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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Männel, B.; Brandt, A.; Nischan, T.; Brack, A.; +2 Authors

    GFZ acts as a global analysis center of the International GNSS Service (IGS) and provides ultra-rapid (last 24h), rapid (last day), and final (last week) solutions for GPS and GLONASS. The ultra-rapid solution series is published eight times per day with a delay of around three hours. The 3D seismic velocity models are results of a local earthquake tomography which is performed to illuminate the crustal and uppermost mantle structure beneath the southern Puna plateau and to test the delamination hypothesis. The Southern Puna is distinctive from the rest of the Central Andean plateau in having a higher topographic elevation, a thinner lithosphere and in being flanked to the south by the Chilean flat slab region. Previous investigations involving geochemical, geological and geophysical observations, have invoked lithospheric delamination to explain the distinctive magmatic and structural history, elevation and lithospheric thickness of the region. In the present study, Vp and Vp/Vs ratios were obtained using travel time variations recorded by 75 temporary seismic stations between 2007 and 2009. The earthquakes catalog (Mulcahy et al., 2014) contains 1903 local earthquakes (25077 P- and 14059 S-picks). A minimum 1D model is derived with software VELEST (Kissling et al., 1995). The 3D tomographic inversion is performed with software SIMULPS (Thurber, 1983; Evans et al., 1994). Spread values are used to define well resolved model domains (6 for Vp and 5.5 for Vp/Vs), which are calculated from the model resolution matrix (Toomey & Foulger, 1989). The data are provided as one tar.gz archive. Individual ASCII files contain, at each depth from 0 to 200 km: - Vp model (model.vp.depth_???km), format: longitude, latitude, depth, Vp perturbation, absolute Vp - Vp/Vs model (model.vpvs.depth_???km), format: longitude, latitude, depth, Vp/Vs perturbation, absolute Vp/Vs - spread values for Vp (spread.vp.depth_???km), format: longitude, latitude, depth, spread value - spread values for Vp/Vs model (spread.vpvs.depth_???km), format: longitude, latitude, depth, spread value

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    Authors: Jousset, P.; Currenti, G.; Chalari, A.; Tilmann, F.; +1 Authors

    Understanding physical processes prior and during eruptions remains challenging, due to uncertainties about subsurface structures and undetected processes within the volcano. Here, the authors use a dedicated fibre-optic cable to obtain strain data and identify volcanic events and image hidden near-surface volcanic structural features at Etna volcano, Italy. In the paper Jousset et al. (2022), we detect and characterize strain signals associated with explosions, and we find evidences for non-linear grain interactions in a scoria layer of spatially variable thickness. We also demonstrate that wavefield separation allows us to incrementally investigate the ground response to various excitation mechanisms, and we identify very small volcanic events, which we relate to fluid migration and degassing. We recorded seismic signals from natural and man-made sources with 2-m spacing along a 1.5-km-long fibre-optic cable layout near the summit of actives craters of Etna volcano, Italy. Those results provide the basis for improved volcano monitoring and hazard assessment using DAS. This data publication contains the full data set used for the analysis. This data set comprises strain-rate data from 1 iDAS interrogator (~750 traces), velocity data from 15 geophones and 4 broadband seismometers, and infrasonic pressure data from infrasound sensors. For further explanation of the data and related processing steps, please refer to Jousset et al. (2022).

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    Authors: Ziegler, M.; Heidbach, O.;

    These data are supplementary material to Ziegler & Heidbach (2020) and present the results of a 3D geomechanical-numerical model of the stress state with quantified uncertainties. The average modelled stress state is provided for each of the six components of the full stress tensor. In addition, the associated standard deviation for each component is provided. The modelling approach uses a published lithological model and the used data is described in the publication Ziegler & Heidbach (2020). The reduced stress tensor is derived using the Tecplot Addon GeoStress (Stromeyer & Heidbach, 2017).The model results are provided in a comma-separated ascii file. Each line in the file represents one of the approx. 3 million finite elements that comprise the model.

