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  • Papyrus : Dépôt institutionnel - Un...

  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    Ce mémoire s'intéresse à l'inscription du son dans la mise en scène Inferno de Romeo Castellucci. Il s'agit de cerner en quoi la dimension sonore de cette œuvre s'émancipe de l'utilisation traditionnelle du son au théâtre et comment son intégration aux actions scéniques en vient à créer un nouveau type de dramaturgie. Ne visant plus l'illustration d'un récit, cette œuvre met de l'avant la matérialité des divers médiums constituant l'action. Nous verrons comment le son dans cette mise en scène s’autonomise. Il ne se veut plus mimétique; il ne vise pas à nous faire entendre quelque chose d’absent. Comme il s'apprécie pour ses qualités propres, le son parvient à « interagir » avec les autres éléments scéniques d’une manière inédite. La dynamique des présences visibles et audibles devient ainsi le foyer de tensions dramaturgiques. Ceci nous conduira à nous interroger sur la question de l'écoute et de ses processus pour tenter de voir comment la perception sonore influence la réception intégrale de ce spectacle. Les notions d'acousmatisme, de flou causal et de déréalisation de la perception temporelle nous permettront d'envisager l'apparition d'une dramatisation de l'écoute. This study examines the inscription of sound in Romeo Castellucci’s mise en scène of Inferno. It aims to define how the sound environment of this work goes beyond the traditional use of sound in theatre, and how its integration to the stage action creates a new type of dramaturgy. No more intended as the representation of a narrative, this work emphasizes and reinforces the materiality of any medium constituting the action. We will analyze how the sound in this performance becomes an element on its own. Sound is not mimetic anymore: it does not aim to be the echo of something absent. The sound being able to affirm and render its own expressive qualities, it can “interact” with other scenic elements in an innovative manner. The interactions of both visible and audible components give rise to dramaturgical tensions, conducting us to investigate the question of listening and its modalities in a theatrical context. We will then try to understand how audition redefines the reception of the performance. [À l'origine dans / Was originally part of : Thèses et mémoires - FAS - Département de littérature comparée]

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    The authors consider unit root tests that allow a shift in trend at an unknown time. They focus on the additive outlier approach but also give results for the innovational outlier approach. Various methods of choosing the break date are considered. New limiting distributions are derived, including the case where a shift in trend occurs under the unit root null hypothesis. Limiting distributions are invariant to mean shifts but not to slope shifts. Simulations are used to assess finite sample size and power. The authors focus on the effects of a break under the null and the choice of break date. Copyright 1998 by Economics Department of the University of Pennsylvania and the Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association.

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    International Economic Review
    1998 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      International Economic Review
      1998 . Peer-reviewed
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    Ce papier teste la relation entre l’intermédiation financière et la croissance économique à l’aide de régressions en coupe instantanée et de données en panel pour 69 pays en développement, durant la période 1960-1990. Les principaux résultats sont : (i) le développement financier est un déterminant significatif de la croissance économique, tel que montré par les régressions en coupe instantanée; (ii) les marchés financiers cessent d’exercer tout effet sur l’activité réelle quand la dimension temporelle est introduite dans les régressions. Ce paradoxe peut être expliqué, dans le cas des pays en développement, par le manque d’un secteur entrepreneurial privé capable de transformer les fonds disponibles en projets profitables; (iii) l’effet du développement financier sur la croissance économique est transmis principalement à travers une augmentation de la productivité des investissements. This paper examines the empirical relationship between financial intermediation and economic growth using cross-country and panel data regressions for 69 developing countries for the 1960-1990 period. The main results are : (i) financial development is a significant determinant of economic growth, as it has been shown in cross-sectional regressions; (ii) financial markets cease to exert any effect on real activity when the temporal dimension is introduced in the regressions. The paradox may be explained, in the case of developing countries, by the lack of an entrepreneurial private sector capable to transform the available funds into profitable projects; (iii) the effect of financial development on economic growth is channeled mainly through an increase in investment efficiency.

