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  • GFZ German Research Centre for Geos...

  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pons, M.; Sobolev, S.; Liu, S.; Neuharth, D.;

    The Central Andes (~21°S) is a subduction-type orogeny formed in the last ~50 Ma from the subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate beneath the South American continental plate. However, the most important phases of deformation occur in the last 20 Ma. Pulses of shortening have led to the sudden growth of the by the Altiplano-Puna plateau. Previous studies have provided insights on the importance of various mechanisms on the overall shortening such as the weakening of the overriding plate from crustal eclogitization and delamination, or the importance of a relatively high friction at the subduction interface, and weak sediments in foreland. However none of them has addressed the mechanism behind these shortening pulses yet. Therefore, we built a series of high resolution 2D visco-plastic subduction models using the ASPECT geodynamic code, in which the oceanic plate is buoyancy-driven and the velocity of the continent is prescribed. We have also implemented a realistic geometry for the south American plate at ~30 Ma. We propose a new plausible mechanism (buckling and steepening of the slab) as the cause of these pulses. The buckling leads to the blockage of the trench. Consequently, the difference of velocity between the South American plate and the trench is accommodated by shortening. The data presented here includes the parameters files, for the reference model (S1) and the following alternative simulations: models with variation of the friction at the subduction interface (S2a-c), a model without eclogitization of the lower crust (S3) and a model with higher thermal conductivity of the upper crust (S4). Additionally, this publication includes the initial composition and thermal state of the lithosphere used for the models and a Readme file that gives all the instructions to run them.

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    Authors: Bohsung, Lukas; Schanner, Maximilian; Korte, Monika; Holschneider, Matthias;

    The primary data sources for reconstructing the Earth's magnetic field of the past millennia are archeomagnetic and sedimentary paleomagnetic data. Sediment records, in particular, are crucial in extending the temporal and spatial coverage of global Earth's magnetic field models, especially when archeomagnetic data is sparse. However, the post-depositional remanent magnetization (pDRM) process is still poorly understood and can cause smoothing of the magnetic signal and offsets with respect to the sediment age. To make effective use of sedimentary data, it is essential to understand the lock-in process and its impact on the magnetic signal. In this study, we investigate the lock-in process theoretically and derive a parameterized lock-in function to approximate all possible lock-in behaviors. Additionally, we demonstrate that a lock-in function that is independent of absolute parameters can only be applied to the magnetic direction components, but not to the relative intensity. Integrating this lock-in function into the ArchKalMag14k modeling procedure (Schanner et al., 2022, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JB023166) allows to include data from sediment records. The parameters of the lock-in function are estimated by maximum likelihood methods using archeomagnetic data as a reference. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated through synthetic tests. Additionally, it is applied to real sediment records. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of effectively correcting the distortion caused by the lock-in process, making data from sedimentary records a more reliable and informative source for Earth's magnetic field reconstructions. The 28th IUGG General Assembly (IUGG2023) (Berlin 2023)

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    https://doi.org/10.57757/iugg2...
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      https://doi.org/10.57757/iugg2...
      Article . 2023
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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    Authors: Ziegler, M.; Heidbach, O.;

    These data are supplementary material to Ziegler & Heidbach (2020) and present the results of a 3D geomechanical-numerical model of the stress state with quantified uncertainties. The average modelled stress state is provided for each of the six components of the full stress tensor. In addition, the associated standard deviation for each component is provided. The modelling approach uses a published lithological model and the used data is described in the publication Ziegler & Heidbach (2020). The reduced stress tensor is derived using the Tecplot Addon GeoStress (Stromeyer & Heidbach, 2017).The model results are provided in a comma-separated ascii file. Each line in the file represents one of the approx. 3 million finite elements that comprise the model.

