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  • Papyrus : Dépôt institutionnel - Un...

  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lebel, Jean-François;

    Cette recherche fait état de la crise du syndicalisme qui affecte la capacité d’action et l’efficacité des pratiques des organisations syndicales à travers le monde. Elle dresse un portrait complet des éléments de crise qu’elle décline sous les niveaux économique, politique et social. Cette recherche expose ainsi la nécessité d’un renouveau syndical pour porter précisément sur les coalitions, hétérogènes notamment, comme stratégie de renouveau syndical. Au plan analytique, elle évalue l’impact de l’identité et de la capacité organisationnelle d’une organisation syndicale aux Philippines sur son choix de se coaliser, mais aussi l’influence de ses objectifs et du contexte national dans lequel elle évolue. Les données empiriques pour mener cette étude proviennent principalement de près de 24 entrevues semi-dirigées, tenues auprès de représentants de l’une des plus grandes organisations syndicales des Philippines, de représentants d’organisations non syndicales alliées et de répondants externes à celle-ci. Premièrement, nos résultats montrent qu’une identité collective sociétale forte influence favorablement le choix de l’organisation syndicale étudiée de se coaliser. Elle confirme également le rôle essentiel de l’identité dans l’orientation de son action collective. Deuxièmement, nos résultats permettent de conclure qu’une capacité organisationnelle forte influence favorablement le choix de cette organisation syndicale de se coaliser, considérant qu’elle permet à celle-ci d’identifier les opportunités d’action, de mettre en œuvre de nouvelles stratégies et d’assurer la légitimité et la mobilisation des membres quant aux actions entreprises. De nos résultats ressort l’importance de l’éducation sur l’accroissement de la capacité organisationnelle et, particulièrement, sur la formation et le renforcement de l’identité collective de l’organisation syndicale étudiée. Plus encore, nos résultats exposent l’interaction entre les dimensions de l’identité et de la capacité organisationnelle : précisément, nous avons observé une relation de renforcement positif entre ces deux variables. Troisièmement, nos résultats mettent de l’avant l’interaction entre les différents niveaux de transformations résultantes de sa participation à différents types de coalitions. Ainsi dans le cas observé, l’obtention de transformation au plan intraorganisationnel permet à rebours d’obtenir des transformations au plan extraorganisationnel et vice-versa. Finalement, le contexte répressif des Philippines et les objectifs de l’organisation syndicale étudiée apparaissent favorables à son choix de se coaliser à différents niveaux (local, régional, national et international). This research aims to survey the crisis, which affects the effectiveness and action-readiness of labor unions around the world. It portrays crisis elements happening at the economic, political and social levels, thus exposing the necessity of implementing union renewal. The research puts the focus on how coalitions might be one of the many key elements to this revitalization. It evaluates the influence of identity and organizational capacity on choosing whether to coalesce, while taking into account the specific union objectives and the national context in which it operates. The research has been conducted in a trade union organization based in the Philippines. The empirical data used in the research comes from 24 semi-structured interviews with representatives from one of the largest labor union in the country, representatives from non-union allies to this organization, and other actors not directly involved with the trade union organization under study. First, the results show that a strong societal, collective identity influences the choice of this union organization to join coalitions. Collective identity is also a fundamental element to better understand the orientation of the collective action displayed by this organization. Second, our results also suggest that a strong and visionary organizational capacity influences positively the choice of joining a coalition, since the union is reputed by then to be better-equipped to identify opportunities to act differently, to elaborate strategies of union renewal, and to ensure that these actions are properly understood and legitimized by the rank-and-file members. Our case study also demonstrates the importance of education for increasing organizational capacity, especially when it comes to collective identity formation and empowerment. Furthermore, our findings confirm the interaction between identity and organizational capacity: specifically, we observe a positive, mutually reinforcing relationship between the two variables. Third, our results reveal the interaction between the different levels of transformations resulting from the participation in coalitions. In fact, our case study shows that intraorganizational transformation leads to extraorganizational transformation and vice-versa. Lastly, our study shows that the combined effect of the repressive context of the Philippines and the specific objectives of the interviewed labor union seem to support its decision to coalesce at different (local, regional, national and international) levels.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Papyrus : Dépôt inst...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Bohard, Isabelle;