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    L’analyse historique révèle que le rôle de l’équilibre des prestations contractuelles a beaucoup évolué au cours des siècles. Cette évolution est intimement liée à la conception que l’on s’est fait du contrat. Sous l’influence successive du droit naturel classique, du volontarisme, puis de la théorie de l’autonomie de la volonté, le rôle de l’équilibre des prestations est devenu de moins en moins important. Dans la perspective du droit naturel classique, le contrat était conçu comme un « échange » de choses de même valeur. L’équilibre des prestations jouait alors un rôle essentiel, puisqu’il faisait partie de l’essence du contrat. Avec le volontarisme, le contrat est conçu comme un acte juridique résultant d’un accord de volontés. La volonté remplace l’équilibre des prestations comme élément essentiel du contrat et l’équilibre se manifeste dorénavant à travers le consentement, le déséquilibre étant la marque d’un vice du consentement. Enfin, sous l’influence du postulat de l’égalité des parties mis de l’avant par la théorie de l’autonomie de la volonté, la sanction de ce vice du consentement devient exceptionnelle.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Les Cahiers de droitarrow_drop_down
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    Les Cahiers de droit
    2005 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Les Cahiers de droit
      2005 . Peer-reviewed
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    Mémoire numérisé par la Direction des bibliothèques de l'Université de Montréal.

