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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cross, Emily S.; Riddoch, Katie A.; Pratts, Jaydan; Titone, Simon; +2 Authors

    Cross, E. S., Riddoch, K. A., Pratts, J., Titone, S., Chaudhury, B., & Hortensius, R. (2019). A neurocognitive investigation of the impact of socialising with a robot on empathy for pain:. http://doi.org/10.1101/470534

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroVaultarrow_drop_down
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    NeuroVault
    Other ORP type . 2020
    License: CC 0
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroVaultarrow_drop_down
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      NeuroVault
      Other ORP type . 2020
      License: CC 0
      Data sources: NeuroVault
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    Authors: Gordon, Brian A.; Friedrichsen, Karl; Brier, Matthew; Blazey, Tyler; +10 Authors
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroVault
    Other ORP type . 2016
    License: CC 0
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroVaultarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroVault
      Other ORP type . 2016
      License: CC 0
      Data sources: NeuroVault
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    Authors: Shimada, Kazutake;

    The term neurosteroids applies to those steroids that are both synthesized in the nervous system, either de novo from cholesterol or from steroid hormone precursors, and that accumulate in the nervous system to levels that are at least in part independent of steroidogenic gland secretion rates. Neurosteroids consist of 17- or 20-oxosteroids and accumulate in the brain as unconjugated form and their sulfates, fatty acid esters and sulfolipid conjugates.The separation and characterization of pregennolone, dehydroepiandrosterone and their 3-fatty acid esters (stearate, palmitate) in the brain are carried out using liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC/APCI-MS) operating in the positive ion mode. These obtained from rat brains were identified in comparison with their chromatographic behavior with authentic samples during LC/APCI-MS.Pregnenolone 3-sulfate in rat brains was also identified as above.The quantitative determination of pregnenolone in rat brains was done using HPLC with fluorescence detection. The method was applied to the determination of pregnenolone in rat brains, most of which showed lower amounts than that previously reported. 脳内ステロイドホルモンの化学構造は比較的簡単な17-又は20-オキソステロイドよりなることが知られている.しかし,遊離型のみならず硫酸あるいは脂肪酸抱合型などとしても存在し複雑であるとされているが,詳細については明らかでない.そこで,HPLC,LC/MSを駆使してラット脳を検索したところ,pregnenolone,dehydroepiandrosteroneの3-stearate,-palmitate(計4種)を同定することに成功した.また,脳内におけるpregnenolone,dehydroepiandrostrone,pregnenolone 3-sulfateの存在もLC/MSなどにより改めて確認した.この際,methyloxime誘導体へ導くことが,分子イオンピーク又は関連するピークの検出を容易とし,LC/MSでの同定上極めて有用なことも見出した.一方,定量法の開発は以下のようにして行った.測定法は簡便性を考慮して蛍光検出HPLCを,測定対象は脳内ステロイドホルモン中で最も多くを占めるとされているpregnenoloneを,蛍光誘導体化試薬には1-anthroylcyanideを選択した,確立した分析法を実試料(ラット脳)へ適用したところ,文献記載値(測定法はRIA又はGC/MS)と符合する個体も見られたが,著しい低値を示す個体もあり,大きな疑問を生じるに至った.この原因がサンプル採取上の問題によるのか,あるいは報告されている分析法に問題があるのかは明らかでないが,いずれにしてもその生理作用と共に解決されるべき重要な課題を提起したことになる.このように,本研究は今後の脳内ステロイドホルモンの研究に一つの方向を示唆したものとして評価される. 出典:研究課題「脳内ステロイドホルモン分析法の開発と脳機能解明への応用」課題番号08457594(KAKEN:科学研究費助成事業データベース(国立情報学研究所)) (https://kaken.nii.ac.jp/report/KAKENHI-PROJECT-08457594/084575941997kenkyu_seika_hokoku_gaiyo/)を加工して作成 研究課題/領域番号:08457594, 研究期間(年度):1996-1997 金沢大学自然科学研究科薬学系

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Vanagas, Tadas;