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    Authors: Pons, M.; Sobolev, S.; Liu, S.; Neuharth, D.;

    The Central Andes (~21°S) is a subduction-type orogeny formed in the last ~50 Ma from the subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate beneath the South American continental plate. However, the most important phases of deformation occur in the last 20 Ma. Pulses of shortening have led to the sudden growth of the by the Altiplano-Puna plateau. Previous studies have provided insights on the importance of various mechanisms on the overall shortening such as the weakening of the overriding plate from crustal eclogitization and delamination, or the importance of a relatively high friction at the subduction interface, and weak sediments in foreland. However none of them has addressed the mechanism behind these shortening pulses yet. Therefore, we built a series of high resolution 2D visco-plastic subduction models using the ASPECT geodynamic code, in which the oceanic plate is buoyancy-driven and the velocity of the continent is prescribed. We have also implemented a realistic geometry for the south American plate at ~30 Ma. We propose a new plausible mechanism (buckling and steepening of the slab) as the cause of these pulses. The buckling leads to the blockage of the trench. Consequently, the difference of velocity between the South American plate and the trench is accommodated by shortening. The data presented here includes the parameters files, for the reference model (S1) and the following alternative simulations: models with variation of the friction at the subduction interface (S2a-c), a model without eclogitization of the lower crust (S3) and a model with higher thermal conductivity of the upper crust (S4). Additionally, this publication includes the initial composition and thermal state of the lithosphere used for the models and a Readme file that gives all the instructions to run them.

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    Authors: Antico, P.; Vera, J.; Pasquaré, A.; Galván, R.; +5 Authors

    Surface air temperature measurements obtained from different sensors are used to construct a unique time series with one minute time-interval. Apart from differences in design and environmental exposition, periods of missing data also exist in the data series of each sensor. A primary data set was selected in terms of quality and temporal extension. A combination of two different techniques is applied to complete this data set: one is based on the autocorrelation of the series and the other on measurements taken from other sensors. The resulting values constitute a complete series of surface air temperature at AGGO.

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    Authors: Petereit, J.; Saynisch, J.; Irrgang, C.; Thomas, M.;

    An electric current is induced by the motion of electrical conducting seawater through the ambient geomagnetic field. The periodic oceanic tidal flow induces an electric current that emits periodical time-variable electromagnetic field signals. The radial component of the ocean tide induced magnetic field signals has successfully been extracted from magnetic field observations of the satellite missions CHAMP and Swarm. It is known that the amplitudes of these electromagnetic signals are modulated by, among other influences, variations of the electrical seawater conductivity distribution of the ocean. The electrical seawater conductivity in return depends on seawater temperature and salinity. In order to analyse the influence of variations in oceanic temperature and salinity, we modelled a complete set of monthly time slices of three dimensional global complex amplitudes of these electromagnetic field signals for the years 1990 to 2016. In order to analyse solely the influence of variations in the climate sensitive seawater temperature and salinity on the ocean tide induced magnetic field signals, the influences of the secular variation of the geomagnetic field and temporal variations in ocean tide transports have been neglected.

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    Authors: Jousset, P.; Mortensen, A.; Wollin, C.; Diaz Meza, S.; +1 Authors

    The GFZ-Landsvirkjun Theistareykir Fibre array is located in the Theytareykir geothermal area, in North Iceland. It is collocated with arrays of broadband seismometers and gravity meters (see e.g., https://doi.org/10.1186/s40517-021-00208-w). The geometry of the fibre array is following the telecom network in the area, and was chosen to test the seismological capabilities of telecom cables in this geothermal environment. We connected an iDAS V2 interrogator from Silixa. The interrogator location is lat=65.898041, lon=-16.966274. The array starts N-S and after 1.5 km, turns towards the East, up to a local transmission antenna station for mobile phones. The length of the path is ~5 km. The length of the cable is actually more than 15 km, as other fibre instance is connected at the transmission antenna station.. Jumps were performed along the cable to geo-locate the channels. The exact location of the fibre can unfortunately not be disclosed. Original recordings at 1000 Hz were downsampled to 200 Hz using a software from INGV-OE (michele.prestifilippo@ingv.it) and are provided in an h5 format. We provide here the first fibre instance (5 km long). The data contain 1 h long recording intervals framing M>5 teleseismic earthquakes recorded in the frame of the global DAS month, an initiative to collaboratively record and share simultaneously recorded DAS data from all over the world (https://www.norsar.no/in-focus/global-das-monitoring-month-february-2023). DAS is an emerging technology increasingly used by seismologists to convert kilometer long optical fibers into seismic sensors.

