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  • 2019-2023
  • Copenhagen University Research Information System
  • COVID-19

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cheng Xiang Foo; Stacey Bartlett; Keng Yih Chew; Minh Dao Ngo; +18 Authors

    RationaleSevere viral respiratory infections are often characterised by extensive myeloid cell infiltration and activation and persistent lung tissue injury. However, the immunological mechanisms driving excessive inflammation in the lung remain poorly understood.ObjectivesTo identify the mechanisms that drive immune cell recruitment in the lung during viral respiratory infections and identify novel drug targets to reduce inflammation and disease severity.MethodsPreclinical murine models of influenza A virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.ResultsOxidised cholesterols and the oxysterol-sensing receptor GPR183 were identified as drivers of monocyte/macrophage infiltration to the lung during influenza A virus (IAV) and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Both IAV and SARS-CoV-2 infection upregulated the enzymes cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H) and cytochrome P450 family 7 subfamily member B1 (CYP7B1) in the lung, resulting in local production of the oxidised cholesterols 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OHC) and 7α,25-dihydroxycholesterol (7α,25-OHC). Loss-of-function mutation of Gpr183 or treatment with a GPR183 antagonist reduced macrophage infiltration and inflammatory cytokine production in the lungs of IAV- or SARS-CoV-2-infected mice. The GPR183 antagonist significantly attenuated the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection and viral loads. Analysis of single-cell RNA-sequencing data on bronchoalveolar lavage samples from healthy controls and COVID-19 patients with moderate and severe disease revealed thatCH25H,CYP7B1andGPR183are significantly upregulated in macrophages during COVID-19.ConclusionThis study demonstrates that oxysterols drive inflammation in the lungviaGPR183 and provides the first preclinical evidence for the therapeutic benefit of targeting GPR183 during severe viral respiratory infections.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Copenhagen Universit...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Copenhagen Universit...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Vermeulen, Nathalie; Hambartsoumian, Eduard; Nouri, Kazem; Ebner, Thomas; +84 Authors

    Study question: how did coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) impact on medically assisted reproduction (MAR) services in Europe during the COVID-19 pandemic (March to May 2020)? Summary answer: MAR services, and hence treatments for infertile couples, were stopped in most European countries for a mean of 7 weeks. What is known already: with the outbreak of COVID-19 in Europe, non-urgent medical care was reduced by local authorities to preserve health resources and maintain social distancing. Furthermore, ESHRE and other societies recommended to postpone ART pregnancies as of 14 March 2020. Study design size duration: a structured questionnaire was distributed in April among the ESHRE Committee of National Representatives, followed by further information collection through email. Participants/materials setting methods: the information was collected through the questionnaire and afterwards summarised and aligned with data from the European Centre for Disease Control on the number of COVID-19 cases per country. Main results and the role of chance: by aligning the data for each country with respective epidemiological data, we show a large variation in the time and the phase in the epidemic in the curve when MAR/ART treatments were suspended and restarted. Similarly, the duration of interruption varied. Fertility preservation treatments and patient supportive care for patients remained available during the pandemic. Large scale data: N/A. Limitations reasons for caution: data collection was prone to misinterpretation of the questions and replies, and required further follow-up to check the accuracy. Some representatives reported that they, themselves, were not always aware of the situation throughout the country or reported difficulties with providing single generalised replies, for instance when there were regional differences within their country. Wider implications of the findings: the current article provides a basis for further research of the different strategies developed in response to the COVID-19 crisis. Such conclusions will be invaluable for health authorities and healthcare professionals with respect to future similar situations. Study funding/competing interests: there was no funding for the study, apart from technical support from ESHRE. The authors had no COI to disclose. NA

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    OAR@UM
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: OAR@UM
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Human Reproduction Open
    Article
    License: cc-by-nc
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      OAR@UM
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: OAR@UM
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Human Reproduction Open
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jonnathan Céspedes; Janelle M. Sylvester; Lisset Pérez-Marulanda; Paula Paz-Garcia; +4 Authors