    Tyrimo tikslas. Ištirti itakoninės rūgšties poveikį smegenų audinio energijos apykaitos mechanizmams. Tyrimo uždaviniai. Įvertinti itakoninės rūgšties (IR), 4-oktilitakonato (4-OI) ir dimetilitakonato (DMI) poveikį nuo I – ojo ir II – ojo elektronų pernašos grandinės kompleksų (EPG) priklausomam deguonies suvartojimo greičiui. Įvertinti IR poveikį ROS gamybai. Metodai. Eksperimentams naudojamos pirminės žiurkių smegenėlių granulinio sluoksnio ląstelių kultūros, su kuriomis buvo atliekami respirometrijos tyrimai, t.y. matuojamas deguonies suvartojimo greitis (DSG). Kvėpavimo proceso vykdymui naudota IR – 1 mM, 2 mM ir 5 mM koncentracijomis, 4-OI – 250 μM, 500 μM ir 750 μM koncentracijomis ir ląstelės po 24 valandų inkubacijos su 50 μM DMI ir 100 ng/ml LPS. Tam kad vyktų kvėpavimo procesas buvo naudojami substratai: 6 mM piruvatas + 6 mM malatas, 2 mM ADP, 10.17 μM digitoninas, 10 mM glutamatas, 1 μM CAT, 1 μM CCCP, 10 mM sukcinatas, 0.5 μM rotenonas, 100 mM azidas. Gauti DSG išreikšti pmolO2/s*ml/106/ml ląstelių skaičiui. Eksperimentams su smegenų mitochondrijomis buvo naudojami tie patys substratai, o rezultatai išreikšti pmolO2/s*ml/0.5 mg mitochondrijų baltymo. ROS gamyba buvo registruojama naudojant izoliuotas mitochondrijos su 6 mM piruvato + 6 mM malato + 2 mM ADP arba su 10 mM sukcinato + 5 μM rotenono šulinėlyje su 0,25 mg/ml mitochondrijų baltymo. Rezultatai. IR slopina nuo I – ojo ir II – ojo EPG kompleksų priklausomą deguonies suvartojimo greitį atitinkamai: 1 mM koncentracija – 29.75% ir 17.03%, 2 mM IR – 25.85% ir 44.42%, 5 mM IR – 53.06% ir 51.78%. Nustatyta priklausomybė nuo IR koncentracijos. Kaip ir IR, taip pat ir 4-OI slopina nuo I – ojo EPG komplekso priklausomą DSG 43.64 ± 1.3% 500-750 μM koncentracijomis. 4-OI slopina nuo II – ojo EPG komplekso priklausomą DSG 58.52 ± 6.27% 250-750 μM koncentracijomis. DMI nekeičia DSG ląstelėse kvėpuojančiose su I – ojo ir II – ojo EPG kompleksų substratais. Taip pat IR 5 mM koncentracija reikšmingai mažina nuo I – ojo ir II – ojo EPG kompleksų priklausomą ROS gamybą atitinkamai 41.34% ir 39.14%. Išvados. Itakoninė rūgštis ir 4-oktilitakonatas slopina smegenų ląstelių mitochondrijų nuo I-ojo ir II-ojo elektronų pernašos grandinės kompleksų priklausomą deguonies suvartojimo greitį. Dimetilitakonatas slopinančiu poveikiu nepasižymi. Itakoninė rūgštis taip pat geba sumažinti ROS gamybą smegenų mitochondrijose. Aim. To investigate the effect of IA on the bioenergetic processess in the brain tissue. Objectives. To evaluate the effect of IA, 4-octylitaconate (4-OI) and dimethylitaconate (DMI) on the I and II electron transport chain (ETC) complex dependent oxygen consumption rates. To evaluate the effect of IA for ROS generation. Methods. Primary rat cerebellar granular cell (CGC) cultures were used for respirometry experiments where oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) were evaluated. For the process of respiration we used 1 mM, 2mM and 5 mM of IA; 250 μM, 500 μM and 750 μM of 4-OI and cells after 24 hours incubation with 50 μM DMI and 100 ng/ml LPS. To imitate respiration process the following substrates and inhibitors were used: 6 mM pyruvate + 6 mM malate, 2 mM ADP, 10.17 μM digitonin, 10 mM glutamate, 1 μM CAT, 1 μM CCCP, 10 mM succinate, 0.5 μM rotenone, 100 mM azide. Obtained results with OCRs were expressed as pmolO2/s*ml/106/ml cells. Experiments with isolated brain mitochondria were conducted using the same substrates and inhibitors. OCRs in isolated mitochondria were expressed as pmolO2/s*ml/0.5 mg mitochondrial protein. ROS generation was recorded in isolated mitochondria with 6 mM pyruvate, 6 mM malate and 2 mM ADP or 10 mM succinate + 5 μM rotenone in the well containing 0,25 mg/ml mitochondrial protein. Results. IA inhibits the I and II ETC complexes dependent OCRs respectively: 1 mM IA – 29.75% and 17.03%, 2 mM IA – 25.85% and 44.42%, 5 mM IA – 53.06% and 51.78%. IA inhibits mitochondrial respiration in a dose dependent manner. Similar to IA, 4-OI inhibits the I ETC complex dependent OCR by 43.64 ± 1.3% in 500-750 μM concentrations. 4-OI inhibits the II ETC complex dependent OCR by 58.52 ± 6.27% in 250-750 μM concentrations. DMI did not change OCR in cells respiring with the I and II ETC complexes. Also IA 5 mM concentration significantly decreases the I and II ETC complexes dependent ROS generation respectively by 41.34% and 39.14%. Conclusion. Itaconic acid and 4-octylitaconate reduces the I and II electron transport chain complexes dependent oxygen consumption rates in brain mitochondria. Dimethylitaconate has no such inhibitory efffect. Itaconic acid is also able to reduce ROS generation in brain mitochondria.