    Ce mémoire s’intéresse au changement de la notion d’asile à travers l’incorporation du concept de genre et son impact sur les processus de demande d’asile et l’octroi du statut de réfugié pour les personnes victimes de violences liées au genre au Canada. À partir d’une perspective diachronique sur les transmutations de l’asile et des transformations sociales et culturelles de ce phénomène social, nous enregistrons des tensions et des contradictions qui émanent de son application et des discours qui lui sont reliés. L’observation des dynamiques contradictoires qui s’enchevêtrent dans ce champ indique une tension dialectique entre les droits humains et la citoyenneté, une symbiose dans le développement des droits de la femme et les lois sur les réfugiés et des contradictions comme celles entre le relativisme et l’essentialisme. L’examen du processus de demande d’asile pour les femmes en particulier victimes de violences liées au genre à travers l’analyse des transformations sociales et culturelles signale le caractère éminemment politique de ce phénomène qui situe l’asile au carrefour du procès d’émancipation du sujet politique. This thesis focuses on the change of the concept of asylum through the incorporation of the gender concept and its impact on the application process of asylum and the granting of status refugee for victims of gender violence in Canada. From a diachronic perspective on the transmutations of asylum and of social and cultural transformations of this social phenomenon, we record the tensions and contradictions be issued by its application and its related discourse. The observation that conflicting dynamics tied in this field displays a dialectical tension between human rights and citizenship, a symbiosis in the development of women’s rights and laws on refugees and contradictions as those between the relativism and essentialism. The review of asylum process especially for women in particular victims of gender violence through an analysis of social and cultural change signals the highly political nature of this phenomenon and lies asylum at the crossroads in the process of emancipation of the political subject.

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    Authors: Andersen, Mads Bryde;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Papyrus : Dépôt inst...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Papyrus : Dépôt inst...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Shahab, Amin;

    Le long voyage de la technologie a totalement changé la vie des gens : les humains ont marché sur la lune, les rovers1 découvrent Mars, les ordinateurs sont une partie inséparable de nos vies et dans le domaine de la santé, il y a des traitements pour beaucoup de maladies et l’espérance de vie a été significativement accrue. En plus, les scientifiques ont étudié les émotions humaines et ont essayé de les détecter en se basant sur differents paramètres tels que l'expression faciale, la parole et l'intonation, la réponse électrique et la communication verbale. Ces méthodes fonctionnent sur la base de l'effet des émotions humaines sur le corps et le comportement, mais l'émotion n'est pas le seul paramètre qui affecte le corps et les attitudes des gens. De plus, les personnes pourraient faire semblant, cacher leurs émotions et contrôler leurs réactions. En plus, les personnes ayant une limitation physique réduiront la précision de la reconnaissance correcte des émotions. Les chercheurs ont trouvé une relation directe entre les émotions et les activités cérébrales, les gens ou les limitations physiques ne pourront pas réduire la certitude de l'émotion détectée. Nous avons utilisé les EEG (électroencéphalogramme) pour créer un outil appelé Emotimap, qui détecte les émotions actuelles, surveille l'évolution émotionnelle en temps réel, et détecte également l'émotion générale. L'émotion actuelle est ressentie de façon brève et forte par rapport à des facteurs émotionnels et l’émotion générale est celle qui engage les gens pendant une longue période. Emotimap utilise des formules pour calculer l'Arousal et la Valence des personnes, puis ignore les sensations non stabilisées et cartographie le résultat sur les deux dimensions du diagramme de Circumplex de Russel pour détecter les émotions. Nous avons demandé à 20 personnes de participer à une expérimentation dans laquelle ils sont confrontés à différents facteurs émotionnels dans une réalité virtuelle (RV) isolée pour observer et sauvegarder l'information du facteur émotionnel et de leurs réactions. Les résultats montrent que les participants ont ressenti exactement ce qui était attendu avec le taux de 37,73% lorsque la distance métrique est seulement 1,55%, la distance métrique étant la proximité du ressenti et de l’émotion attendue (un plus petit nombre montre la plus grande similitude). La comparaison des différentes formules montre que les équations les plus similaires sont des formules avec le même nombre de capteurs utilisant avec 𝛽 et 𝛽low le taux de 40% de similarité, avec une distance métrique entre 20% à 60%. La raison est que certaines équations détectent les émotions plus tôt et d'autres forment des pics d’amplitude plus grands. En détail, les relations mathématiques avec 𝛽high détectent une émotion un peu plus tôt que les équations avec 𝛽low. De plus, les formules avec douze capteurs suivent les changements très faibles d’amplitude des EEG, les formules avec quatre capteurs sont plus sensibles dans les pics, et les formules avec deux capteurs sont les plus sensibles. La comparaison de la similarité des réactions des participants avec la similarité des caractéristiques basées sur le test Big 5 montre que l'effet de la mémoire est plus fort que l'effet de leur caractéristiques. En analysant les résultats, Emotionap a pu détecter avec succès l'émotion générale du participant avec un taux de 95%. The long journey of technology has totally changed human’s life: human stepped on the moon, Mars rovers2 are discovering the Mars, computers are one inseparable part of our lives and in the health section, people live longer, there are treatments for lots of sicknesses. Also, scientists have studied human’s emotion and tried to detect their emotions based on different parameters such as facial expression, speech and intonation, electrical response, verbal communication. These methods work based on the effect of human emotions on body and behavior, but the emotion is not the only parameter that effect on body and attitudes of people. Additionally, people could pretend, hide their emotions and control their body and reactions, also, people with a limit on their body movement will reduce the accuracy of correct recognition of emotion. Researchers found a direct relation between emotions and brain activities, people or limit in body movement could not reduce the certainty of detected emotion. We used EEG (Electroencephalogram) to create a tool called Emotimap that detects current emotion, monitor emotional evolution in real-time, also detects the general emotion. Current emotion is brief and strong, emotions that people feel again any emotional factor and general emotion is the emotion that engages people for a long time. Emotimap uses formulas to calculate the Arousal and Valence of people then ignore unstabled feels and maps the result on the two dimensions Russel’s Circumplex diagram to detect the emotions. We asked 20 people to participate in an experimentation in which they faced up with different emotional factors in an isolated Virtual Reality (VR) to observe and save the information of emotional factor and their reactions. The results show participants have felt exactly what was expected with the rate of 37.73% when the metric distance is just 1.55%, metric distance is the proximity of felt and expected emotions (smaller number shows the more similarity). Comparing different formulas shows the most similar equations goes to formulas with the same number of sensors using 𝛽 and 𝛽low with the rate of 40% of similarity, with metric distance in range of 20% to 60%. This is because some equations detect emotions sooner and some others are more strong in picks amplitude. In detaile, equation with 𝛽high detects an emotion a little bit sooner then a equation with 𝛽low, also, formulas with twelve sensors chase the EEG amplitude changes very weak when equation with four sensors are more sensible in picks, and the formulas with two sensors are the most sensible. Comparing the similarity of the participant reactions with their similarity of charactristics based on Big 5 test shows that the effect of memories is more stronger than the effect of their charactristic. Analysing the result shows Emotionap could successfully detect general emotion of participant with the rate of 95%.