    As the COVID-19 pandemic unfolded, questions arose as to whether the pandemic would amplify or pacify tropical deforestation. Early reports warned of increased deforestation rates; however, these studies were limited to a few months in 2020 or to selected regions. To better understand how the pandemic influenced tropical deforestation globally, this study used historical deforestation data (2004-2019) from the Terra-i pantropical land cover change monitoring system to project expected deforestation trends for 2020, which were used to determine whether observed deforestation deviated from expected trajectories after the first COVID-19 cases were reported. Time series analyses were conducted at the regional level for the Americas, Africa and Asia and at the country level for Brazil, Colombia, Peru, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Indonesia. Our results suggest that the pandemic did not alter the course of deforestation trends in some countries (e.g., Brazil, Indonesia), while it did in others (e.g., Peru). We posit the importance of monitoring the long-term effects of the pandemic on deforestation trends as countries prioritize economic recovery in the aftermath of the pandemic.The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11676-022-01561-7.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Copenhagen Universit...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Copenhagen Universit...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sofie Rosenlund Lau; Nanna Hauge Kristensen; Bjarke Oxlund;

    n/a

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Anthropology & A...arrow_drop_down
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    Anthropology & Aging
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    Anthropology & Aging
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Anthropology & A...arrow_drop_down
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      Anthropology & Aging
      Article . 2020
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      Anthropology & Aging
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    Authors: Nakanishi, Tomoko; Pigazzini, Sara; Degenhardt, Frauke; Cordioli, Mattia; +45 Authors