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    Authors: Wegrzyn, Martin; Aust, Joana; Barnstorf, Larissa; Gippert, Magdalena; +15 Authors

    Condition-wise and block-wise maps from our manuscript "Thought experiment: decoding cognitive processes from the fMRI data of one individual"

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    NeuroVault
    Other ORP type . 2018
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      NeuroVault
      Other ORP type . 2018
      License: CC 0
      Data sources: NeuroVault
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    Authors: Koban, Leonie; Jepma, Marieke; López-Solà, Marina; Wager, Tor D.;
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    NeuroVault
    Other ORP type . 2019
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      NeuroVault
      Other ORP type . 2019
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    Authors: Rahimpour Jounghani, Ali;

    Timing is an essential component of human actions, and is the foundation of any sort of sequential behavior, from picking up a glass to playing an instrument or dancing. Because of this, our understanding of how we represent time in the brain (i.e., the human timing system) critically relies on basic research on simple behaviors. Perception of temporal regularities is central to a wide range of basic actions, but also underpins abilities unique to humans such as the creation of complex musical scores. This dissertation is an in-depth examination of endogenously and exogenously guided timing behavior, and how context is a critical component of understanding rhythmic entrainment in humans. We previously validated “gold standard” functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings on action-based timing behavior using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) (Rahimpour et al., 2020). In particular, we observed significant hemodynamic responses in cortical areas in direct relation to the complexity of the behavior being performed. To do so, we probed multiple levels of contextual influence on action-based timing behavior and patterns of cortical activation as measured using fNIRS. Our findings highlighted several distinct, context-dependent parameters of specific timing behaviors. Here we further interrogate human timing abilities by introducing variations of our original experimental design, observing that subtle contextual variations have a significant impact on the degree of rhythmic entrainment given the presence/absence of metronomic input. We used electroencephalogram (EEG) to further validate our fNIRS findings, demonstrating that single trial neurobiological activity can be used to predict whether behavior is exogenously or endogenously guided. We also found that patterns of neural activity correspond to differential use of the internal timing system, and that specific differences in neural activity correlate with accuracy of action-based timing behavior. These findings emerged from our use of a novel deep learning approach to extract person-specific, neural-based features as predictors of behavioral performance. Finally, we examined whether fNIRS and EEG produced similar localization information, finding that the influence of training factors on cortical localization must be accounted for to make such comparisons.

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    Authors: Picado Rossi, Marisol;

