai Haohui;
    Publisher: Editorial Committee of Tropical Geography

    It is an era of "heritage" that we live in. After nearly two decades of practice and exploration, the social and academic circles have accumulated rich experience in the protection of intangible cultural heritage, especially the scholars of ethnology and art, who have made outstanding contributions to the development of intangible cultural heritage (ICH) protection system with local characteristics. However, comprehensive and critical geographical studies have paid less attention to this topic with less contribution. Firstly, this paper reviews the practice of intangible cultural heritage protection since 2003, starting from the birth of the concept of "intangible cultural heritage" and the revival of Chinese traditional folklore culture. The research progress of China's intangible cultural heritage is analyzed through the database of CNKI. And it is found that the intangible cultural heritage research has experienced two periods-rapid prosperity and steady growth, but relatively few papers have been published in high-quality and geographical journals. Due to the large number of related papers, it is impossible or unnecessary to exhaust all research topics. Therefore, based on the research and practical experience, three key topics in the academic research of intangible cultural heritage are summarized: "characteristics and the construction of meaning", "transmission and the reflection on systems", and "development and community initiative". And Section 3.1 focuses on the basic characteristics of intangible cultural heritage, the importance of intangible cultural heritage as social construction, and the significance of "making" intangible cultural heritage. The current basic laws and regulations for the protection and transmission of China's intangible cultural heritage-representative projects and representative transmitters of intangible cultural heritage are re-examined. It is called for respect for the views and opinions of community group when turning to the "community" in intangible cultural heritage. And it is believed that Chinese scholars have formed a new method and new theoretical system of intangible cultural heritage research with local Chinese characteristics, by actively learning from the academic achievements of western critical heritage research. Secondly, intangible cultural heritage has been incorporated into the national political system as an important cultural resource to promote the implementation of major national strategies. Rethinking the significance and role of intangible cultural heritage under the three geographical national strategies of rural revitalization, urban development and cultural nation, it is found that as a unique cultural resource, intangible cultural heritage plays an important role in promoting the implementation of major national strategies and urban and rural development. And it is believed that the social significance and academic value of intangible cultural heritage should be further explored continuously. Finally, five possible topics for geographers to study intangible cultural heritage are proposed in this paper-transmitters' daily life, social justice, mobility, natural and cultural interaction and international communication, so as to encourage and inspire the geographical research of intangible cultural heritage in the future.

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