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    Mémoire numérisé par la Direction des bibliothèques de l'Université de Montréal.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Papyrus : Dépôt inst...arrow_drop_down
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    Le traumatisme craniocérébral léger (TCCL) a des effets complexes sur plusieurs fonctions cérébrales, dont l’évaluation et le suivi peuvent être difficiles. Les problèmes visuels et les troubles de l’équilibre font partie des plaintes fréquemment rencontrées après un TCCL. En outre, ces problèmes peuvent continuer à affecter les personnes ayant eu un TCCL longtemps après la phase aiguë du traumatisme. Cependant, les évaluations cliniques conventionnelles de la vision et de l’équilibre ne permettent pas, la plupart du temps, d’objectiver ces symptômes, surtout lorsqu’ils s’installent durablement. De plus, il n’existe pas, à notre connaissance, d’étude longitudinale ayant étudié les déficits visuels perceptifs, en tant que tels, ni les troubles de l’équilibre secondaires à un TCCL, chez l’adulte. L’objectif de ce projet était donc de déterminer la nature et la durée des effets d’un tel traumatisme sur la perception visuelle et sur la stabilité posturale, en évaluant des adultes TCCL et contrôles sur une période d’un an. Les mêmes sujets, exactement, ont participé aux deux expériences, qui ont été menées les mêmes jours pour chacun des sujets. L’impact du TCCL sur la perception visuelle de réseaux sinusoïdaux définis par des attributs de premier et de second ordre a d’abord été étudié. Quinze adultes diagnostiqués TCCL ont été évalués 15 jours, 3 mois et 12 mois après leur traumatisme. Quinze adultes contrôles appariés ont été évalués à des périodes identiques. Des temps de réaction (TR) de détection de clignotement et de discrimination de direction de mouvement ont été mesurés. Les niveaux de contraste des stimuli de premier et de second ordre ont été ajustés pour qu’ils aient une visibilité comparable, et les moyennes, médianes, écarts-types (ET) et écarts interquartiles (EIQ) des TR correspondant aux bonnes réponses ont été calculés. Le niveau de symptômes a également été évalué pour le comparer aux données de TR. De façon générale, les TR des TCCL étaient plus longs et plus variables (plus grands ET et EIQ) que ceux des contrôles. De plus, les TR des TCCL étaient plus courts pour les stimuli de premier ordre que pour ceux de second ordre, et plus variables pour les stimuli de premier ordre que pour ceux de second ordre, dans la condition de discrimination de mouvement. Ces observations se sont répétées au cours des trois sessions. Le niveau de symptômes des TCCL était supérieur à celui des participants contrôles, et malgré une amélioration, cet écart est resté significatif sur la période d’un an qui a suivi le traumatisme. La seconde expérience, elle, était destinée à évaluer l’impact du TCCL sur le contrôle postural. Pour cela, nous avons mesuré l’amplitude d’oscillation posturale dans l’axe antéropostérieur et l’instabilité posturale (au moyen de la vitesse quadratique moyenne (VQM) des oscillations posturales) en position debout, les pieds joints, sur une surface ferme, dans cinq conditions différentes : les yeux fermés, et dans un tunnel virtuel tridimensionnel soit statique, soit oscillant de façon sinusoïdale dans la direction antéropostérieure à trois vitesses différentes. Des mesures d’équilibre dérivées de tests cliniques, le Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2nd edition (BOT-2) et le Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) ont également été utilisées. Les participants diagnostiqués TCCL présentaient une plus grande instabilité posturale (une plus grande VQM des oscillations posturales) que les participants contrôles 2 semaines et 3 mois après le traumatisme, toutes conditions confondues. Ces troubles de l’équilibre secondaires au TCCL n’étaient plus présents un an après le traumatisme. Ces résultats suggèrent également que les déficits affectant les processus d’intégration visuelle mis en évidence dans la première expérience ont pu contribuer aux troubles de l’équilibre secondaires au TCCL. L’amplitude d’oscillation posturale dans l’axe antéropostérieur de même que les mesures dérivées des tests cliniques d’évaluation de l’équilibre (BOT-2 et BESS) ne se sont pas révélées être des mesures sensibles pour quantifier le déficit postural chez les sujets TCCL. L’association des mesures de TR à la perception des propriétés spécifiques des stimuli s’est révélée être à la fois une méthode de mesure particulièrement sensible aux anomalies visuomotrices secondaires à un TCCL, et un outil précis d’investigation des mécanismes sous-jacents à ces anomalies qui surviennent lorsque le cerveau est exposé à un traumatisme léger. De la même façon, les mesures d’instabilité posturale se sont révélées suffisamment sensibles pour permettre de mesurer les troubles de l’équilibre secondaires à un TCCL. Ainsi, le développement de tests de dépistage basés sur ces résultats et destinés à l’évaluation du TCCL dès ses premières étapes apparaît particulièrement intéressant. Il semble également primordial d’examiner les relations entre de tels déficits et la réalisation d’activités de la vie quotidienne, telles que les activités scolaires, professionnelles ou sportives, pour déterminer les impacts fonctionnels que peuvent avoir ces troubles des fonctions visuomotrice et du contrôle de l’équilibre. Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has complex effects on several brain functions that can be difficult to assess and follow-up. Visual and balance problems are frequently reported after an mTBI. Furthermore, these problems can still affect mTBI individuals far beyond the acute stage of injury. However, standard clinical assessments of vision and balance most often fail to objectivize these symptoms, especially if they are lingering. Moreover, to our knowledge, no longitudinal study investigated either mTBI-related deficits of visual perception per se, or mTBI-related balance deficits in adults. The aim of this project was to determine the nature and duration of the effects of such a traumatism on visual perception as well as on postural stability, by evaluating mTBI and control adults over a one-year period. Exactly the same subjects participated in both experiments, which took place on the same days for every subject. The impact of mTBI on the visual perception of sine-wave gratings defined by first-and second-order characteristics was, first, investigated. Fifteen adults diagnosed with mTBI were assessed at 15 days, 3 months and 12 months after injury. Fifteen matched controls followed the same testing schedule. Reaction times (RTs) for flicker detection and motion direction discrimination were measured. Stimulus contrast of first- and second-order patterns was equated to control for visibility, and correct-response RT means, standard deviations (SDs), medians, and interquartile ranges (IQRs) were calculated. The level of symptoms was also evaluated to compare it to RT data. In general in mTBI, RTs were longer and more variable (ie., larger SDs and IQRs), than those of controls. In addition, mTBI participants’ RTs to first-order stimuli were shorter than those to second-order stimuli, and more irregular for first- than for second-order stimuli in the motion condition. All these observations were made over the 3 sessions. The level of symptoms observed in mTBI was higher than that of control participants and this difference did also persist up to one year after the brain injury, despite an improvement. The second experiment, then, investigated the impact of mTBI on postural control. To achieve that, antero-posterior body sway amplitude (BSA) and postural instability (given by body sway velocity root mean square, vRMS) during upright stance, feet together, on a firm surface, were measured in five different conditions: with eyes closed and in a 3D virtual reality tunnel, either static or sinusoidally moving in the antero-posterior direction at 3 different velocities. Balance measures derived from clinical tests, Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2nd edition (BOT-2) and Balance Error Scoring System (BESS), were also used. Participants diagnosed with mTBI exhibited more postural instability (i.e. higher body sway vRMS) than control participants at 2 weeks and at 3 months post-injury, regardless of the testing condition. These mTBI-related balance deficits were no longer present one year postinjury. These results also suggest that visual processing impairments revealed in the first experiment might have contributed to mTBI-related balance deficits. Anteroposterior BSA as well as measures derived from clinical tests for balance assessment did not appear to be sensitive enough to quantify postural deficits of mTBI participants. The combination of RT measures with particular stimulus properties appeared to be a highly sensitive method for measuring mTBI-induced visuomotor anomalies, and to provide a fine probe of the underlying mechanisms when the brain is exposed to mild trauma. Likewise, postural instability measures prove to be sensitive enough for measuring mTBI-induced balance deficits. Developing screening tests in this respect intended for early post-mTBI use would be of interest. Also, studying relationships of such deficits with performance in daily life activities, such as school, work, or sports, is crucial in order to determine the functional impacts of these alterations in visuomotor and balance functions.