    El trastorno por deficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH) es considerado uno de los trastornos psiquiátricos infantiles con mayor prevalencia, careacterizado por síntomas de inatención, hiperactividad e impulsividad. Hasta hace poco, se pensanba que los síntomas mejoraban con la edad, pero recientemente existe evidencia de que los síntomas del trastorno pueden prevalecer hasta la edad adulta. Un estudio reciente indicó que un 35% de los casos continuaban presentando el trastorno en la adultez, afectando aproximadamente entre un 3-7% de la población adulta. A pesar de que el substrato neurobiológico del TDAH no se conoce con exactitud, estudios geneticos, preclínicos y clínicos apuntan a que podría tratarse de alteraciones dopaminergicas y/o noradrenérgicas. Alteraciones en la actividad neural y el menor volumen de sustancia gris que se ha encontrado en estos pacientes en regiones relacionadas a la dopamina también corroboran dichos deficits. Adultos diagnosticados con TDAH suelen presentar deficits neuropsicológicos en cuanto a memoria de trabajo, atención y control inhibotorio. El modelo de doble vía de Sonuga Barke implica por lo menos dos endofenotipos, relativamente independientes pero no excluyentes el uno del otro. El primero se asocia más a deficits a nivel ejecutivo como el control inhibitorio, mientras que el segundo se realciona a lo que alteraciones motivaciones, principalmente la anticipación de la recompensa. Este modelo explica le heteroenidad del TDAH en términos de déficits cognitivos y motivacionales disociables, los cuales pueded afectar a algunos pacientes pero no a otros. Es importante señalar que recientemente se ha sugerido que el procesameinto temporal podría consituir un tecer componente nueropsicológicodisociabl del TDAH. Déficits en cuanto al procesamiento temporal se están estudiando en TDAH, y además, se ha evaluado su posible relación con la impulsividad, síntoma importante de este trastorno. A pesar de la influencia que los procesos motivaciones podrían tener en el funcionamiento cognitivo, pocos estudios han centrado en el substrato neuronal de los sistemas de motivación y temporales, y su implicación en la fisiopatología del TDAH. Por tanto, analizamos las imágenes RMf de 20 pacientes adultos con TDAH, no medicados y subtipo combinado, así como de 25 sujetos controles. Los datos se utilizaron para identificar y comparar la activación durante un paradigma de recompensa y discriminación temporal. El paradigma incluyó la prescencia de distractores durante la tarea para evaluar atención. Los resultados del análisis por regiones de interés indicó menor activación en el cerebelo izquierdo y derecho durante la tarera de recompensa/discriminación temporal en el grupo con TDAH. El cerebelo es una región implicada en alteraciones estructurales y funcionales en TDAH, y recientemente también se ha señalado su possible implicación como mediador en tareas de procesamiento temporal. Los análisis de whole-brain también inidcaron menor activación en el giro temporal superior, el cerebelo izquierdo y derecho, el giro fusiforme, el giro de Heschl, y el giro medio occipital en los pacientes. Contrariamente, se observó una mayor activación en los pacientes en el giro frontal inferior derecho y en el giro parietal superior izquierdo. Adicionalmente, los análisis por regiones de interés también mostraron menor actividad neural en ralación al estíimulo del distractor en el grupo con TDAH en la corteza prefrontal dorsolateral y en el giro precentral. En los análisis de whole-brain también se observó una menor activación en el giro postcentral izquierdo, el giro temporal izquierdo y el giro frontal izquierdo. Finalmente, se observó un aumento en la activación en los pacientes con TDAH en la corteza orbitofrontal derecha. Nuestros resultados aportan evidencia de que el procesamiento temporal, junto con procesos cognitivos como la atención, así como los procesos motivacionales relacionados con la recompensa, podrían representar un tercer componente neuropsicológico afectado en el TDAH. ADHD, conceived as one of the most prevalent childhood psychiatric disorders, is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity symptoms and estimate to affect 5% of worldwide population. Until recently, symptoms were thought to ameliorate with age. However, a recent 10 year follow-up study indicated that 35% of paediatric patients still meeting ADHD diagnostic criteria and it's been estimated that ADHD affects between 3 and 7% of adult population. Even thought the exact neurobiological substrate of ADHD still unclear, genetic, preclinical and clinical studies point to dopaminergic and/or noradrenergic alterations. Neural activity and grey matter volume decreases in dopamine related regions also corroborate such deficits. Adults diagnosed with this disorder are likely to neuropsychological deficits involving working memory, attention and inhibitory control. The multiple pathway model proposed by Sonuga-Barke implicates at least two relatively independent but not mutually exclusiv endophenotypes; those involving an executive functioning disruption such as inhibition control, and those more related with motivational system abnormalities, basically reward anticipation. Therefore, this model explains neuropsychological heterogeneity of ADHD in terms of dissociable cognitive and motivational deficits, each affecting some but not other patients. Importantly, it is been suggested that temporal processing might constitute a third dissociable neuropsychological component of ADHD. Recently, timing processing deficits are being studied in ADHD, and, furthermore, such abnormalities have been related with impulsiveness, a core symptom of ADHD. In spite of the influence that motivational and timing processes might have on cognitive functioning, only a few studies have focused on the neural substrate underpinning the motivational and timing systems and, specifically, their role in ADHD pathophysiology. Therefore, we analyzed functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI) of 20 un-medicated, combined, adult ADHD subjects and 25 healthy controls. Date sets were used to identify and compare the brain activation during a reward/time discrimination paradigm. The paradigm also included distractors during the task, in order to evaluate attention processes. Our results from the Regions of interest (ROIs) analysis indicated decreased brain activation in left and right cerebellum during the task that as compared to the control group. The cerebellum is key area of structural and functional abnormalities in ADHD, and, recently it has been implicated as one important mediator in time discrimination. Furthermore, whole brain analysis indicated decreased brain activity in right superior temporal gyrus, right left cerebellum, right fusiform gyrus, right Heschl's gyrus and left occipital middle gyrus in ADHD group as compared to controls. The opposite contrast showed increased activation levels in right frontal inferior gyrus and left superior parietal gyrus in the patients group. Additionally, ROIs analysis also showed reduced activity in relation to the distractor stimulus in the ADHD group in left DLPFC and the left precentral gyrus. The whole-brain analysis also shoewed a cluster of reduced activity located in the left post central gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus. In the opposite contrast, we observed increased brain activity in the right orbitofrontal cortex in the patients group. Our results provide evidence that temporal processes, in addition to cognitve (i.e., attention) and motivational/emotional domains, might be a third dissociable neuropsychological component that affects ADHD.

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    Abstract This study used combined electrostimulation, neurophysiology, microinjection and fMRI to investigate the cortical activity patterns elicited during stimulation of cortical afferents in monkeys. We found that stimulation of a site in LGN (lateral geniculate nucleus) increases the fMRI signal in the regions of primary visual cortex (V1) receiving input from that site, but suppresses it in the retinotopically matched regions of extrastriate cortex. In agreement with previous observations, intracranial recordings showed that immediately after a stimulation pulse a short excitatory response is followed by long-lasting inhibition. Following microinjections of GABA (?-aminobutyric acid) antagonists in V1, LGN stimulation induced positive fMRI signals in all cortical areas. Taken together, our findings suggest that ES disrupts cortico-cortical signal propagation by silencing the output of any neocortical area whose afferents are electrically stimulated. nikos.logothetis@tuebingen.mpg.de (Logothetis, Nikos K) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Logothetis, Nikos K) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Augath, Mark A) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Murayama, Yusuke) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Rauch, Alexander) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Sultan, Fahad F) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Goense, Jozien) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Oeltermann, Axel) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Merkle, Hellmut) GERMANY Accepted: 2010-08-04 Received: 2010-06-22 Revised: 2010-08-04

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    Authors: Elliott Wimmer, G.; Shohamy, Daphna;

    [Wimmer & Shohamy (2012), Science] Group-level SPM for the contrasts: 1) Reward phase stimulus onset value / stimulus reward prediction error, 2) Reward phase outcome reward prediction error, 3) Reward phase stimulus-stimulus association learning error, 4) Reward phase modulation by subsequent decision bias, 5) Reward phase decision bias PPI connectivity. Here, we show that the hippocampus, traditionally known for its role in building long-term declarative memories, enables the spread of value across memories, thereby guiding decisions between new choice options. Using functional brain imaging in humans, we discovered that giving people monetary rewards led to activation of a pre-established network of memories, spreading the positive value of reward to nonrewarded items stored in memory. Later, people were biased to choose these nonrewarded items. This decision bias was predicted by activity in the hippocampus, reactivation of associated memories, and connectivity between memory and reward regions in the brain.