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    Authors: Jousset, P.; Mortensen, A.; Wollin, C.; Diaz Meza, S.; +1 Authors

    The GFZ-Landsvirkjun Theistareykir Fibre array is located in the Theytareykir geothermal area, in North Iceland. It is collocated with arrays of broadband seismometers and gravity meters (see e.g., https://doi.org/10.1186/s40517-021-00208-w). The geometry of the fibre array is following the telecom network in the area, and was chosen to test the seismological capabilities of telecom cables in this geothermal environment. We connected an iDAS V2 interrogator from Silixa. The interrogator location is lat=65.898041, lon=-16.966274. The array starts N-S and after 1.5 km, turns towards the East, up to a local transmission antenna station for mobile phones. The length of the path is ~5 km. The length of the cable is actually more than 15 km, as other fibre instance is connected at the transmission antenna station.. Jumps were performed along the cable to geo-locate the channels. The exact location of the fibre can unfortunately not be disclosed. Original recordings at 1000 Hz were downsampled to 200 Hz using a software from INGV-OE (michele.prestifilippo@ingv.it) and are provided in an h5 format. We provide here the first fibre instance (5 km long). The data contain 1 h long recording intervals framing M>5 teleseismic earthquakes recorded in the frame of the global DAS month, an initiative to collaboratively record and share simultaneously recorded DAS data from all over the world (https://www.norsar.no/in-focus/global-das-monitoring-month-february-2023). DAS is an emerging technology increasingly used by seismologists to convert kilometer long optical fibers into seismic sensors.

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    Authors: Seidel, M.; Tezkan, B.; Yogeshwar, P.;

    TDcustEM is a new 3D time domain CSEM finite elements forward modeling software built upon the open­source frequency domain toolbox custEM [1] and the open­source finite­element library FEniCS [2]. The frequency domain results calculated by the custEM toolbox are transformed into the time domain by a Fast Hankel Transform (FHT) using 80 digital filters provided by Tilman Hanstein [3]. Nédélec finite elements are used for the tetrahedral meshes which are generated by TetGen. Grounded dipole and inductively coupled loop sources can be modeled using the total E­field approach. For more information, see [7], which also contains an application of the software to real field data.

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    Authors: Patara, L.; Rieck, J.; Ödalen, M.; Tanhua, T.; +2 Authors

    Owing to its cool temperatures and vigorous water mass formation, the strongly eddying Southern Ocean is a key region of ocean CO2 uptake. In this study we assess the role of 1) wind stress and buoyancy forcing and 2) the representation of mesoscale eddies, in affecting the mean and temporal variations of the Southern Ocean carbon uptake in the past 60 years. We analyze global ocean biogeochemistry simulations based on the NEMO-MOPS and FESOM-REcoM models and ranging from 1° and 0.5° resolutions (where eddies are parameterized) to eddy-rich 0.25° and 0.1° resolutions. The 0.25° model is also used to perform sensitivity experiments to unravel the relative role of wind stress and of buoyancy forcing for the carbon uptake variations. We find that eddy-rich models have steeper isopycnals across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, which results in higher anthropogenic carbon uptake and storage than in models where eddies are parameterized. This, in combination with a somewhat lower outgassing of natural CO2, gives rise to a steeper trend of the Southern Ocean carbon uptake in the eddy-rich than in the eddy-parameterized models. Wind stress and buoyancy forcing are the main drivers of an increased outgassing of natural CO2 over the past decades and drive most of its interannual and decadal variability, with wind stress dominating at subpolar latitudes, and buoyancy forcing in water mass formation regions. However, our experiments indicate that the stalling of the Southern Ocean carbon uptake in the 1990s was mostly driven by a reduction of its anthropogenic carbon uptake. The 28th IUGG General Assembly (IUGG2023) (Berlin 2023)

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    https://doi.org/10.57757/iugg2...
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      Article . 2023
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    Authors: Marzocchi, W.; Iturrieta, P.; Falcone, G.;

    The main goal of WP3 is to advance the operational earthquake forecasting capabilities at different spatial scales. This deliverable contains the description of the repository where all promising codes of the OEF models that have been produced in the first 30 months of the project have been uploaded. Since all codes have to be tested in WP7 in the last year of the project, the structure of this deliverable has been agreed with colleagues working at WP7. The repository contains both the codes that will be used in the WP7 testing phase, and a detailed description of each model. In this document we will describe the main features of the repository and the link where codes and descriptions can be found. Then, we will briefly summarize the main features of the models that are contained in the repository. At the time of this deliverable, eight models have been submitted to the repository; however, at the end of the project we expect to have more; in fact, some additional models are almost finished, but not yet ready for the testing phase and so they have not been uploaded yet; very likely, they will be uploaded soon and tested in WP7 in the last year of the project. In this first phase the repository is kept private (available only after a specific request to the WP leader) to leave the time to the modelers to finalize the scientific papers relative to their models. The repository will be then made public through the platform Zenodo at the end of the project.