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    Thèse numérisée par la Direction des bibliothèques de l'Université de Montréal.

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    Cet article s’intéresse à l’estimation des modèles semiparamétriques de séries temporelles définis par leur moyenne et variance conditionnelles. Nous mettons en exergue l’importance de l’utilisation jointe des restrictions sur la moyenne et la variance. Ceci amène à tenir compte de la covariance entre la moyenne et la variance ainsi que de la variance de la variance, autrement dit la \"skewness\" et la \"kurtosis\". Nous établissons les liens directs entre les méthodes paramétriques usuelles d’estimation, à savoir l’EPMV (estimateur du pseudo maximum de vraisemblance), les GMM et les M-estimateurs. L’EPMV usuel est, dans le cas de la non-normalité, moins efficace que l’estimateur GMM optimal. Néanmoins, l’EPMV bivarié, basé sur le vecteur composé de la variable dépendante et de son carré, est aussi efficace que l’estimateur GMM optimal. Une analyse Monte Carlo confirme la pertinence de notre approche, en particulier l’importance de la \"skewness\". This paper addresses the issue of estimating semiparametric time series models specified by their conditional mean and conditional variance. We stress the importance of using joint restrictions on the mean and variance. This leads us to take into account the covariance between the mean and the variance and the variance of the variance, that is, the skewness and kurtosis. We establish the direct links between the usual parametric estimation methods, namely, the QMLE, the GMM and the M-estimation. The ususal univariate QMLE is, under non-normality, less efficient than the optimal GMM estimator. However, the bivariate QMLE based on the dependent variable and its square is as efficient as the optimal GMM one. A Monte Carlo analysis confirms the relevance of our approach, in particular, the importance of skewness.

