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  • PAHO COVID19

  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    Apresentação: O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referentes ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática.

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PAHO COVID19arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: México, Secretaría de Salud Federal, Unidad de Inteligencia Epidemiológica y Sanitaria, Dirección General de Epidemiología;

    La información clínica sobre los casos confirmados de COVID-19 reportados hasta ahora sugiere un curso de enfermedad diferente que el observado en casos de SARS-CoV y MERS-CoV. Sin embargo, con investigaciones aún en curso, es difícil evaluar si hay grupos de población con mayor riesgo de enfermedad grave. (1,3) La información preliminar sugiere que los adultos mayores y las personas con afectación de la salud subyacentes pueden tener un mayor riesgo de presentar enfermedad grave por este virus. (4) La información proporcionada hasta el momento de COVID-19 referida en una publicación muestra que los casos presentan: fiebre (> 90% de los casos), malestar general, tos seca (80%), dolor torácico (20%) y dificultad respiratoria (15%). Las radiografías de tórax con radio opacidades bilaterales y las biometrías hemáticas con presencia de leucopenia y linfopenia. Algunos de ellos han requerido cuidados intensivos, aunque la mayoría se encontraban estables. La primera defunción correspondió a paciente masculino de 61 años con antecedente de tumor abdominal y cirrosis, quien ingreso al hospital por presentar dificultad respiratoria y neumonía, integrándose los diagnósticos de neumonía severa, síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda, choque séptico y falla orgánica múltiple...

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PAHO COVID19arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Zhuo, Yuner et al.;

    [Abstract]. Background: Awareness and attentiveness have implications for the acceptance and adoption of disease prevention and control measures. Social media posts provide a record of the public’s attention to an outbreak. To measure the attention of Chinese netizens to COVID-19, a pre-established nationally representative cohort of Weibo users was searched for COVID-19-related keywords in their posts. Methods: COVID-19-related posts (N=1101) were retrieved from a longitudinal cohort of 52,268 randomly sampled Weibo accounts (December 31, 2019 – February 12, 2020). Results: Attention to COVID-19 was limited prior to China openly acknowledging human-to-human transmission on January 20. Following this date, attention quickly increased and has remained high over time. Particularly high levels of social media traffic appeared around when Wuhan was first placed in quarantine (January 23-24, 8-9% of the overall posts), when a scandal associated with the Red Cross Society of China occurred (February 1, 8%), and following the death of Dr. Li Wenliang (February 6-7, 11%), one of the whistleblowers reprimanded by the Chinese police in early January for discussing this outbreak online. Discussion: Limited early warnings represent missed opportunities to engage citizens earlier in the outbreak. Governments should more proactively communicate early warnings to the public in a transparent manner.

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    Authors: Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde;

    [Introdução]: A OMS desenvolveu esta nota de aconselhamento rápido para atender à necessidade de recomendações sobre atendimento domiciliar seguro para pacientes com suspeita de infecção pelo novo coronavírus (2019-nCoV), apresentando sintomas leves e medidas de saúde pública relacionadas ao manejo de contatos assintomáticos. O documento é adaptado das orientações provisórias relativas ao MERS-CoV, publicado em junho de 20181, e está constituído pelas diretrizes com base em evidência publicadas pela OMS, incluindo Prevenção e controle de infecções de doenças respiratórias agudas propensas a epidemias e pandemias nos cuidados de saúde e com base nas informações atuais disponíveis sobre a infecção pelo 2019-nCoV. Esta orientação rápida destina-se a profissionais de saúde pública e de prevenção e controle de infecção (PCI), gestores e profissionais de saúde, ao abordar questões relacionadas ao atendimento domiciliar de pacientes com suspeita de infecção pelo nCoV que apresentem sintomas leves e o tratamento de contatos assintomáticos.