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    NeuroVault
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      NeuroVault
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    Authors: Cross, Emily S.; Riddoch, Katie A.; Pratts, Jaydan; Titone, Simon; +2 Authors

    Cross, E. S., Riddoch, K. A., Pratts, J., Titone, S., Chaudhury, B., & Hortensius, R. (2019). A neurocognitive investigation of the impact of socialising with a robot on empathy for pain:. http://doi.org/10.1101/470534

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    NeuroVault
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      NeuroVault
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    Authors: Gordon, Brian A.; Friedrichsen, Karl; Brier, Matthew; Blazey, Tyler; +10 Authors
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    NeuroVault
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      NeuroVault
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    Authors: Shimada, Kazutake;

    The term neurosteroids applies to those steroids that are both synthesized in the nervous system, either de novo from cholesterol or from steroid hormone precursors, and that accumulate in the nervous system to levels that are at least in part independent of steroidogenic gland secretion rates. Neurosteroids consist of 17- or 20-oxosteroids and accumulate in the brain as unconjugated form and their sulfates, fatty acid esters and sulfolipid conjugates.The separation and characterization of pregennolone, dehydroepiandrosterone and their 3-fatty acid esters (stearate, palmitate) in the brain are carried out using liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC/APCI-MS) operating in the positive ion mode. These obtained from rat brains were identified in comparison with their chromatographic behavior with authentic samples during LC/APCI-MS.Pregnenolone 3-sulfate in rat brains was also identified as above.The quantitative determination of pregnenolone in rat brains was done using HPLC with fluorescence detection. The method was applied to the determination of pregnenolone in rat brains, most of which showed lower amounts than that previously reported. 脳内ステロイドホルモンの化学構造は比較的簡単な17-又は20-オキソステロイドよりなることが知られている.しかし,遊離型のみならず硫酸あるいは脂肪酸抱合型などとしても存在し複雑であるとされているが,詳細については明らかでない.そこで,HPLC,LC/MSを駆使してラット脳を検索したところ,pregnenolone,dehydroepiandrosteroneの3-stearate,-palmitate(計4種)を同定することに成功した.また,脳内におけるpregnenolone,dehydroepiandrostrone,pregnenolone 3-sulfateの存在もLC/MSなどにより改めて確認した.この際,methyloxime誘導体へ導くことが,分子イオンピーク又は関連するピークの検出を容易とし,LC/MSでの同定上極めて有用なことも見出した.一方,定量法の開発は以下のようにして行った.測定法は簡便性を考慮して蛍光検出HPLCを,測定対象は脳内ステロイドホルモン中で最も多くを占めるとされているpregnenoloneを,蛍光誘導体化試薬には1-anthroylcyanideを選択した,確立した分析法を実試料(ラット脳)へ適用したところ,文献記載値(測定法はRIA又はGC/MS)と符合する個体も見られたが,著しい低値を示す個体もあり,大きな疑問を生じるに至った.この原因がサンプル採取上の問題によるのか,あるいは報告されている分析法に問題があるのかは明らかでないが,いずれにしてもその生理作用と共に解決されるべき重要な課題を提起したことになる.このように,本研究は今後の脳内ステロイドホルモンの研究に一つの方向を示唆したものとして評価される. 出典:研究課題「脳内ステロイドホルモン分析法の開発と脳機能解明への応用」課題番号08457594(KAKEN:科学研究費助成事業データベース(国立情報学研究所)) (https://kaken.nii.ac.jp/report/KAKENHI-PROJECT-08457594/084575941997kenkyu_seika_hokoku_gaiyo/)を加工して作成 研究課題/領域番号:08457594, 研究期間(年度):1996-1997 金沢大学自然科学研究科薬学系

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    Authors: Vanagas, Tadas;