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    Authors: Macana Goia, Jorge Andres;

    Un réseau de seize détecteurs ATLAS-MPX a été mis en opération dans le détecteur ATLAS au LHC du CERN. Les détecteurs ATLAS-MPX sont sensibles au champ mixte de radiation de photons et d’électrons dans la caverne d’ATLAS et sont recouverts de convertisseurs de fluorure de lithium et de polyéthylène pour augmenter l’efficacité de détection des neutrons thermiques et des neutrons rapides respectivement. Les collisions à haute énergie sont dominées par des interactions partoniques avec petit moment transverse pT , associés à des événements de “minimum bias”. Dans notre cas la collision proton-proton se produit avec une énergie de 7 TeV dans le centre de masse avec une luminosité de 10³⁴cm⁻²s⁻¹ telle que fixée dans les simulations. On utilise la simulation des événements de "minimum bias" générés par PYTHIA en utilisant le cadre Athena qui fait une simulation GEANT4 complète du détecteur ATLAS pour mesurer le nombre de photons, d’électrons, des muons qui peuvent atteindre les détecteurs ATLASMPX dont les positions de chaque détecteur sont incluses dans les algorithmes d’Athena. Nous mesurons les flux de neutrons thermiques et rapides, générés par GCALOR, dans les régions de fluorure de lithium et de polyéthylène respectivement. Les résultats des événements de “minimum bias” et les flux de neutrons thermiques et rapides obtenus des simulations sont comparés aux mesures réelles des détecteurs ATLAS-MPX. A network of sixteen ATLAS-MPX detectors has been put in operation in the ATLAS detector at CERN-LHC. ATLAS-MPX detectors are sensitive to a mixed radiation field of photons and electrons in the ATLAS cavern and are covered with lithium fluoride and polyethylene converters in order to increase the detection sensitivity of thermal neutrons and fast neutrons respectively. High energy collisions are dominated by partonic interactions with small transverse moment pT , associated with "minimum bias" events. In our case, the proton-proton collision occurs with an center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV with a fixed luminosity of 10³⁴cm⁻²s⁻¹ in the simulations. We use "minimum bias" events simulation generated by PYTHIA using the framework Athena. Athena’s framework makes a full GEANT4 simulation of the ATLAS detector. We include the positions of each detector in the Athena algorithms for measuring the number of photons, electrons and muons that can reach the detectors ATLAS-MPX. We measure the fluxes of thermal and fast neutrons generated by GCALOR in lithium fluoride and polyethylene regions respectively. The "minimum bias" events results and the flow of thermal and fast neutrons obtained by simulations are compared with real measurements of the ATLAS-MPX detectors.