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    13th March, 2020 - ST. JOHN’S, Antigua and Barbuda – 13th March, 2020Prime Minister the Hon. Gaston Browne today announced that the country has recorded its first confirmation of someone who has contracted the coronavirus (COVID-19). “I want to emphasize that there is no need for fear or panic, arising from this case. The person concerned is in self isolation at home, and a regime has been put in place today, not only to continue such isolation, but also to treat the condition,” noted the Prime Minister. He called on the nation to be more sensible in their behaviour and be their brother’s keeper. “Let us conjoin our efforts to prevent the spread of Covid 19 within the domestic population,” he said. “Considering the challenges of Covid 19, to include the economic impact and potential threat to our food security, we have to work diligently and collectively as a nation, of one people, with a common destiny to confront these challenges,” PM Browne concluded.

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    Authors: Huang, Yongshent et al.;

    oronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has recently become a public emergency and a worldwide pandemic. The clinical symptoms of severe and non-severe patients vary, and the case-fatality rate (CFR) in severe COVID-19 patients is very high. However, the information on the risk factors associated with the severity of COVID-19 and of their prognostic potential is limited. METHODS: In this retrospective study, the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, treatment and outcome data were collected and analyzed from 223 COVID-19 patients stratified into 125 non-severe patients and 98 severe patients. In addition, a pooled large-scale meta-analysis of 1646 cases was performed. RESULTS: We found that the age, gender and comorbidities are the common risk factors associated with the severity of COVID-19. For the diagnosis markers, we found that the levels of D-dimer, C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), procalcitonin (PCT) were significantly higher in severe group compared with the non-severe group on admission (D-Dimer: 87.3% vs. 35.3%, P<0.001; CRP, 65.1% vs. 13.5%, P<0.001; LDH: 83.9% vs. 22.2%, P<0.001; PCT: 35.1% vs. 2.2%, P<0.001), while the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (ASP) and creatinine kinase (CK) were only mildly increased. We also made a large scale meta-analysis of 1646 cases combined with 4 related literatures, and further confirmed the relationship between the COVID-19 severity and these risk factors. Moreover, we tracked dynamic changes during the process of COVID-19, and found CRP, D-dimer, LDH, PCT kept in high levels in severe patient. Among all these markers, D-dimer increased remarkably in severe patients and mostly related with the case-fatality rate (CFR). We found adjuvant antithrombotic treatment in some severe patients achieved good therapeutic effect in the cohort. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis markers CRP, D-dimer, LDH and PCT are associated with severity of COVID-19. Among these markers, D-dimer is sensitive for both severity and CFR of COVID-19. Treatment with heparin or other anticoagulants may be beneficial for COVID-19 patients.

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    Cases with suspected or possible reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 have been recently reported in different countries. In many of these cases, it is uncertain if the individual’s Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test remained positive for a long period of time following the first episode of infection or whether it represents a true reinfection.

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    This page summarises important considerations for the care of people with co-existing medical conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Key points from guidance and position statements are summarised for each condition, and there is a link to the main BMJ Best Practice topic. This overview topic is continually reviewed and updated, and more conditions will be added to this list. Our full topic on Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) includes information on diagnosis and management, as well as prevention, differential diagnosis, epidemiology, aetiology, prognosis, and complications.

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    Authors: Organización Mundial de la Salud;

    En virtud del Reglamento Sanitario Internacional (RSI), las autoridades de salud pública de los puertos, aeropuertos y pasos fronterizos terrestres internacionales deben establecer planes y medidas de contingencia eficaces para responder a eventos que puedan constituir una emergencia de salud pública de importancia internacional y comunicarse con el Centro Nacional de Enlace para el RSI acerca de las medidas de salud pública pertinentes. El actual brote de enfermedad por el coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) se ha propagado a través de varias fronteras, lo que ha dado lugar a la demanda de medidas de detección y gestión de los casos sospechosos en los puntos de entrada, en particular los puertos, aeropuertos y pasos fronterizos terrestres. El presente documento tiene por objeto brindar asesoramiento sobre la detección y gestión de viajeros enfermos que se consideren casos sospechosos de COVID-19 en aeropuertos, puertos y pasos fronterizos terrestres internacionales, incluyendo los medios de transporte.