    Tyrimo tikslas. Ištirti itakoninės rūgšties poveikį smegenų audinio energijos apykaitos mechanizmams. Tyrimo uždaviniai. Įvertinti itakoninės rūgšties (IR), 4-oktilitakonato (4-OI) ir dimetilitakonato (DMI) poveikį nuo I – ojo ir II – ojo elektronų pernašos grandinės kompleksų (EPG) priklausomam deguonies suvartojimo greičiui. Įvertinti IR poveikį ROS gamybai. Metodai. Eksperimentams naudojamos pirminės žiurkių smegenėlių granulinio sluoksnio ląstelių kultūros, su kuriomis buvo atliekami respirometrijos tyrimai, t.y. matuojamas deguonies suvartojimo greitis (DSG). Kvėpavimo proceso vykdymui naudota IR – 1 mM, 2 mM ir 5 mM koncentracijomis, 4-OI – 250 μM, 500 μM ir 750 μM koncentracijomis ir ląstelės po 24 valandų inkubacijos su 50 μM DMI ir 100 ng/ml LPS. Tam kad vyktų kvėpavimo procesas buvo naudojami substratai: 6 mM piruvatas + 6 mM malatas, 2 mM ADP, 10.17 μM digitoninas, 10 mM glutamatas, 1 μM CAT, 1 μM CCCP, 10 mM sukcinatas, 0.5 μM rotenonas, 100 mM azidas. Gauti DSG išreikšti pmolO2/s*ml/106/ml ląstelių skaičiui. Eksperimentams su smegenų mitochondrijomis buvo naudojami tie patys substratai, o rezultatai išreikšti pmolO2/s*ml/0.5 mg mitochondrijų baltymo. ROS gamyba buvo registruojama naudojant izoliuotas mitochondrijos su 6 mM piruvato + 6 mM malato + 2 mM ADP arba su 10 mM sukcinato + 5 μM rotenono šulinėlyje su 0,25 mg/ml mitochondrijų baltymo. Rezultatai. IR slopina nuo I – ojo ir II – ojo EPG kompleksų priklausomą deguonies suvartojimo greitį atitinkamai: 1 mM koncentracija – 29.75% ir 17.03%, 2 mM IR – 25.85% ir 44.42%, 5 mM IR – 53.06% ir 51.78%. Nustatyta priklausomybė nuo IR koncentracijos. Kaip ir IR, taip pat ir 4-OI slopina nuo I – ojo EPG komplekso priklausomą DSG 43.64 ± 1.3% 500-750 μM koncentracijomis. 4-OI slopina nuo II – ojo EPG komplekso priklausomą DSG 58.52 ± 6.27% 250-750 μM koncentracijomis. DMI nekeičia DSG ląstelėse kvėpuojančiose su I – ojo ir II – ojo EPG kompleksų substratais. Taip pat IR 5 mM koncentracija reikšmingai mažina nuo I – ojo ir II – ojo EPG kompleksų priklausomą ROS gamybą atitinkamai 41.34% ir 39.14%. Išvados. Itakoninė rūgštis ir 4-oktilitakonatas slopina smegenų ląstelių mitochondrijų nuo I-ojo ir II-ojo elektronų pernašos grandinės kompleksų priklausomą deguonies suvartojimo greitį. Dimetilitakonatas slopinančiu poveikiu nepasižymi. Itakoninė rūgštis taip pat geba sumažinti ROS gamybą smegenų mitochondrijose. Aim. To investigate the effect of IA on the bioenergetic processess in the brain tissue. Objectives. To evaluate the effect of IA, 4-octylitaconate (4-OI) and dimethylitaconate (DMI) on the I and II electron transport chain (ETC) complex dependent oxygen consumption rates. To evaluate the effect of IA for ROS generation. Methods. Primary rat cerebellar granular cell (CGC) cultures were used for respirometry experiments where oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) were evaluated. For the process of respiration we used 1 mM, 2mM and 5 mM of IA; 250 μM, 500 μM and 750 μM of 4-OI and cells after 24 hours incubation with 50 μM DMI and 100 ng/ml LPS. To imitate respiration process the following substrates and inhibitors were used: 6 mM pyruvate + 6 mM malate, 2 mM ADP, 10.17 μM digitonin, 10 mM glutamate, 1 μM CAT, 1 μM CCCP, 10 mM succinate, 0.5 μM rotenone, 100 mM azide. Obtained results with OCRs were expressed as pmolO2/s*ml/106/ml cells. Experiments with isolated brain mitochondria were conducted using the same substrates and inhibitors. OCRs in isolated mitochondria were expressed as pmolO2/s*ml/0.5 mg mitochondrial protein. ROS generation was recorded in isolated mitochondria with 6 mM pyruvate, 6 mM malate and 2 mM ADP or 10 mM succinate + 5 μM rotenone in the well containing 0,25 mg/ml mitochondrial protein. Results. IA inhibits the I and II ETC complexes dependent OCRs respectively: 1 mM IA – 29.75% and 17.03%, 2 mM IA – 25.85% and 44.42%, 5 mM IA – 53.06% and 51.78%. IA inhibits mitochondrial respiration in a dose dependent manner. Similar to IA, 4-OI inhibits the I ETC complex dependent OCR by 43.64 ± 1.3% in 500-750 μM concentrations. 4-OI inhibits the II ETC complex dependent OCR by 58.52 ± 6.27% in 250-750 μM concentrations. DMI did not change OCR in cells respiring with the I and II ETC complexes. Also IA 5 mM concentration significantly decreases the I and II ETC complexes dependent ROS generation respectively by 41.34% and 39.14%. Conclusion. Itaconic acid and 4-octylitaconate reduces the I and II electron transport chain complexes dependent oxygen consumption rates in brain mitochondria. Dimethylitaconate has no such inhibitory efffect. Itaconic acid is also able to reduce ROS generation in brain mitochondria.