    AG has received support by NordForsk Nordic Trial Alliance (NTA) grant, by Academy of Finland Fellow grant N. 323116 and the Academy of Finland for PREDICT consortium N. 340541. The Richards research group is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) (365825 and 409511), the Lady Davis Institute of the Jewish General Hospital, the Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI), the NIH Foundation, Cancer Research UK, Genome Québec, the Public Health Agency of Canada, the McGill Interdisciplinary Initiative in Infection and Immunity and the Fonds de Recherche Québec Santé (FRQS). TN is supported by a research fellowship of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science for Young Scientists. GBL is supported by a CIHR scholarship and a joint FRQS and Québec Ministry of Health and Social Services scholarship. JBR is supported by an FRQS Clinical Research Scholarship. Support from Calcul Québec and Compute Canada is acknowledged. TwinsUK is funded by the Welcome Trust, the Medical Research Council, the European Union, the National Institute for Health Research-funded BioResource and the Clinical Research Facility and Biomedical Research Centre based at Guy’s and St. Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust in partnership with King’s College London. The Biobanque Québec COVID19 is funded by FRQS, Genome Québec and the Public Health Agency of Canada, the McGill Interdisciplinary Initiative in Infection and Immunity and the Fonds de Recherche Québec Santé. These funding agencies had no role in the design, implementation or interpretation of this study. The COVID19-Host(a)ge study received infrastructure support from the DFG Cluster of Excellence 2167 “Precision Medicine in Chronic Inflammation (PMI)” (DFG Grant: “EXC2167”). The COVID19-Host(a)ge study was supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) within the framework of the Computational Life Sciences funding concept (CompLS grant 031L0165). Genotyping in COVID19-Host(a)ge was supported by a philantropic donation from Stein Erik Hagen. The COVID GWAs, Premed COVID-19 study (COVID19-Host(a)ge_3) was supported by "Grupo de Trabajo en Medicina Personalizada contra el COVID-19 de Andalucia"and also by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (CIBERehd and CIBERER). Funding comes from COVID-19-GWAS, COVID-PREMED initiatives. Both of them are supported by "Consejeria de Salud y Familias" of the Andalusian Government. DMM is currently funded by the the Andalussian government (Proyectos Estratégicos-Fondos Feder PE-0451-2018). The Columbia University Biobank was supported by Columbia University and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, NIH, through Grant Number UL1TR001873. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH or Columbia University. The SPGRX study was supported by the Consejería de Economía, Conocimiento, Empresas y Universidad #CV20-10150. The GEN-COVID study was funded by: the MIUR grant “Dipartimenti di Eccellenza 2018-2020” to the Department of Medical Biotechnologies University of Siena, Italy; the “Intesa San Paolo 2020 charity fund” dedicated to the project NB/2020/0119; and philanthropic donations to the Department of Medical Biotechnologies, University of Siena for the COVID-19 host genetics research project (D.L n.18 of March 17, 2020). Part of this research project is also funded by Tuscany Region “Bando Ricerca COVID-19 Toscana” grant to the Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Senese (CUP I49C20000280002). Authors are grateful to: the CINECA consortium for providing computational resources; the Network for Italian Genomes (NIG) (http://www.nig.cineca.it) for its support; the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative (https://www.covid19hg.org/); the Genetic Biobank of Siena, member of BBMRI-IT, Telethon Network of Genetic Biobanks (project no. GTB18001), EuroBioBank, and RD-Connect, for managing specimens. Genetics against coronavirus (GENIUS), Humanitas University (COVID19-Host(a)ge_4) was supported by Ricerca Corrente (Italian Ministry of Health), intramural funding (Fondazione Humanitas per la Ricerca). The generous contribution of Banca Intesa San Paolo and of the Dolce&Gabbana Fashion Firm is gratefully acknowledged. Data acquisition and sample processing was supported by COVID-19 Biobank, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda Milano; LV group was supported by MyFirst Grant AIRC n.16888, Ricerca Finalizzata Ministero della Salute RF-2016-02364358, Ricerca corrente Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, the European Union (EU) Programme Horizon 2020 (under grant agreement No. 777377) for the project LITMUS- “Liver Investigation: Testing Marker Utility in Steatohepatitis”, Programme “Photonics” under grant agreement “101016726” for the project “REVEAL: Neuronal microscopy for cell behavioural examination and manipulation”, Fondazione Patrimonio Ca’ Granda “Liver Bible” PR-0361. DP was supported by Ricerca corrente Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, CV PREVITAL “Strategie di prevenzione primaria nella popolazione Italiana” Ministero della Salute, and Associazione Italiana per la Prevenzione dell’Epatite Virale (COPEV). Genetic modifiers for COVID-19 related illness (BeLCovid_1) was supported by the "Fonds Erasme". The Host genetics and immune response in SARS-Cov-2 infection (BelCovid_2) study was supported by grants from Fondation Léon Fredericq and from Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS). The INMUNGEN-CoV2 study was funded by the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. KUL is supported by the German Research Foundation (LU 1944/3-1) SweCovid is funded by the SciLifeLab/KAW national COVID-19 research program project grant to Michael Hultström (KAW 2020.0182) and the Swedish Research Council to Robert Frithiof (2014-02569 and 2014-07606). HZ is supported by Jeansson Stiftelser, Magnus Bergvalls Stiftelse. The COMRI cohort is funded by Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany. Genotyping for the COMRI cohort was performed and funded by the Genotyping Laboratory of Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland FIMM Technology Centre, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. These funding agencies had no role in the design, implementation or interpretation of this study. Background: There is considerable variability in COVID-19 outcomes amongst younger adults—and some of this variation may be due to genetic predisposition. We characterized the clinical implications of the major genetic risk factor for COVID-19 severity, and its age-dependent effect, using individual-level data in a large international multi-centre consortium. Method: The major common COVID-19 genetic risk factor is a chromosome 3 locus, tagged by the marker rs10490770. We combined individual level data for 13,424 COVID-19 positive patients (N=6,689 hospitalized) from 17 cohorts in nine countries to assess the association of this genetic marker with mortality, COVID-19-related complications and laboratory values. We next examined if the magnitude of these associations varied by age and were independent from known clinical COVID-19 risk factors. Findings: We found that rs10490770 risk allele carriers experienced an increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1·4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1·2–1·6) and COVID-19 related mortality (HR 1·5, 95%CI 1·3–1·8). Risk allele carriers had increased odds of several COVID-19 complications: severe respiratory failure (odds ratio [OR] 2·0, 95%CI 1·6-2·6), venous thromboembolism (OR 1·7, 95%CI 1·2-2·4), and hepatic injury (OR 1·6, 95%CI 1·2-2·0). Risk allele carriers ≤ 60 years had higher odds of death or severe respiratory failure (OR 2·6, 95%CI 1·8-3·9) compared to those > 60 years OR 1·5 (95%CI 1·3-1·9, interaction p-value=0·04). Amongst individuals ≤ 60 years who died or experienced severe respiratory COVID-19 outcome, we found that 31·8% (95%CI 27·6-36·2) were risk variant carriers, compared to 13·9% (95%CI 12·6-15·2%) of those not experiencing these outcomes. Prediction of death or severe respiratory failure among those ≤ 60 years improved when including the risk allele (AUC 0·82 vs 0·84, p=0·016) and the prediction ability of rs10490770 risk allele was similar to, or better than, most established clinical risk factors. Interpretation: The major common COVID-19 risk locus on chromosome 3 is associated with increased risks of morbidity and mortality—and these are more pronounced amongst individuals ≤ 60 years. The effect on COVID-19 severity was similar to, or larger than most established risk factors, suggesting potential implications for clinical risk management. CV PREVITAL “Strategie di prevenzione primaria nella popolazione Italiana” Ministero della Salute, and Associazione Italiana per la Prevenzione dell’Epatite Virale (COPEV) Genotyping Laboratory of Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland FIMM Technology Centre, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland Clinical Research Facility and Biomedical Research Centre based at Guy’s and St. Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust McGill Interdisciplinary Initiative in Infection and Immunity and the Fonds de Recherche Québec Santé (FRQS) CIHR scholarship and a joint FRQS and Québec Ministry of Health and Social Services scholarship European Union (EU) Programme Horizon 2020 (under grant agreement No. 777377) "Grupo de Trabajo en Medicina Personalizada contra el COVID-19 de Andalucia" “Intesa San Paolo 2020 charity fund” dedicated to the project NB/2020/0119 Ricerca corrente Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico SciLifeLab/KAW national COVID-19 research program project (KAW 2020.0182) Andalusian government (Proyectos Estratégicos-Fondos Feder PE-0451-2018) Consejería de Economía, Conocimiento, Empresas y Universidad #CV20-10150 Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) (365825 and 409511) Japan Society for the Promotion of Science for Young Scientists "Consejeria de Salud y Familias" of the Andalusian Government McGill Interdisciplinary Initiative in Infection and Immunity Ricerca Finalizzata Ministero della Salute RF-2016-02364358 National Institute for Health Research-funded BioResource Fondazione Patrimonio Ca’ Granda “Liver Bible” PR-0361 Swedish Research Council (2014-02569 and 2014-07606) Instituto de Salud Carlos III (CIBERehd and CIBERER) National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences Academy of Finland for PREDICT consortium N. 340541. Lady Davis Institute of the Jewish General Hospital MIUR grant “Dipartimenti di Eccellenza 2018-2020” Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany Jeansson Stiftelser, Magnus Bergvalls Stiftelse Tuscany Region “Bando Ricerca COVID-19 Toscana” Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas Ricerca Corrente (Italian Ministry of Health) Academy of Finland Fellow grant N. 323116 Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS) German Research Foundation (LU 1944/3-1) Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI) Fondazione Humanitas per la Ricerca FRQS Clinical Research Scholarship Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda Milano Network for Italian Genomes (NIG) COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative Fonds de Recherche Québec Santé Public Health Agency of Canada NIH Grant Number UL1TR001873 Dolce&Gabbana Fashion Firm MyFirst Grant AIRC n.16888 COVID-PREMED initiatives Genetic Biobank of Siena Fondation Léon Fredericq “Photonics” “101016726” (CompLS grant 031L0165) Banca Intesa San Paolo Medical Research Counc (DFG Grant: “EXC2167”) King’s College London Columbia University Cancer Research UK CINECA consortium COVID-19 Biobank Stein Erik Hagen Compute Canada "Fonds Erasme" NIH Foundation European Union Genome Québec COVID-19-GWAS Calcul Québec Welcome Trust EuroBioBank RD-Connect