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    Authors: Pozdnyakov, Alexander;

    The present thesis analyses the ideas of four works for various orchestral ensembles, all united by the concept of the four elements of nature: earth, water, fire, and air. This includes a brief consideration of what meaning has been attached to the idea of the elements in culture in general and in music in particular; a review of the qualitative change in the approach to the idea of the elements which occurred at the turn of the twentieth century in the works of composers such as Debussy, Scriabin, and Stravinsky; and an analysis of musical works with conclusions. Although the idea of the elements has been considered thoroughly in the history of human thought, the application of this idea to music has been clearly underestimated. At its deepest level, both the idea of the elements in its universal meaning and musical creativity per se express the dynamic aspect of being and unity in diversity. To my knowledge, this connection has never been observed, which is why this connection can be considered as a hypothesis of the present thesis. Since this doctoral project encompasses seven works exploring the same theme, it would be only logical to use a multi-faceted presentation of the idea of the elements and its multifarious expression by a variety of means. This is the main purpose of the present project. The selection of four out of the seven works for analysis is further explained in the main body of the dissertation. The four works under consideration are On a Russian Theme for symphony orchestra, Zodiac Signs for chamber orchestra, Mount Fuji for two pianos and orchestra, and Que Dieu Soit for choir, organ, and oboe. Together the four works constitute a kind of cycle despite the variety of genres and performing groups. In each piece, one of the four elements assumes a dominant position, although the elements are presented differently in each of the works. In On a Russian Theme, earth is in the foreground; in Zodiac Signs, it is water; in Mount Fuji, fire; and in Que Dieu Soit, air. The particularity of the present analysis is the emphasis laid on the expression of the elements by musical means and their unity as far as artistic imagery is concerned. La présente recherche développe le projet d’écrive quatre compositions pour différents groupes d’instruments réunies autour de l’idée des quatre éléments (terre, eau, feu, air). La recherche comprend : une courte description de l’idée même de ces éléments dans la culture en général et en musique en particulier; l’éclairage du brusque changement au début du vingtième siècle présentant tout une autre approche, avec de grands compositeurs comme Debussy, Scriabine et Stravinsky; la partie principale avec l’analyse des œuvres musicales et les conclusions. Bien que la portée de l’idée même des éléments ait été estimée à sa juste valeur, son rôle dans la musique n’a jamais été suffisamment évalué. L’idée des éléments et la création de la musique expriment un aspect dynamique de l’être et le principe de l’unité dans la diversité. A ma connaissance un pareil rapprochement n'a encore jamais été signalé, ce qui permet de le considérer comme l’hypothèse de ladite recherche. Comme les compositions de mon doctorat comptent sept œuvres unies par le même sujet, on peut parler de différentes manifestations de l’idée des éléments et de la diversité des moyens. Telle est la valeur principale de la recherche. Quatre œuvres analysées – « On a Russian Theme » pour orchestre symphonique, « Zodiac Signs » pour orchestre de chambre, « Mount Fuji » pour deux pianos et orchestre, « Que Dieu Soit » pour chœur, orgue et hautbois - présentent une sorte de cycle malgré la différence de genres et d’instruments. Bien que les quatre éléments soient présents différemment dans chaque œuvre, un unique élément domine dans chacune : la terre dans « Sur un Thème Russe », l’eau dans « Signes de Zodiac », le feu dans « Fuji », l’air dans « Que Dieu Soit ». La particularité de l’analyse est l’accent porté sur l’expression des éléments par les moyens de la musique. C’est tout d’abord l’orchestration et la texture ainsi que l’harmonie, la mélodie, le contrepoint et la forme. La version intégrale de ce mémoire est disponible uniquement pour consultation individuelle à la Bibliothèque de musique de l’Université de Montréal (http://www.bib.umontreal.ca/MU).

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    Authors: Fortin-Archambault, Maxime;
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    Authors: Loisier, Frédéric;

    Mémoire numérisé par la Direction des bibliothèques de l'Université de Montréal.

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    Authors: Dion, Michel;

    Influencés par l’Être-dans-le-monde heideggerien, Martin Buber et Emmanuel Levinas ont ouvert, par leur philosophie respective, de nouvelles voies d’humanisation du monde, en particulier le milieu des affaires, tout en imposant un lourd fardeau de changements pour que le tissu relationnel des groupes, organisations et institutions sociales devienne véritablement imprégné d’une relation authentique avec l’altérité radicale, à partir de la position existentielle d’être-en-face-de-l’autre, avec toutes les responsabilités concrètes qui en découlent pour tout un chacun. De cette manière, Buber et Levinas ont dépassé l’être-jeté dans l’existence, en faisant de l’altérité radicale une dimension inévitable de l’intramondanéité. Martin Buber and Emmanuel Levinas have been influenced by the Heideggerian Being-in-the-world. However, Buber’s philosophy as well as Levinas’ philosophy have given birth to new paths of humanizing the world, particularly business corporations, while requiring deep changes in the way the relational fabric of groups, organizations and social institutions is evolving. Buber and Levinas have emphasized the need to develop an authentic relation with radical otherness, starting with the existentiell positioning of being in-face-of-others. In doing so, Buber and Levinas have overcome the state of existential fallenness, while considering radical otherness as an unavoidable dimension of the in-the-worldliness.