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    Authors: Wölbern, I.; Rümpker, G.;

    Volcanic eruptions are regularly observed on the island of Fogo, Cape Verde, with an average re-occurrence interval of ca. 20 years. However, the structure and extent of the related volcanic plumbing system are not well understood. Previous studies have investigated earthquakes related to magmatic processes connected with the Fogo volcano using conventional network configurations. Seismicity has been reported to occur mainly southwest of the island of Brava while a more recent study reports on activity focussed between Brava and Fogo. Multi-array seismology has the potential to significantly reduce the localization errors of seismic events in particular for those outside a station network and to lower the detection threshold. The subject of this study is the investigation of the local volcano-related seismicity applying multi-array methods which is a unique task amongst the research activities at German universities. The scientific aims are (a) to precisely map local events to constrain the structure of and the dynamic processes within the volcanic plumbing system, (b) to image the magma source region below the Fogo volcano using reflected and backscattered waves, and (c) to localize low-frequency volcanic tremor events. Waveform data are available from the GEOFON data centre, under network code 9J, and are embargoed until February 2022.

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    Authors: Zwaan, F.; Schreurs, G.;

    This data set includes overviews and videos depicting the surface evolution (time-lapse photographs, topography data and digital image correlation [DIC] analysis) of 6 analogue models simulating rotational rift tectonics. In these experiments we examined the links between rotational rifting and different distributions of lithospheric weaknesses, and the evolution of the East African Rift System. All experiments were performed at the Tectonic Modelling Laboratory of the University of Bern (UB). Detailed descriptions of the model set-up and results, as well as the monitoring techniques can be found in Zwaan & Schreurs (2023).

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    Authors: INTERMAGNET; et al.;

    Definitive digital values of the Earth's mangetic field recorded during 2014 at INTERMAGNET observatories around the world. Data includes minute, hourly and daily vector values, along with observatory baseline values for quality control. Annual means are also included. All data is included on the single downloadable archive file (gzipped tar format) available from this landing page. This is the 24th annual publication in the series. Some national data institutions may have related DOIs that describe subsets of the data. These DOIs are shown under "Related DOIs to be quoted". For more information on the data formats used in this publication and the technical standards used to create the data, please refer to the INTERMAGNET Technical Manual and the Technical note TN6 "INTERMAGNET Definitive One-second Data Standard".

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    Authors: Männel, B.; Brandt, A.; Nischan, T.; Brack, A.; +2 Authors

    GFZ acts as a global analysis center of the International GNSS Service (IGS) and provides ultra-rapid (last 24h), rapid (last day), and final (last week) solutions for GPS and GLONASS. The ultra-rapid solution series is published eight times per day with a delay of around three hours. The 3D seismic velocity models are results of a local earthquake tomography which is performed to illuminate the crustal and uppermost mantle structure beneath the southern Puna plateau and to test the delamination hypothesis. The Southern Puna is distinctive from the rest of the Central Andean plateau in having a higher topographic elevation, a thinner lithosphere and in being flanked to the south by the Chilean flat slab region. Previous investigations involving geochemical, geological and geophysical observations, have invoked lithospheric delamination to explain the distinctive magmatic and structural history, elevation and lithospheric thickness of the region. In the present study, Vp and Vp/Vs ratios were obtained using travel time variations recorded by 75 temporary seismic stations between 2007 and 2009. The earthquakes catalog (Mulcahy et al., 2014) contains 1903 local earthquakes (25077 P- and 14059 S-picks). A minimum 1D model is derived with software VELEST (Kissling et al., 1995). The 3D tomographic inversion is performed with software SIMULPS (Thurber, 1983; Evans et al., 1994). Spread values are used to define well resolved model domains (6 for Vp and 5.5 for Vp/Vs), which are calculated from the model resolution matrix (Toomey & Foulger, 1989). The data are provided as one tar.gz archive. Individual ASCII files contain, at each depth from 0 to 200 km: - Vp model (model.vp.depth_???km), format: longitude, latitude, depth, Vp perturbation, absolute Vp - Vp/Vs model (model.vpvs.depth_???km), format: longitude, latitude, depth, Vp/Vs perturbation, absolute Vp/Vs - spread values for Vp (spread.vp.depth_???km), format: longitude, latitude, depth, spread value - spread values for Vp/Vs model (spread.vpvs.depth_???km), format: longitude, latitude, depth, spread value

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    Authors: Jousset, P.; Currenti, G.; Chalari, A.; Tilmann, F.; +1 Authors