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    Authors: Susana Patricia Amaya Hernandez; Ditte Stampe Hersby; Kamilla Kjærgaard Munk; Tripti Tamhane; +6 Authors

    Patients with hematological malignancies are prioritized for COVID-19 vaccine due to their high risk for severe SARS-CoV-2 infection-related disease and mortality. To understand T cell immunity, its long-term persistence, and its correlation with antibody response, we evaluated the BNT162b2 COVID-19 mRNA vaccine-specific immune response in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and myeloid dysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients. Longitudinal analysis of CD8+ T cells using DNA-barcoded peptide-MHC multimers covering the full SARS-CoV-2 Spike-protein (415 peptides) showed vaccine-specific T cell activation and persistence of memory T cells up to six months post-vaccination. Surprisingly, a higher frequency of vaccine-induced antigen-specific CD8+ T cells was observed in the patient group compared to a healthy donor group. Furthermore, and importantly, immunization with the second booster dose significantly increased the frequency of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells as well as the total number of T cell specificities. Altogether 59 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine-derived immunogenic responses were identified, of which 23 established long-term CD8+ T cell memory response with a strong immunodominance for NYNYLYRLF (HLA-A24:02) and YLQPRTFLL (HLA-A02:01) epitopes. In summary, we mapped the vaccine-induced antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and showed a booster-specific activation and enrichment of memory T cells that could be important for long-term disease protection in this patient group.