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    Authors: Lacroix, Sébastien;

    Contexte L’américanisation des habitudes de vie, notamment de l’alimentation, semble être en grande partie responsable de l’augmentation incessante de l’incidence élevée des maladies cardiovasculaires. La période postprandiale, où l’homéostasie vasculaire et métabolique est mise à l’épreuve, est d’une importance considérable dans le développement ou la prévention de l’athérosclérose et représente maintenant la majeure partie du temps d’éveil. La compréhension de l’influence de la composition d’un repas sur son impact postprandial est donc essentielle dans notre lutte dans la prévention de ces maladies. Objectifs L’objectif principal de ce projet de recherche était d’étudier les réponses endothéliale et métabolique à un repas de type méditerranéen mixte (MMM), puisqu’elles sont inconnues. Ce projet avait aussi pour objectifs d’évaluer l’impact microvasculaire d’un tel repas et de caractériser la composition postprandiale des acides gras plasmatiques. À titre comparatif, ces éléments ont aussi été étudiés suite à un repas riche en gras saturés (HSFAM). Méthodes Vingt-huit (28) hommes sains, exempts de facteurs de risque de maladies cardiovasculaires ont reçu de façon randomisée les deux repas à l’étude. Le MMM, composé de saumon frais et de légumes cuits dans l'huile d'olive, contenait 7.87g de SFA et 2.29g d’acides gras polyinsaturés oméga-3, tandis que le HSFAM, composé d'un sandwich déjeuner avec œuf, saucisse et fromage, contenait 14.78g de SFA. Les mesures de la fonction endothéliale mesurée par échographie brachiale (FMD), de la fonction microvasculaire mesurée par spectroscopie proche de l’infrarouge (NIRS) et de la composition des acides gras plasmatique ont été effectuées à jeun et en période postprandiale. Résultats Deux sous-groupes de répondeurs aux repas à l’étude se sont dégagés de ces travaux. Un premier sous-groupe de sujets ayant une triglycéridémie à jeun élevée, mais normale (hnTG) a démontré des altérations endothéliales seulement suivant le repas HSFAM. Un second sous-groupe de sujets ayant une triglycéridémie plus faible et normale (lnTG) n’a quant à lui pas subi d’altérations endothéliales suivant les deux repas à l’étude. Les sujets hnTG ont aussi démontré une charge triglycéridémique postprandiale (iAUC) plus importante et qui était de surcroît enrichie en acide stéarique suivant la HSFAM et en acide gras polyinsaturés oméga-3 suivant le MMM. L’évaluation par NIRS de la fonction microvasculaire nous révèle un ralentissement de la réoxygénation post-ischémique qui suggère une altération postprandiale du recrutement capillaire chez les sujets hnTG seulement. De telles altérations, qui semblent être plus importantes suivant le HSFAM, pourraient être en partie responsables de l’impact endothélial de ce repas. Conclusions Cet essai clinique démontre donc de façon novatrice qu’un repas MMM n’a pas d’effet endothélial délétère et que cette neutralité est indépendante de la triglycéridémie à jeun. De plus, une triglycéridémie à jeun élevée mais normale semble indiquer des dysfonctions endothéliales et métaboliques à des épreuves nutritionnelles tel un repas HSFAM. La consommation de repas méditerranéens par des individus sains à la triglycéridémie marginale serait bénéfique, peut-être même davantage que pour des individus de triglycéridémie plus faible, dans la prévention de l’athérogénèse et des maladies cardiovasculaires. Background The Westernization of lifestyles, notably dietary habits, seems to be largely responsible for the ongoing increase of incidence of cardiovascular diseases. The postprandial period, where vascular and metabolic homeostatic regulating processes are under pressure, is of considerable importance in the development or prevention of atherosclerosis and now represents the majority of waking hours. The understanding of the postprandial effects of meals of varying composition is therefore essential in our effort to prevent such diseases. Objectives The main objective of this research project was to study the endothelial and metabolic responses to a mixed Mediterranean meal (MMM), since they are unknown. This project also aimed to evaluate the microvascular impact of such a meal and to characterize the composition of postprandial plasma fatty acids. These elements were also evaluated following a saturated fatty meal (HSFAM) for comparison. Methods Twenty-eight (28) healthy men free of cardiovascular diseases and risk factors were randomly assigned one of two test meals. The MMM, consisting of fresh salmon and vegetables cooked in olive oil, contained 7.87g of SFA and 2.29g of omega- 3 fatty acids, while the HSFAM, consisting of a breakfast sandwich with egg, sausage and cheese contained 14.78g of SFA. Evaluations of endothelial function by brachial ultrasound (FMD), of microvascular function by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and of plasma fatty acids composition were done in the fasted and postprandial states. Results Two subgroups of responders to the test meals emerged from this work. A first subgroup of subjects with high-normal fasting triglyceridemia (hnTG) experienced impairments of endothelial function following the HSFAM while a second subgroup of subjects with low-normal triglyceridemia (lnTG) did not experience any endothelial alterations following this meal. Interestingly, the MMM had no deleterious endothelial impact in any of those subgroups. Moreover, the hnTG subjects demonstrated greater postprandial triglyceridemic load (iAUC) that was in addition enriched with stearic acid after HSFAM and omega-3 PUFA following the MMM. Assessment of microvascular function revealed postprandial prolongation of post-ischemic reoxygenation only in hnTG subjects suggestive of alterations of capillary recruitment. These changes, which seemed to be more important after the HSFAM, could be partly responsible for its negative impact on FMD. Conclusions This clinical trial demonstrates in innovative ways that a MMM has no deleterious effects on endothelial function irrespective of triglyceridemia in normal ranges. In addition, high but normal fasting triglyceride levels suggest metabolic and endothelial dysfunctions following nutritional challenges such as a HSFAM. Consumption of Mediterranean meals by healthy individuals with marginal triglyceride levels would be beneficial, perhaps even more so than for individuals with lower triglyceride levels, in preventing atherogenesis and cardiovascular diseases.