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    Ce mémoire examine la gestion des attentes effectuée par les deux entraîneurs qui se sont succédé à la barre des Canadiens de Montréal lors de la saison 2016-2017, ainsi que les cadres utilisés à cette fin. Sachant que 1) des prestations inférieures aux attentes constituent un facteur déterminant dans le congédiement des entraîneurs (Humphreys et al., 2016) et 2) qu’aucun autre groupe exerçant ce métier en Amérique du Nord n’affiche un taux de roulement supérieur à celui observé dans la LNH (Zinser, 2008), le mythique club montréalais est apparu comme un environnement fécond pour aborder nombre de questions liées à ces phénomènes. Une analyse de discours a ainsi été effectuée à partir de la quasi-totalité des entretiens médiatiques livrés par Michel Therrien et Claude Julien sur une saison complète. Elle a été réalisée en mobilisant les concepts de gestion des attentes et de cadrage (framing). Concrètement, ce mémoire a tenté de savoir si les entraîneurs cherchent à gérer les attentes, de dégager certains modes opératoires ou tendances, en plus de proposer un inventaire des cadres employés dans ce contexte. Il a notamment été permis de constater l’adresse dont font preuve ces deux entraîneurs dans la gestion des attentes et le maniement des cadres, et ce, même s’ils affichent certains traits idiosyncrasiques. Par exemple, Claude Julien s’est montré plus réservé que son prédécesseur dans l’utilisation du cadre de la coupe Stanley. Par ailleurs, les résultats des analyses démontrent que les cadres ayant trait à la préparation, aux efforts et aux impondérables ont été les plus utilisés. Certains dénis de réalité se sont aussi révélés lors de périodes fastes, et les zones de tolérance ont démontré toute leur importance dans les situations inverses. Plutôt qu’un portrait de la gestion médiatique des attentes en milieu sportif, ce mémoire a été abordé comme une exploration, examinant une seule saison et n’ayant pu s’appuyer sur aucune autre étude relativement similaire, inexistante en apparence pour ce créneau singulier. This thesis examines expectation management as performed by the two different head coaches of the Montreal Canadiens during the 2016-2017 season along with the frames used to this end. Knowing that 1) failure to meet expectations is a key factor in head coach dismissals (Humphreys et al., 2016) and that 2) the NHL has the highest turnover rate in North America for that profession (Zinser, 2008), the work environment of the fabled Montreal Canadiens appeared to provide fertile ground to address questions linked to those phenomena. Nearly all media interviews given by Michel Therrien and Claude Julien over a full season were studied through discourse analysis, using the concepts of expectation management and framing. Specifically, this thesis investigates whether coaches try to manage expectations and if certain modus operandi or tendencies can be extracted while compiling an inventory of frames used in this context. It was found that both head coaches displayed adroitness and idiosyncratic traits in expectation management and in framing reality. Claude Julien, for instance, was more self-contained than his predecessor in using the Stanley Cup frame. Frames that pertained to preparation, efforts and contingencies were most frequently used. Certain forms of denialism also appeared during successful spells while zones of tolerance proved to be quite useful in difficult times. This thesis should be viewed as an exploration of public expectation management in sports rather than a comprehensive picture as it explores a single season while drawing on no other research, non-existent it seems in this peculiar niche.

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    Ce mémoire s'intéresse à l'inscription du son dans la mise en scène Inferno de Romeo Castellucci. Il s'agit de cerner en quoi la dimension sonore de cette œuvre s'émancipe de l'utilisation traditionnelle du son au théâtre et comment son intégration aux actions scéniques en vient à créer un nouveau type de dramaturgie. Ne visant plus l'illustration d'un récit, cette œuvre met de l'avant la matérialité des divers médiums constituant l'action. Nous verrons comment le son dans cette mise en scène s’autonomise. Il ne se veut plus mimétique; il ne vise pas à nous faire entendre quelque chose d’absent. Comme il s'apprécie pour ses qualités propres, le son parvient à « interagir » avec les autres éléments scéniques d’une manière inédite. La dynamique des présences visibles et audibles devient ainsi le foyer de tensions dramaturgiques. Ceci nous conduira à nous interroger sur la question de l'écoute et de ses processus pour tenter de voir comment la perception sonore influence la réception intégrale de ce spectacle. Les notions d'acousmatisme, de flou causal et de déréalisation de la perception temporelle nous permettront d'envisager l'apparition d'une dramatisation de l'écoute. This study examines the inscription of sound in Romeo Castellucci’s mise en scène of Inferno. It aims to define how the sound environment of this work goes beyond the traditional use of sound in theatre, and how its integration to the stage action creates a new type of dramaturgy. No more intended as the representation of a narrative, this work emphasizes and reinforces the materiality of any medium constituting the action. We will analyze how the sound in this performance becomes an element on its own. Sound is not mimetic anymore: it does not aim to be the echo of something absent. The sound being able to affirm and render its own expressive qualities, it can “interact” with other scenic elements in an innovative manner. The interactions of both visible and audible components give rise to dramaturgical tensions, conducting us to investigate the question of listening and its modalities in a theatrical context. We will then try to understand how audition redefines the reception of the performance. [À l'origine dans / Was originally part of : Thèses et mémoires - FAS - Département de littérature comparée]