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    Authors: Wegrzyn, Martin; Aust, Joana; Barnstorf, Larissa; Gippert, Magdalena; +15 Authors

    Condition-wise and block-wise maps from our manuscript "Thought experiment: decoding cognitive processes from the fMRI data of one individual"

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    Authors: Koban, Leonie; Jepma, Marieke; López-Solà, Marina; Wager, Tor D.;
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    Authors: Rahimpour Jounghani, Ali;

    Timing is an essential component of human actions, and is the foundation of any sort of sequential behavior, from picking up a glass to playing an instrument or dancing. Because of this, our understanding of how we represent time in the brain (i.e., the human timing system) critically relies on basic research on simple behaviors. Perception of temporal regularities is central to a wide range of basic actions, but also underpins abilities unique to humans such as the creation of complex musical scores. This dissertation is an in-depth examination of endogenously and exogenously guided timing behavior, and how context is a critical component of understanding rhythmic entrainment in humans. We previously validated “gold standard” functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings on action-based timing behavior using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) (Rahimpour et al., 2020). In particular, we observed significant hemodynamic responses in cortical areas in direct relation to the complexity of the behavior being performed. To do so, we probed multiple levels of contextual influence on action-based timing behavior and patterns of cortical activation as measured using fNIRS. Our findings highlighted several distinct, context-dependent parameters of specific timing behaviors. Here we further interrogate human timing abilities by introducing variations of our original experimental design, observing that subtle contextual variations have a significant impact on the degree of rhythmic entrainment given the presence/absence of metronomic input. We used electroencephalogram (EEG) to further validate our fNIRS findings, demonstrating that single trial neurobiological activity can be used to predict whether behavior is exogenously or endogenously guided. We also found that patterns of neural activity correspond to differential use of the internal timing system, and that specific differences in neural activity correlate with accuracy of action-based timing behavior. These findings emerged from our use of a novel deep learning approach to extract person-specific, neural-based features as predictors of behavioral performance. Finally, we examined whether fNIRS and EEG produced similar localization information, finding that the influence of training factors on cortical localization must be accounted for to make such comparisons.

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    Authors: Picado Rossi, Marisol;