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    Authors: Lebel, Jean-François;

    Cette recherche fait état de la crise du syndicalisme qui affecte la capacité d’action et l’efficacité des pratiques des organisations syndicales à travers le monde. Elle dresse un portrait complet des éléments de crise qu’elle décline sous les niveaux économique, politique et social. Cette recherche expose ainsi la nécessité d’un renouveau syndical pour porter précisément sur les coalitions, hétérogènes notamment, comme stratégie de renouveau syndical. Au plan analytique, elle évalue l’impact de l’identité et de la capacité organisationnelle d’une organisation syndicale aux Philippines sur son choix de se coaliser, mais aussi l’influence de ses objectifs et du contexte national dans lequel elle évolue. Les données empiriques pour mener cette étude proviennent principalement de près de 24 entrevues semi-dirigées, tenues auprès de représentants de l’une des plus grandes organisations syndicales des Philippines, de représentants d’organisations non syndicales alliées et de répondants externes à celle-ci. Premièrement, nos résultats montrent qu’une identité collective sociétale forte influence favorablement le choix de l’organisation syndicale étudiée de se coaliser. Elle confirme également le rôle essentiel de l’identité dans l’orientation de son action collective. Deuxièmement, nos résultats permettent de conclure qu’une capacité organisationnelle forte influence favorablement le choix de cette organisation syndicale de se coaliser, considérant qu’elle permet à celle-ci d’identifier les opportunités d’action, de mettre en œuvre de nouvelles stratégies et d’assurer la légitimité et la mobilisation des membres quant aux actions entreprises. De nos résultats ressort l’importance de l’éducation sur l’accroissement de la capacité organisationnelle et, particulièrement, sur la formation et le renforcement de l’identité collective de l’organisation syndicale étudiée. Plus encore, nos résultats exposent l’interaction entre les dimensions de l’identité et de la capacité organisationnelle : précisément, nous avons observé une relation de renforcement positif entre ces deux variables. Troisièmement, nos résultats mettent de l’avant l’interaction entre les différents niveaux de transformations résultantes de sa participation à différents types de coalitions. Ainsi dans le cas observé, l’obtention de transformation au plan intraorganisationnel permet à rebours d’obtenir des transformations au plan extraorganisationnel et vice-versa. Finalement, le contexte répressif des Philippines et les objectifs de l’organisation syndicale étudiée apparaissent favorables à son choix de se coaliser à différents niveaux (local, régional, national et international). This research aims to survey the crisis, which affects the effectiveness and action-readiness of labor unions around the world. It portrays crisis elements happening at the economic, political and social levels, thus exposing the necessity of implementing union renewal. The research puts the focus on how coalitions might be one of the many key elements to this revitalization. It evaluates the influence of identity and organizational capacity on choosing whether to coalesce, while taking into account the specific union objectives and the national context in which it operates. The research has been conducted in a trade union organization based in the Philippines. The empirical data used in the research comes from 24 semi-structured interviews with representatives from one of the largest labor union in the country, representatives from non-union allies to this organization, and other actors not directly involved with the trade union organization under study. First, the results show that a strong societal, collective identity influences the choice of this union organization to join coalitions. Collective identity is also a fundamental element to better understand the orientation of the collective action displayed by this organization. Second, our results also suggest that a strong and visionary organizational capacity influences positively the choice of joining a coalition, since the union is reputed by then to be better-equipped to identify opportunities to act differently, to elaborate strategies of union renewal, and to ensure that these actions are properly understood and legitimized by the rank-and-file members. Our case study also demonstrates the importance of education for increasing organizational capacity, especially when it comes to collective identity formation and empowerment. Furthermore, our findings confirm the interaction between identity and organizational capacity: specifically, we observe a positive, mutually reinforcing relationship between the two variables. Third, our results reveal the interaction between the different levels of transformations resulting from the participation in coalitions. In fact, our case study shows that intraorganizational transformation leads to extraorganizational transformation and vice-versa. Lastly, our study shows that the combined effect of the repressive context of the Philippines and the specific objectives of the interviewed labor union seem to support its decision to coalesce at different (local, regional, national and international) levels.