    Understanding physical processes prior and during eruptions remains challenging, due to uncertainties about subsurface structures and undetected processes within the volcano. Here, the authors use a dedicated fibre-optic cable to obtain strain data and identify volcanic events and image hidden near-surface volcanic structural features at Etna volcano, Italy. In the paper Jousset et al. (2022), we detect and characterize strain signals associated with explosions, and we find evidences for non-linear grain interactions in a scoria layer of spatially variable thickness. We also demonstrate that wavefield separation allows us to incrementally investigate the ground response to various excitation mechanisms, and we identify very small volcanic events, which we relate to fluid migration and degassing. We recorded seismic signals from natural and man-made sources with 2-m spacing along a 1.5-km-long fibre-optic cable layout near the summit of actives craters of Etna volcano, Italy. Those results provide the basis for improved volcano monitoring and hazard assessment using DAS. This data publication contains the full data set used for the analysis. This data set comprises strain-rate data from 1 iDAS interrogator (~750 traces), velocity data from 15 geophones and 4 broadband seismometers, and infrasonic pressure data from infrasound sensors. For further explanation of the data and related processing steps, please refer to Jousset et al. (2022).

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    Authors: Ziegler, M.; Heidbach, O.;

    These data are supplementary material to Ziegler & Heidbach (2020) and present the results of a 3D geomechanical-numerical model of the stress state with quantified uncertainties. The average modelled stress state is provided for each of the six components of the full stress tensor. In addition, the associated standard deviation for each component is provided. The modelling approach uses a published lithological model and the used data is described in the publication Ziegler & Heidbach (2020). The reduced stress tensor is derived using the Tecplot Addon GeoStress (Stromeyer & Heidbach, 2017).The model results are provided in a comma-separated ascii file. Each line in the file represents one of the approx. 3 million finite elements that comprise the model.

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    Authors: Pons, M.; Sobolev, S.; Liu, S.; Neuharth, D.;

    The Central Andes (~21°S) is a subduction-type orogeny formed in the last ~50 Ma from the subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate beneath the South American continental plate. However, the most important phases of deformation occur in the last 20 Ma. Pulses of shortening have led to the sudden growth of the by the Altiplano-Puna plateau. Previous studies have provided insights on the importance of various mechanisms on the overall shortening such as the weakening of the overriding plate from crustal eclogitization and delamination, or the importance of a relatively high friction at the subduction interface, and weak sediments in foreland. However none of them has addressed the mechanism behind these shortening pulses yet. Therefore, we built a series of high resolution 2D visco-plastic subduction models using the ASPECT geodynamic code, in which the oceanic plate is buoyancy-driven and the velocity of the continent is prescribed. We have also implemented a realistic geometry for the south American plate at ~30 Ma. We propose a new plausible mechanism (buckling and steepening of the slab) as the cause of these pulses. The buckling leads to the blockage of the trench. Consequently, the difference of velocity between the South American plate and the trench is accommodated by shortening. The data presented here includes the parameters files, for the reference model (S1) and the following alternative simulations: models with variation of the friction at the subduction interface (S2a-c), a model without eclogitization of the lower crust (S3) and a model with higher thermal conductivity of the upper crust (S4). Additionally, this publication includes the initial composition and thermal state of the lithosphere used for the models and a Readme file that gives all the instructions to run them.

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    Authors: Antico, P.; Vera, J.; Pasquaré, A.; Galván, R.; +5 Authors

    Surface air temperature measurements obtained from different sensors are used to construct a unique time series with one minute time-interval. Apart from differences in design and environmental exposition, periods of missing data also exist in the data series of each sensor. A primary data set was selected in terms of quality and temporal extension. A combination of two different techniques is applied to complete this data set: one is based on the autocorrelation of the series and the other on measurements taken from other sensors. The resulting values constitute a complete series of surface air temperature at AGGO.

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    Authors: Petereit, J.; Saynisch, J.; Irrgang, C.; Thomas, M.;

    An electric current is induced by the motion of electrical conducting seawater through the ambient geomagnetic field. The periodic oceanic tidal flow induces an electric current that emits periodical time-variable electromagnetic field signals. The radial component of the ocean tide induced magnetic field signals has successfully been extracted from magnetic field observations of the satellite missions CHAMP and Swarm. It is known that the amplitudes of these electromagnetic signals are modulated by, among other influences, variations of the electrical seawater conductivity distribution of the ocean. The electrical seawater conductivity in return depends on seawater temperature and salinity. In order to analyse the influence of variations in oceanic temperature and salinity, we modelled a complete set of monthly time slices of three dimensional global complex amplitudes of these electromagnetic field signals for the years 1990 to 2016. In order to analyse solely the influence of variations in the climate sensitive seawater temperature and salinity on the ocean tide induced magnetic field signals, the influences of the secular variation of the geomagnetic field and temporal variations in ocean tide transports have been neglected.