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    Authors: Jousset, P.; Currenti, G.; Chalari, A.; Tilmann, F.; +1 Authors

    Understanding physical processes prior and during eruptions remains challenging, due to uncertainties about subsurface structures and undetected processes within the volcano. Here, the authors use a dedicated fibre-optic cable to obtain strain data and identify volcanic events and image hidden near-surface volcanic structural features at Etna volcano, Italy. In the paper Jousset et al. (2022), we detect and characterize strain signals associated with explosions, and we find evidences for non-linear grain interactions in a scoria layer of spatially variable thickness. We also demonstrate that wavefield separation allows us to incrementally investigate the ground response to various excitation mechanisms, and we identify very small volcanic events, which we relate to fluid migration and degassing. We recorded seismic signals from natural and man-made sources with 2-m spacing along a 1.5-km-long fibre-optic cable layout near the summit of actives craters of Etna volcano, Italy. Those results provide the basis for improved volcano monitoring and hazard assessment using DAS. This data publication contains the full data set used for the analysis. This data set comprises strain-rate data from 1 iDAS interrogator (~750 traces), velocity data from 15 geophones and 4 broadband seismometers, and infrasonic pressure data from infrasound sensors. For further explanation of the data and related processing steps, please refer to Jousset et al. (2022).

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    Authors: Jordan, C.; Visscher, J.; Nguyen, D.; Apel, H.; +1 Authors

    2060). The results for the baseline scenario indicate that the Tien River is already subject to substantial erosion under present-day conditions. For the future period, hydropower development has the highest impact on the local erosion and deposition budget, thus amplifying erosional processes, followed by an increase in sand mining activity and climate change-related variations in discharge. The results also indicate that relative sea level rise only has a minimal impact on the local morphodynamics of this river stretch, while erosional tendencies are slowed by a complete prohibition of sand mining activity. In the future, an unfavourable combination of drivers could increase the local imbalance between erosion and deposition by up to 89%, while the bed level could be incised by an additional 146%. The hydro- and morphodynamic processes within the Vietnamese Mekong Delta are heavily impacted by human activity, which in turn affects the livelihood of millions of people. The main drivers that could impact future developments within the delta are local stressors like hydropower development and sand mining, but also global challenges like climate change and relative sea level rise. Within this study, a hydro-morphodynamic model was developed, which focused on a stretch of the Tien River and was nested into a well-calibrated model of the delta&rsquo s hydrodynamics. Multiple scenarios were developed in order to assess the projected impacts of the different drivers on the river&rsquo s morphodynamics. Simulations were carried out for a baseline scenario (2000&ndash 2010) and for a set of plausible scenarios for a future period (2050&ndash

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    Authors: Crowley, H.; Dabbeek, J.; Danciu, L.; Kalakonas, P.; +4 Authors
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pons, M.; Sobolev, S.; Liu, S.; Neuharth, D.;

    The Central Andes (~21°S) is a subduction-type orogeny formed in the last ~50 Ma from the subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate beneath the South American continental plate. However, the most important phases of deformation occur in the last 20 Ma. Pulses of shortening have led to the sudden growth of the by the Altiplano-Puna plateau. Previous studies have provided insights on the importance of various mechanisms on the overall shortening such as the weakening of the overriding plate from crustal eclogitization and delamination, or the importance of a relatively high friction at the subduction interface, and weak sediments in foreland. However none of them has addressed the mechanism behind these shortening pulses yet. Therefore, we built a series of high resolution 2D visco-plastic subduction models using the ASPECT geodynamic code, in which the oceanic plate is buoyancy-driven and the velocity of the continent is prescribed. We have also implemented a realistic geometry for the south American plate at ~30 Ma. We propose a new plausible mechanism (buckling and steepening of the slab) as the cause of these pulses. The buckling leads to the blockage of the trench. Consequently, the difference of velocity between the South American plate and the trench is accommodated by shortening. The data presented here includes the parameters files, for the reference model (S1) and the following alternative simulations: models with variation of the friction at the subduction interface (S2a-c), a model without eclogitization of the lower crust (S3) and a model with higher thermal conductivity of the upper crust (S4). Additionally, this publication includes the initial composition and thermal state of the lithosphere used for the models and a Readme file that gives all the instructions to run them.