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    Authors: Kamarajah, Sivesh K. et al.;

    Background: Several guidelines to guide clinical practice among esophagogastric surgeons during the COVID-19 pandemic were produced. However, none provide reflection of current service provision. This international survey aimed to clarify the changes observed in esophageal and gastric cancer management and surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: An online survey covering key areas for esophagogastric cancer services, including staging investigations and oncological and surgical therapy before and during (at two separate time-points—24th March 2020 and 18th April 2020) the COVID-19 pandemic were developed. Results: A total of 234 respondents from 225 centers and 49 countries spanning six continents completed the first round of the online survey, of which 79% (n = 184) completed round 2. There was variation in the availability of staging investigations ranging from 26.5% for endoscopic ultrasound to 62.8% for spiral computed tomography scan. Definitive chemoradiotherapy was offered in 14.8% (adenocarcinoma) and 47.0% (squamous cell carcinoma) of respondents and significantly increased by almost three-fold and two-fold, respectively, in both round 1 and 2. There were uncertainty and heterogeneity surrounding prioritization of patients undergoing cancer resections. Of the surgeons symptomatic with COVID-19, only 40.2% (33/82) had routine access to COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction testing for staff. Of those who had testing available (n = 33), only 12.1% (4/33) had tested positive. Conclusions: These data highlight management challenges and several practice variations in caring for patients with esophagogastric cancers. Therefore, there is a need for clear consistent guidelines to be in place in the event of a further pandemic to ensure a standardized level of oncological care for patients with esophagogastric cancers.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    Apresentação: O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referentes ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática.

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    Authors: México, Secretaría de Salud Federal, Unidad de Inteligencia Epidemiológica y Sanitaria, Dirección General de Epidemiología;

    La información clínica sobre los casos confirmados de COVID-19 reportados hasta ahora sugiere un curso de enfermedad diferente que el observado en casos de SARS-CoV y MERS-CoV. Sin embargo, con investigaciones aún en curso, es difícil evaluar si hay grupos de población con mayor riesgo de enfermedad grave. (1,3) La información preliminar sugiere que los adultos mayores y las personas con afectación de la salud subyacentes pueden tener un mayor riesgo de presentar enfermedad grave por este virus. (4) La información proporcionada hasta el momento de COVID-19 referida en una publicación muestra que los casos presentan: fiebre (> 90% de los casos), malestar general, tos seca (80%), dolor torácico (20%) y dificultad respiratoria (15%). Las radiografías de tórax con radio opacidades bilaterales y las biometrías hemáticas con presencia de leucopenia y linfopenia. Algunos de ellos han requerido cuidados intensivos, aunque la mayoría se encontraban estables. La primera defunción correspondió a paciente masculino de 61 años con antecedente de tumor abdominal y cirrosis, quien ingreso al hospital por presentar dificultad respiratoria y neumonía, integrándose los diagnósticos de neumonía severa, síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda, choque séptico y falla orgánica múltiple...

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    Authors: Zhuo, Yuner et al.;

    [Abstract]. Background: Awareness and attentiveness have implications for the acceptance and adoption of disease prevention and control measures. Social media posts provide a record of the public’s attention to an outbreak. To measure the attention of Chinese netizens to COVID-19, a pre-established nationally representative cohort of Weibo users was searched for COVID-19-related keywords in their posts. Methods: COVID-19-related posts (N=1101) were retrieved from a longitudinal cohort of 52,268 randomly sampled Weibo accounts (December 31, 2019 – February 12, 2020). Results: Attention to COVID-19 was limited prior to China openly acknowledging human-to-human transmission on January 20. Following this date, attention quickly increased and has remained high over time. Particularly high levels of social media traffic appeared around when Wuhan was first placed in quarantine (January 23-24, 8-9% of the overall posts), when a scandal associated with the Red Cross Society of China occurred (February 1, 8%), and following the death of Dr. Li Wenliang (February 6-7, 11%), one of the whistleblowers reprimanded by the Chinese police in early January for discussing this outbreak online. Discussion: Limited early warnings represent missed opportunities to engage citizens earlier in the outbreak. Governments should more proactively communicate early warnings to the public in a transparent manner.