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    Authors: Jousset, P.; Mortensen, A.; Wollin, C.; Diaz Meza, S.; +1 Authors

    The GFZ-Landsvirkjun Theistareykir Fibre array is located in the Theytareykir geothermal area, in North Iceland. It is collocated with arrays of broadband seismometers and gravity meters (see e.g., https://doi.org/10.1186/s40517-021-00208-w). The geometry of the fibre array is following the telecom network in the area, and was chosen to test the seismological capabilities of telecom cables in this geothermal environment. We connected an iDAS V2 interrogator from Silixa. The interrogator location is lat=65.898041, lon=-16.966274. The array starts N-S and after 1.5 km, turns towards the East, up to a local transmission antenna station for mobile phones. The length of the path is ~5 km. The length of the cable is actually more than 15 km, as other fibre instance is connected at the transmission antenna station.. Jumps were performed along the cable to geo-locate the channels. The exact location of the fibre can unfortunately not be disclosed. Original recordings at 1000 Hz were downsampled to 200 Hz using a software from INGV-OE (michele.prestifilippo@ingv.it) and are provided in an h5 format. We provide here the first fibre instance (5 km long). The data contain 1 h long recording intervals framing M>5 teleseismic earthquakes recorded in the frame of the global DAS month, an initiative to collaboratively record and share simultaneously recorded DAS data from all over the world (https://www.norsar.no/in-focus/global-das-monitoring-month-february-2023). DAS is an emerging technology increasingly used by seismologists to convert kilometer long optical fibers into seismic sensors.

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    Authors: Wölbern, I.; Rümpker, G.;

    Volcanic eruptions are regularly observed on the island of Fogo, Cape Verde, with an average re-occurrence interval of ca. 20 years. However, the structure and extent of the related volcanic plumbing system are not well understood. Previous studies have investigated earthquakes related to magmatic processes connected with the Fogo volcano using conventional network configurations. Seismicity has been reported to occur mainly southwest of the island of Brava while a more recent study reports on activity focussed between Brava and Fogo. Multi-array seismology has the potential to significantly reduce the localization errors of seismic events in particular for those outside a station network and to lower the detection threshold. The subject of this study is the investigation of the local volcano-related seismicity applying multi-array methods which is a unique task amongst the research activities at German universities. The scientific aims are (a) to precisely map local events to constrain the structure of and the dynamic processes within the volcanic plumbing system, (b) to image the magma source region below the Fogo volcano using reflected and backscattered waves, and (c) to localize low-frequency volcanic tremor events. Waveform data are available from the GEOFON data centre, under network code 9J, and are embargoed until February 2022.

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    Authors: Zwaan, F.; Schreurs, G.;

    This data set includes overviews and videos depicting the surface evolution (time-lapse photographs, topography data and digital image correlation [DIC] analysis) of 6 analogue models simulating rotational rift tectonics. In these experiments we examined the links between rotational rifting and different distributions of lithospheric weaknesses, and the evolution of the East African Rift System. All experiments were performed at the Tectonic Modelling Laboratory of the University of Bern (UB). Detailed descriptions of the model set-up and results, as well as the monitoring techniques can be found in Zwaan & Schreurs (2023).

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    Authors: INTERMAGNET; et al.;

    Definitive digital values of the Earth's mangetic field recorded during 2014 at INTERMAGNET observatories around the world. Data includes minute, hourly and daily vector values, along with observatory baseline values for quality control. Annual means are also included. All data is included on the single downloadable archive file (gzipped tar format) available from this landing page. This is the 24th annual publication in the series. Some national data institutions may have related DOIs that describe subsets of the data. These DOIs are shown under "Related DOIs to be quoted". For more information on the data formats used in this publication and the technical standards used to create the data, please refer to the INTERMAGNET Technical Manual and the Technical note TN6 "INTERMAGNET Definitive One-second Data Standard".

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