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    Authors: Bohsung, Lukas; Schanner, Maximilian; Korte, Monika; Holschneider, Matthias;

    The primary data sources for reconstructing the Earth's magnetic field of the past millennia are archeomagnetic and sedimentary paleomagnetic data. Sediment records, in particular, are crucial in extending the temporal and spatial coverage of global Earth's magnetic field models, especially when archeomagnetic data is sparse. However, the post-depositional remanent magnetization (pDRM) process is still poorly understood and can cause smoothing of the magnetic signal and offsets with respect to the sediment age. To make effective use of sedimentary data, it is essential to understand the lock-in process and its impact on the magnetic signal. In this study, we investigate the lock-in process theoretically and derive a parameterized lock-in function to approximate all possible lock-in behaviors. Additionally, we demonstrate that a lock-in function that is independent of absolute parameters can only be applied to the magnetic direction components, but not to the relative intensity. Integrating this lock-in function into the ArchKalMag14k modeling procedure (Schanner et al., 2022, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021JB023166) allows to include data from sediment records. The parameters of the lock-in function are estimated by maximum likelihood methods using archeomagnetic data as a reference. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated through synthetic tests. Additionally, it is applied to real sediment records. Our results demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of effectively correcting the distortion caused by the lock-in process, making data from sedimentary records a more reliable and informative source for Earth's magnetic field reconstructions. The 28th IUGG General Assembly (IUGG2023) (Berlin 2023)

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    https://doi.org/10.57757/iugg2...
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      https://doi.org/10.57757/iugg2...
      Article . 2023
      License: CC BY
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    Authors: Ziegler, M.; Heidbach, O.;

    These data are supplementary material to Ziegler & Heidbach (2020) and present the results of a 3D geomechanical-numerical model of the stress state with quantified uncertainties. The average modelled stress state is provided for each of the six components of the full stress tensor. In addition, the associated standard deviation for each component is provided. The modelling approach uses a published lithological model and the used data is described in the publication Ziegler & Heidbach (2020). The reduced stress tensor is derived using the Tecplot Addon GeoStress (Stromeyer & Heidbach, 2017).The model results are provided in a comma-separated ascii file. Each line in the file represents one of the approx. 3 million finite elements that comprise the model.

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    Authors: Jousset, P.; Mortensen, A.; Wollin, C.; Diaz Meza, S.; +1 Authors

    The GFZ-Landsvirkjun Theistareykir Fibre array is located in the Theytareykir geothermal area, in North Iceland. It is collocated with arrays of broadband seismometers and gravity meters (see e.g., https://doi.org/10.1186/s40517-021-00208-w). The geometry of the fibre array is following the telecom network in the area, and was chosen to test the seismological capabilities of telecom cables in this geothermal environment. We connected an iDAS V2 interrogator from Silixa. The interrogator location is lat=65.898041, lon=-16.966274. The array starts N-S and after 1.5 km, turns towards the East, up to a local transmission antenna station for mobile phones. The length of the path is ~5 km. The length of the cable is actually more than 15 km, as other fibre instance is connected at the transmission antenna station.. Jumps were performed along the cable to geo-locate the channels. The exact location of the fibre can unfortunately not be disclosed. Original recordings at 1000 Hz were downsampled to 200 Hz using a software from INGV-OE (michele.prestifilippo@ingv.it) and are provided in an h5 format. We provide here the first fibre instance (5 km long). The data contain 1 h long recording intervals framing M>5 teleseismic earthquakes recorded in the frame of the global DAS month, an initiative to collaboratively record and share simultaneously recorded DAS data from all over the world (https://www.norsar.no/in-focus/global-das-monitoring-month-february-2023). DAS is an emerging technology increasingly used by seismologists to convert kilometer long optical fibers into seismic sensors.

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    Authors: Seidel, M.; Tezkan, B.; Yogeshwar, P.;

    TDcustEM is a new 3D time domain CSEM finite elements forward modeling software built upon the open­source frequency domain toolbox custEM [1] and the open­source finite­element library FEniCS [2]. The frequency domain results calculated by the custEM toolbox are transformed into the time domain by a Fast Hankel Transform (FHT) using 80 digital filters provided by Tilman Hanstein [3]. Nédélec finite elements are used for the tetrahedral meshes which are generated by TetGen. Grounded dipole and inductively coupled loop sources can be modeled using the total E­field approach. For more information, see [7], which also contains an application of the software to real field data.