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    Authors: Bohard, Isabelle;

    Ce mémoire s’intéresse au changement de la notion d’asile à travers l’incorporation du concept de genre et son impact sur les processus de demande d’asile et l’octroi du statut de réfugié pour les personnes victimes de violences liées au genre au Canada. À partir d’une perspective diachronique sur les transmutations de l’asile et des transformations sociales et culturelles de ce phénomène social, nous enregistrons des tensions et des contradictions qui émanent de son application et des discours qui lui sont reliés. L’observation des dynamiques contradictoires qui s’enchevêtrent dans ce champ indique une tension dialectique entre les droits humains et la citoyenneté, une symbiose dans le développement des droits de la femme et les lois sur les réfugiés et des contradictions comme celles entre le relativisme et l’essentialisme. L’examen du processus de demande d’asile pour les femmes en particulier victimes de violences liées au genre à travers l’analyse des transformations sociales et culturelles signale le caractère éminemment politique de ce phénomène qui situe l’asile au carrefour du procès d’émancipation du sujet politique. This thesis focuses on the change of the concept of asylum through the incorporation of the gender concept and its impact on the application process of asylum and the granting of status refugee for victims of gender violence in Canada. From a diachronic perspective on the transmutations of asylum and of social and cultural transformations of this social phenomenon, we record the tensions and contradictions be issued by its application and its related discourse. The observation that conflicting dynamics tied in this field displays a dialectical tension between human rights and citizenship, a symbiosis in the development of women’s rights and laws on refugees and contradictions as those between the relativism and essentialism. The review of asylum process especially for women in particular victims of gender violence through an analysis of social and cultural change signals the highly political nature of this phenomenon and lies asylum at the crossroads in the process of emancipation of the political subject.

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    Authors: Andersen, Mads Bryde;
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    Authors: Shahab, Amin;

    Le long voyage de la technologie a totalement changé la vie des gens : les humains ont marché sur la lune, les rovers1 découvrent Mars, les ordinateurs sont une partie inséparable de nos vies et dans le domaine de la santé, il y a des traitements pour beaucoup de maladies et l’espérance de vie a été significativement accrue. En plus, les scientifiques ont étudié les émotions humaines et ont essayé de les détecter en se basant sur differents paramètres tels que l'expression faciale, la parole et l'intonation, la réponse électrique et la communication verbale. Ces méthodes fonctionnent sur la base de l'effet des émotions humaines sur le corps et le comportement, mais l'émotion n'est pas le seul paramètre qui affecte le corps et les attitudes des gens. De plus, les personnes pourraient faire semblant, cacher leurs émotions et contrôler leurs réactions. En plus, les personnes ayant une limitation physique réduiront la précision de la reconnaissance correcte des émotions. Les chercheurs ont trouvé une relation directe entre les émotions et les activités cérébrales, les gens ou les limitations physiques ne pourront pas réduire la certitude de l'émotion détectée. Nous avons utilisé les EEG (électroencéphalogramme) pour créer un outil appelé Emotimap, qui détecte les émotions actuelles, surveille l'évolution émotionnelle en temps réel, et détecte également l'émotion générale. L'émotion actuelle est ressentie de façon brève et forte par rapport à des facteurs émotionnels et l’émotion générale est celle qui engage les gens pendant une longue période. Emotimap utilise des formules pour calculer l'Arousal et la Valence des personnes, puis ignore les sensations non stabilisées et cartographie le résultat sur les deux dimensions du diagramme de Circumplex de Russel pour détecter les émotions. Nous avons demandé à 20 personnes de participer à une expérimentation dans laquelle ils sont confrontés à différents facteurs émotionnels dans une réalité virtuelle (RV) isolée pour observer et sauvegarder l'information du facteur émotionnel et de leurs réactions. Les résultats montrent que les participants ont ressenti exactement ce qui était attendu avec le taux de 37,73% lorsque la distance métrique est seulement 1,55%, la distance métrique étant la proximité du ressenti et de l’émotion attendue (un plus petit nombre montre la plus grande similitude). La comparaison des différentes formules montre que les équations les plus similaires sont des formules avec le même nombre de capteurs utilisant avec 𝛽 et 𝛽low le taux de 40% de similarité, avec une distance métrique entre 20% à 60%. La raison est que certaines équations détectent les émotions plus tôt et d'autres forment des pics d’amplitude plus grands. En détail, les relations mathématiques avec 𝛽high détectent une émotion un peu plus tôt que les équations avec 𝛽low. De plus, les formules avec douze capteurs suivent les changements très faibles d’amplitude des EEG, les formules avec quatre capteurs sont plus sensibles dans les pics, et les formules avec deux capteurs sont les plus sensibles. La comparaison de la similarité des réactions des participants avec la similarité des caractéristiques basées sur le test Big 5 montre que l'effet de la mémoire est plus fort que l'effet de leur caractéristiques. En analysant les résultats, Emotionap a pu détecter avec succès l'émotion générale du participant avec un taux de 95%. The long journey of technology has totally changed human’s life: human stepped on the moon, Mars rovers2 are discovering the Mars, computers are one inseparable part of our lives and in the health section, people live longer, there are treatments for lots of sicknesses. Also, scientists have studied human’s emotion and tried to detect their emotions based on different parameters such as facial expression, speech and intonation, electrical response, verbal communication. These methods work based on the effect of human emotions on body and behavior, but the emotion is not the only parameter that effect on body and attitudes of people. Additionally, people could pretend, hide their emotions and control their body and reactions, also, people with a limit on their body movement will reduce the accuracy of correct recognition of emotion. Researchers found a direct relation between emotions and brain activities, people or limit in body movement could not reduce the certainty of detected emotion. We used EEG (Electroencephalogram) to create a tool called Emotimap that detects current emotion, monitor emotional evolution in real-time, also detects the general emotion. Current emotion is brief and strong, emotions that people feel again any emotional factor and general emotion is the emotion that engages people for a long time. Emotimap uses formulas to calculate the Arousal and Valence of people then ignore unstabled feels and maps the result on the two dimensions Russel’s Circumplex diagram to detect the emotions. We asked 20 people to participate in an experimentation in which they faced up with different emotional factors in an isolated Virtual Reality (VR) to observe and save the information of emotional factor and their reactions. The results show participants have felt exactly what was expected with the rate of 37.73% when the metric distance is just 1.55%, metric distance is the proximity of felt and expected emotions (smaller number shows the more similarity). Comparing different formulas shows the most similar equations goes to formulas with the same number of sensors using 𝛽 and 𝛽low with the rate of 40% of similarity, with metric distance in range of 20% to 60%. This is because some equations detect emotions sooner and some others are more strong in picks amplitude. In detaile, equation with 𝛽high detects an emotion a little bit sooner then a equation with 𝛽low, also, formulas with twelve sensors chase the EEG amplitude changes very weak when equation with four sensors are more sensible in picks, and the formulas with two sensors are the most sensible. Comparing the similarity of the participant reactions with their similarity of charactristics based on Big 5 test shows that the effect of memories is more stronger than the effect of their charactristic. Analysing the result shows Emotionap could successfully detect general emotion of participant with the rate of 95%.