    El trastorno por deficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH) es considerado uno de los trastornos psiquiátricos infantiles con mayor prevalencia, careacterizado por síntomas de inatención, hiperactividad e impulsividad. Hasta hace poco, se pensanba que los síntomas mejoraban con la edad, pero recientemente existe evidencia de que los síntomas del trastorno pueden prevalecer hasta la edad adulta. Un estudio reciente indicó que un 35% de los casos continuaban presentando el trastorno en la adultez, afectando aproximadamente entre un 3-7% de la población adulta. A pesar de que el substrato neurobiológico del TDAH no se conoce con exactitud, estudios geneticos, preclínicos y clínicos apuntan a que podría tratarse de alteraciones dopaminergicas y/o noradrenérgicas. Alteraciones en la actividad neural y el menor volumen de sustancia gris que se ha encontrado en estos pacientes en regiones relacionadas a la dopamina también corroboran dichos deficits. Adultos diagnosticados con TDAH suelen presentar deficits neuropsicológicos en cuanto a memoria de trabajo, atención y control inhibotorio. El modelo de doble vía de Sonuga Barke implica por lo menos dos endofenotipos, relativamente independientes pero no excluyentes el uno del otro. El primero se asocia más a deficits a nivel ejecutivo como el control inhibitorio, mientras que el segundo se realciona a lo que alteraciones motivaciones, principalmente la anticipación de la recompensa. Este modelo explica le heteroenidad del TDAH en términos de déficits cognitivos y motivacionales disociables, los cuales pueded afectar a algunos pacientes pero no a otros. Es importante señalar que recientemente se ha sugerido que el procesameinto temporal podría consituir un tecer componente nueropsicológicodisociabl del TDAH. Déficits en cuanto al procesamiento temporal se están estudiando en TDAH, y además, se ha evaluado su posible relación con la impulsividad, síntoma importante de este trastorno. A pesar de la influencia que los procesos motivaciones podrían tener en el funcionamiento cognitivo, pocos estudios han centrado en el substrato neuronal de los sistemas de motivación y temporales, y su implicación en la fisiopatología del TDAH. Por tanto, analizamos las imágenes RMf de 20 pacientes adultos con TDAH, no medicados y subtipo combinado, así como de 25 sujetos controles. Los datos se utilizaron para identificar y comparar la activación durante un paradigma de recompensa y discriminación temporal. El paradigma incluyó la prescencia de distractores durante la tarea para evaluar atención. Los resultados del análisis por regiones de interés indicó menor activación en el cerebelo izquierdo y derecho durante la tarera de recompensa/discriminación temporal en el grupo con TDAH. El cerebelo es una región implicada en alteraciones estructurales y funcionales en TDAH, y recientemente también se ha señalado su possible implicación como mediador en tareas de procesamiento temporal. Los análisis de whole-brain también inidcaron menor activación en el giro temporal superior, el cerebelo izquierdo y derecho, el giro fusiforme, el giro de Heschl, y el giro medio occipital en los pacientes. Contrariamente, se observó una mayor activación en los pacientes en el giro frontal inferior derecho y en el giro parietal superior izquierdo. Adicionalmente, los análisis por regiones de interés también mostraron menor actividad neural en ralación al estíimulo del distractor en el grupo con TDAH en la corteza prefrontal dorsolateral y en el giro precentral. En los análisis de whole-brain también se observó una menor activación en el giro postcentral izquierdo, el giro temporal izquierdo y el giro frontal izquierdo. Finalmente, se observó un aumento en la activación en los pacientes con TDAH en la corteza orbitofrontal derecha. Nuestros resultados aportan evidencia de que el procesamiento temporal, junto con procesos cognitivos como la atención, así como los procesos motivacionales relacionados con la recompensa, podrían representar un tercer componente neuropsicológico afectado en el TDAH. ADHD, conceived as one of the most prevalent childhood psychiatric disorders, is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity symptoms and estimate to affect 5% of worldwide population. Until recently, symptoms were thought to ameliorate with age. However, a recent 10 year follow-up study indicated that 35% of paediatric patients still meeting ADHD diagnostic criteria and it's been estimated that ADHD affects between 3 and 7% of adult population. Even thought the exact neurobiological substrate of ADHD still unclear, genetic, preclinical and clinical studies point to dopaminergic and/or noradrenergic alterations. Neural activity and grey matter volume decreases in dopamine related regions also corroborate such deficits. Adults diagnosed with this disorder are likely to neuropsychological deficits involving working memory, attention and inhibitory control. The multiple pathway model proposed by Sonuga-Barke implicates at least two relatively independent but not mutually exclusiv endophenotypes; those involving an executive functioning disruption such as inhibition control, and those more related with motivational system abnormalities, basically reward anticipation. Therefore, this model explains neuropsychological heterogeneity of ADHD in terms of dissociable cognitive and motivational deficits, each affecting some but not other patients. Importantly, it is been suggested that temporal processing might constitute a third dissociable neuropsychological component of ADHD. Recently, timing processing deficits are being studied in ADHD, and, furthermore, such abnormalities have been related with impulsiveness, a core symptom of ADHD. In spite of the influence that motivational and timing processes might have on cognitive functioning, only a few studies have focused on the neural substrate underpinning the motivational and timing systems and, specifically, their role in ADHD pathophysiology. Therefore, we analyzed functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI) of 20 un-medicated, combined, adult ADHD subjects and 25 healthy controls. Date sets were used to identify and compare the brain activation during a reward/time discrimination paradigm. The paradigm also included distractors during the task, in order to evaluate attention processes. Our results from the Regions of interest (ROIs) analysis indicated decreased brain activation in left and right cerebellum during the task that as compared to the control group. The cerebellum is key area of structural and functional abnormalities in ADHD, and, recently it has been implicated as one important mediator in time discrimination. Furthermore, whole brain analysis indicated decreased brain activity in right superior temporal gyrus, right left cerebellum, right fusiform gyrus, right Heschl's gyrus and left occipital middle gyrus in ADHD group as compared to controls. The opposite contrast showed increased activation levels in right frontal inferior gyrus and left superior parietal gyrus in the patients group. Additionally, ROIs analysis also showed reduced activity in relation to the distractor stimulus in the ADHD group in left DLPFC and the left precentral gyrus. The whole-brain analysis also shoewed a cluster of reduced activity located in the left post central gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus. In the opposite contrast, we observed increased brain activity in the right orbitofrontal cortex in the patients group. Our results provide evidence that temporal processes, in addition to cognitve (i.e., attention) and motivational/emotional domains, might be a third dissociable neuropsychological component that affects ADHD.

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    Abstract This study used combined electrostimulation, neurophysiology, microinjection and fMRI to investigate the cortical activity patterns elicited during stimulation of cortical afferents in monkeys. We found that stimulation of a site in LGN (lateral geniculate nucleus) increases the fMRI signal in the regions of primary visual cortex (V1) receiving input from that site, but suppresses it in the retinotopically matched regions of extrastriate cortex. In agreement with previous observations, intracranial recordings showed that immediately after a stimulation pulse a short excitatory response is followed by long-lasting inhibition. Following microinjections of GABA (?-aminobutyric acid) antagonists in V1, LGN stimulation induced positive fMRI signals in all cortical areas. Taken together, our findings suggest that ES disrupts cortico-cortical signal propagation by silencing the output of any neocortical area whose afferents are electrically stimulated. nikos.logothetis@tuebingen.mpg.de (Logothetis, Nikos K) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Logothetis, Nikos K) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Augath, Mark A) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Murayama, Yusuke) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Rauch, Alexander) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Sultan, Fahad F) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Goense, Jozien) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Oeltermann, Axel) Physiology of Cognitive Processes - Spemannstrasse 38, Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72076--> - GERMANY (Merkle, Hellmut) GERMANY Accepted: 2010-08-04 Received: 2010-06-22 Revised: 2010-08-04

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