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    Authors: Eva Havers-Borgersen; Emil L. Fosbøl; Jawad H. Butt; Jeppe Kofoed Petersen; +9 Authors

    Background The incidence of infective endocarditis (IE) has increased in recent decades. Societal lockdown including reorganization of the healthcare system during the COVID-19 pandemic may influence the incidence of IE. This study sets out to investigate the incidence of IE during the Danish national lockdown. Methods In this nationwide cohort study, patients admitted with IE in either one of two periods A) A combined period of 1 January to 7 May for 2018 and 2019, or B) 1 January to 6 May 2020, were identified using Danish nationwide registries. Weekly incidence rates of IE admissions for the 2018/2019-period and 2020-period were computed and incidence rate ratios (IRR) for 2020-incidence vs 2018/2019-incidence were calculated using Poisson regression analysis. Results In total, 208 (67.3% men, median age 74.1 years) and 429 (64.1% men, median age 72.7 years) patients were admitted with IE in 2020 and 2018/2019, respectively. No significant difference in incidence rates were found comparing the 2020-period and 2018/2019-period (IRR: 0.96 (95% CI: 0.82–1.14). The overall incidence rate pre-lockdown (week 1–10: 1 January to 11 March 2020) was 14.2 IE cases per 100,000 person years (95% CI: 12.0–16.9) as compared with 11.4 IE cases per 100,000 person years (95% CI: 9.1–14.1) during lockdown (week 11–18: 12 March to 6 May 2020) corresponding to an IRR of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.60–1.06) and thus no significant difference pre- versus post-lockdown. Conclusion In this nationwide cohort study, no significant difference in the incidence of IE admissions during the national lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic was found. Highlights • The incidence of IE during lockdown was 11.1 IE cases per 100,000 PY. • No reduction in the incidence of IE during the lockdown compared to preceding years. • No difference in the incidence of IE pre- versus post-lockdown in 2020.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kamille Fogh; Jarl E. Strange; Bibi F. S. S. Scharff; Alexandra R. R. Eriksen; +30 Authors

    "Testing Denmark" is a national, large-scale, epidemiological surveillance study of SARS-CoV-2 in the Danish population. Between September and October 2020, approximately 1.3 million people (age >15 years) were randomly invited to fill in an electronic questionnaire covering COVID-19 exposures and symptoms. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was determined by point-of care rapid test (POCT) distributed to participants' home addresses. In total, 318,552 participants (24.5% invitees) completed the study and 2,519 (0.79%) were seropositive. Of the participants with a prior positive PCR test (n = 1,828), 29.1% were seropositive in the POCT. Although seropositivity increased with age, participants 61 years and over reported fewer symptoms and were tested less frequently. Seropositivity was associated with physical contact with SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals (risk ratio [RR] 7.43, 95% CI: 6.57-8.41), particular in household members (RR 17.70, 95% CI: 15.60-20.10). A greater risk of seropositivity was seen in home care workers (RR 2.09, 95% CI: 1.58-2.78) compared to office workers. A high degree of adherence with national preventive recommendations was reported (e.g., >80% use of face masks), but no difference were found between seropositive and seronegative participants. The seroprevalence result was somewhat hampered by a lower-than-expected performance of the POCT. This is likely due to a low sensitivity of the POCT or problems reading the test results, and the main findings therefore relate to risk associations. More emphasis should be placed on age, occupation, and exposure in local communities. IMPORTANCE To date, including 318,522 participants, this is the largest population-based study with broad national participation where tests and questionnaires have been sent to participants' homes. We found that more emphasis from national and local authorities toward the risk of infection should be placed on age of tested individuals, type of occupation, as well as exposure in local communities and households. To meet the challenge that broad nationwide information can be difficult to gather. This study design sets the stage for a novel way of conducting studies. Additionally, this study design can be used as a supplementary model in future general test strategy for ongoing monitoring of COVID-19 immunity in the population, both from past infection and from vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, however, with attention to the complexity of performing and reading the POCT at home.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Microbiology Spectrum
    Article . 2021
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2021
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Microbiology Spectrum
      Article . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Karsten Vrangbæk;