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    Authors: Patara, L.; Rieck, J.; Ödalen, M.; Tanhua, T.; +2 Authors

    Owing to its cool temperatures and vigorous water mass formation, the strongly eddying Southern Ocean is a key region of ocean CO2 uptake. In this study we assess the role of 1) wind stress and buoyancy forcing and 2) the representation of mesoscale eddies, in affecting the mean and temporal variations of the Southern Ocean carbon uptake in the past 60 years. We analyze global ocean biogeochemistry simulations based on the NEMO-MOPS and FESOM-REcoM models and ranging from 1° and 0.5° resolutions (where eddies are parameterized) to eddy-rich 0.25° and 0.1° resolutions. The 0.25° model is also used to perform sensitivity experiments to unravel the relative role of wind stress and of buoyancy forcing for the carbon uptake variations. We find that eddy-rich models have steeper isopycnals across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, which results in higher anthropogenic carbon uptake and storage than in models where eddies are parameterized. This, in combination with a somewhat lower outgassing of natural CO2, gives rise to a steeper trend of the Southern Ocean carbon uptake in the eddy-rich than in the eddy-parameterized models. Wind stress and buoyancy forcing are the main drivers of an increased outgassing of natural CO2 over the past decades and drive most of its interannual and decadal variability, with wind stress dominating at subpolar latitudes, and buoyancy forcing in water mass formation regions. However, our experiments indicate that the stalling of the Southern Ocean carbon uptake in the 1990s was mostly driven by a reduction of its anthropogenic carbon uptake. The 28th IUGG General Assembly (IUGG2023) (Berlin 2023)

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    https://doi.org/10.57757/iugg2...
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
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      https://doi.org/10.57757/iugg2...
      Article . 2023
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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    Authors: Marzocchi, W.; Iturrieta, P.; Falcone, G.;

    The main goal of WP3 is to advance the operational earthquake forecasting capabilities at different spatial scales. This deliverable contains the description of the repository where all promising codes of the OEF models that have been produced in the first 30 months of the project have been uploaded. Since all codes have to be tested in WP7 in the last year of the project, the structure of this deliverable has been agreed with colleagues working at WP7. The repository contains both the codes that will be used in the WP7 testing phase, and a detailed description of each model. In this document we will describe the main features of the repository and the link where codes and descriptions can be found. Then, we will briefly summarize the main features of the models that are contained in the repository. At the time of this deliverable, eight models have been submitted to the repository; however, at the end of the project we expect to have more; in fact, some additional models are almost finished, but not yet ready for the testing phase and so they have not been uploaded yet; very likely, they will be uploaded soon and tested in WP7 in the last year of the project. In this first phase the repository is kept private (available only after a specific request to the WP leader) to leave the time to the modelers to finalize the scientific papers relative to their models. The repository will be then made public through the platform Zenodo at the end of the project.

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    Authors: Jousset, P.; Currenti, G.; Chalari, A.; Tilmann, F.; +1 Authors

    Understanding physical processes prior and during eruptions remains challenging, due to uncertainties about subsurface structures and undetected processes within the volcano. Here, the authors use a dedicated fibre-optic cable to obtain strain data and identify volcanic events and image hidden near-surface volcanic structural features at Etna volcano, Italy. In the paper Jousset et al. (2022), we detect and characterize strain signals associated with explosions, and we find evidences for non-linear grain interactions in a scoria layer of spatially variable thickness. We also demonstrate that wavefield separation allows us to incrementally investigate the ground response to various excitation mechanisms, and we identify very small volcanic events, which we relate to fluid migration and degassing. We recorded seismic signals from natural and man-made sources with 2-m spacing along a 1.5-km-long fibre-optic cable layout near the summit of actives craters of Etna volcano, Italy. Those results provide the basis for improved volcano monitoring and hazard assessment using DAS. This data publication contains the full data set used for the analysis. This data set comprises strain-rate data from 1 iDAS interrogator (~750 traces), velocity data from 15 geophones and 4 broadband seismometers, and infrasonic pressure data from infrasound sensors. For further explanation of the data and related processing steps, please refer to Jousset et al. (2022).

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