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    The authors consider unit root tests that allow a shift in trend at an unknown time. They focus on the additive outlier approach but also give results for the innovational outlier approach. Various methods of choosing the break date are considered. New limiting distributions are derived, including the case where a shift in trend occurs under the unit root null hypothesis. Limiting distributions are invariant to mean shifts but not to slope shifts. Simulations are used to assess finite sample size and power. The authors focus on the effects of a break under the null and the choice of break date. Copyright 1998 by Economics Department of the University of Pennsylvania and the Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association.

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    International Economic Review
    1998 . Peer-reviewed
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      International Economic Review
      1998 . Peer-reviewed
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    Ce papier teste la relation entre l’intermédiation financière et la croissance économique à l’aide de régressions en coupe instantanée et de données en panel pour 69 pays en développement, durant la période 1960-1990. Les principaux résultats sont : (i) le développement financier est un déterminant significatif de la croissance économique, tel que montré par les régressions en coupe instantanée; (ii) les marchés financiers cessent d’exercer tout effet sur l’activité réelle quand la dimension temporelle est introduite dans les régressions. Ce paradoxe peut être expliqué, dans le cas des pays en développement, par le manque d’un secteur entrepreneurial privé capable de transformer les fonds disponibles en projets profitables; (iii) l’effet du développement financier sur la croissance économique est transmis principalement à travers une augmentation de la productivité des investissements. This paper examines the empirical relationship between financial intermediation and economic growth using cross-country and panel data regressions for 69 developing countries for the 1960-1990 period. The main results are : (i) financial development is a significant determinant of economic growth, as it has been shown in cross-sectional regressions; (ii) financial markets cease to exert any effect on real activity when the temporal dimension is introduced in the regressions. The paradox may be explained, in the case of developing countries, by the lack of an entrepreneurial private sector capable to transform the available funds into profitable projects; (iii) the effect of financial development on economic growth is channeled mainly through an increase in investment efficiency.

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    L’analyse historique révèle que le rôle de l’équilibre des prestations contractuelles a beaucoup évolué au cours des siècles. Cette évolution est intimement liée à la conception que l’on s’est fait du contrat. Sous l’influence successive du droit naturel classique, du volontarisme, puis de la théorie de l’autonomie de la volonté, le rôle de l’équilibre des prestations est devenu de moins en moins important. Dans la perspective du droit naturel classique, le contrat était conçu comme un « échange » de choses de même valeur. L’équilibre des prestations jouait alors un rôle essentiel, puisqu’il faisait partie de l’essence du contrat. Avec le volontarisme, le contrat est conçu comme un acte juridique résultant d’un accord de volontés. La volonté remplace l’équilibre des prestations comme élément essentiel du contrat et l’équilibre se manifeste dorénavant à travers le consentement, le déséquilibre étant la marque d’un vice du consentement. Enfin, sous l’influence du postulat de l’égalité des parties mis de l’avant par la théorie de l’autonomie de la volonté, la sanction de ce vice du consentement devient exceptionnelle.

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    Érudit
    Data sources: Érudit
    Les Cahiers de droit
    2005 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Érudit
      Data sources: Érudit
      Les Cahiers de droit
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      Data sources: Crossref