    Abstract The paper focuses on crisis responses and resilience within hospitals. The study is based on structured expert interviews with medical directors in selected hospital departments in two of the five regions of Denmark and primary care physicians in the same regions. We investigate stage 3 (Shock impact and management) and stage 4 (Recovery and learning) within hospital organizations using Denmark as case country, and we pay particular attention to issues of “organisational learning”, “purchasing flexibility and reallocation of funding”, “distribution of human and physical resources” and “motivated and well-supported workforce”. Particular attention is paid to care for patients with chronic care needs and lessons for the long-term resilience building in the health system. The study highlights strategic choices and lessons for the long-term resilience within hospitals. It demonstrates, how the initial strategy of organizing specific COVID-19 response units was abandoned relatively early, as it appeared more efficient to integrate COVID-19 patients in the regular specialized department structure. Emergency wards experienced increasing pressure during the pandemic as primary care clinics were referring (too) many patients suspected of COVID-19. This raises questions about capacity and relations between primary and specialized care in crisis situations. Management of human resources is crucial. While the initial phases of the pandemic response were characterized by flexibility and “team-spirit”, there has been a negative long-term impact particularly among the nursing staff, where burnouts and attrition are major issues. Pandemic crises place significant strain on health systems and personnel. This raises issues about communication of strategies and principles for organizing efforts. The Danish health system managed the crisis adequately, but there are also lessons that should be learned regarding long-term implications and preparedness for future crises.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ European Journal of ...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Gry Banke; Peter Kjeldgaard; Saher Burhan Shaker; Pradeesh Sivapalan; +6 Authors

    Aspergillomas are found in pre‐existing cavities in pulmonary parenchyma. To the best of our knowledge, aspergilloma has not previously been reported in COVID‐19‐associated pulmonary architecture distortion combined with barotrauma from invasive mechanical ventilation therapy. We present a case of a 67‐year‐old woman, who suffered from severe COVID‐19 in the summer of 2020 with no suspicion of infection with Aspergillus in the acute phase. Ten months after discharge from her COVID‐related admission, she developed bilateral aspergillomas diagnosed by image diagnostics, bronchoscopy, and blood samples, and she now receives antifungal therapy. We would like to raise awareness on aspergilloma in post‐COVID‐19 patients, since it is an expected long‐term complication to COVID‐19 patients with pulmonary architectural distortion.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Copenhagen Universit...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Copenhagen Universit...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cheng Xiang Foo; Stacey Bartlett; Keng Yih Chew; Minh Dao Ngo; +18 Authors

    RationaleSevere viral respiratory infections are often characterised by extensive myeloid cell infiltration and activation and persistent lung tissue injury. However, the immunological mechanisms driving excessive inflammation in the lung remain poorly understood.ObjectivesTo identify the mechanisms that drive immune cell recruitment in the lung during viral respiratory infections and identify novel drug targets to reduce inflammation and disease severity.MethodsPreclinical murine models of influenza A virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.ResultsOxidised cholesterols and the oxysterol-sensing receptor GPR183 were identified as drivers of monocyte/macrophage infiltration to the lung during influenza A virus (IAV) and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Both IAV and SARS-CoV-2 infection upregulated the enzymes cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H) and cytochrome P450 family 7 subfamily member B1 (CYP7B1) in the lung, resulting in local production of the oxidised cholesterols 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OHC) and 7α,25-dihydroxycholesterol (7α,25-OHC). Loss-of-function mutation of Gpr183 or treatment with a GPR183 antagonist reduced macrophage infiltration and inflammatory cytokine production in the lungs of IAV- or SARS-CoV-2-infected mice. The GPR183 antagonist significantly attenuated the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection and viral loads. Analysis of single-cell RNA-sequencing data on bronchoalveolar lavage samples from healthy controls and COVID-19 patients with moderate and severe disease revealed thatCH25H,CYP7B1andGPR183are significantly upregulated in macrophages during COVID-19.ConclusionThis study demonstrates that oxysterols drive inflammation in the lungviaGPR183 and provides the first preclinical evidence for the therapeutic benefit of targeting GPR183 during severe viral respiratory infections.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Copenhagen Universit...arrow_drop_down
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