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    Authors: Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde;

    [Introdução]: A OMS desenvolveu esta nota de aconselhamento rápido para atender à necessidade de recomendações sobre atendimento domiciliar seguro para pacientes com suspeita de infecção pelo novo coronavírus (2019-nCoV), apresentando sintomas leves e medidas de saúde pública relacionadas ao manejo de contatos assintomáticos. O documento é adaptado das orientações provisórias relativas ao MERS-CoV, publicado em junho de 20181, e está constituído pelas diretrizes com base em evidência publicadas pela OMS, incluindo Prevenção e controle de infecções de doenças respiratórias agudas propensas a epidemias e pandemias nos cuidados de saúde e com base nas informações atuais disponíveis sobre a infecção pelo 2019-nCoV. Esta orientação rápida destina-se a profissionais de saúde pública e de prevenção e controle de infecção (PCI), gestores e profissionais de saúde, ao abordar questões relacionadas ao atendimento domiciliar de pacientes com suspeita de infecção pelo nCoV que apresentem sintomas leves e o tratamento de contatos assintomáticos.

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    13th March, 2020 - ST. JOHN’S, Antigua and Barbuda – 13th March, 2020Prime Minister the Hon. Gaston Browne today announced that the country has recorded its first confirmation of someone who has contracted the coronavirus (COVID-19). “I want to emphasize that there is no need for fear or panic, arising from this case. The person concerned is in self isolation at home, and a regime has been put in place today, not only to continue such isolation, but also to treat the condition,” noted the Prime Minister. He called on the nation to be more sensible in their behaviour and be their brother’s keeper. “Let us conjoin our efforts to prevent the spread of Covid 19 within the domestic population,” he said. “Considering the challenges of Covid 19, to include the economic impact and potential threat to our food security, we have to work diligently and collectively as a nation, of one people, with a common destiny to confront these challenges,” PM Browne concluded.

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    Authors: Huang, Yongshent et al.;

    oronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has recently become a public emergency and a worldwide pandemic. The clinical symptoms of severe and non-severe patients vary, and the case-fatality rate (CFR) in severe COVID-19 patients is very high. However, the information on the risk factors associated with the severity of COVID-19 and of their prognostic potential is limited. METHODS: In this retrospective study, the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, treatment and outcome data were collected and analyzed from 223 COVID-19 patients stratified into 125 non-severe patients and 98 severe patients. In addition, a pooled large-scale meta-analysis of 1646 cases was performed. RESULTS: We found that the age, gender and comorbidities are the common risk factors associated with the severity of COVID-19. For the diagnosis markers, we found that the levels of D-dimer, C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), procalcitonin (PCT) were significantly higher in severe group compared with the non-severe group on admission (D-Dimer: 87.3% vs. 35.3%, P<0.001; CRP, 65.1% vs. 13.5%, P<0.001; LDH: 83.9% vs. 22.2%, P<0.001; PCT: 35.1% vs. 2.2%, P<0.001), while the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (ASP) and creatinine kinase (CK) were only mildly increased. We also made a large scale meta-analysis of 1646 cases combined with 4 related literatures, and further confirmed the relationship between the COVID-19 severity and these risk factors. Moreover, we tracked dynamic changes during the process of COVID-19, and found CRP, D-dimer, LDH, PCT kept in high levels in severe patient. Among all these markers, D-dimer increased remarkably in severe patients and mostly related with the case-fatality rate (CFR). We found adjuvant antithrombotic treatment in some severe patients achieved good therapeutic effect in the cohort. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis markers CRP, D-dimer, LDH and PCT are associated with severity of COVID-19. Among these markers, D-dimer is sensitive for both severity and CFR of COVID-19. Treatment with heparin or other anticoagulants may be beneficial for COVID-19 patients.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PAHO COVID19arrow_drop_down
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