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    Authors: Macana Goia, Jorge Andres;

    Un réseau de seize détecteurs ATLAS-MPX a été mis en opération dans le détecteur ATLAS au LHC du CERN. Les détecteurs ATLAS-MPX sont sensibles au champ mixte de radiation de photons et d’électrons dans la caverne d’ATLAS et sont recouverts de convertisseurs de fluorure de lithium et de polyéthylène pour augmenter l’efficacité de détection des neutrons thermiques et des neutrons rapides respectivement. Les collisions à haute énergie sont dominées par des interactions partoniques avec petit moment transverse pT , associés à des événements de “minimum bias”. Dans notre cas la collision proton-proton se produit avec une énergie de 7 TeV dans le centre de masse avec une luminosité de 10³⁴cm⁻²s⁻¹ telle que fixée dans les simulations. On utilise la simulation des événements de "minimum bias" générés par PYTHIA en utilisant le cadre Athena qui fait une simulation GEANT4 complète du détecteur ATLAS pour mesurer le nombre de photons, d’électrons, des muons qui peuvent atteindre les détecteurs ATLASMPX dont les positions de chaque détecteur sont incluses dans les algorithmes d’Athena. Nous mesurons les flux de neutrons thermiques et rapides, générés par GCALOR, dans les régions de fluorure de lithium et de polyéthylène respectivement. Les résultats des événements de “minimum bias” et les flux de neutrons thermiques et rapides obtenus des simulations sont comparés aux mesures réelles des détecteurs ATLAS-MPX. A network of sixteen ATLAS-MPX detectors has been put in operation in the ATLAS detector at CERN-LHC. ATLAS-MPX detectors are sensitive to a mixed radiation field of photons and electrons in the ATLAS cavern and are covered with lithium fluoride and polyethylene converters in order to increase the detection sensitivity of thermal neutrons and fast neutrons respectively. High energy collisions are dominated by partonic interactions with small transverse moment pT , associated with "minimum bias" events. In our case, the proton-proton collision occurs with an center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV with a fixed luminosity of 10³⁴cm⁻²s⁻¹ in the simulations. We use "minimum bias" events simulation generated by PYTHIA using the framework Athena. Athena’s framework makes a full GEANT4 simulation of the ATLAS detector. We include the positions of each detector in the Athena algorithms for measuring the number of photons, electrons and muons that can reach the detectors ATLAS-MPX. We measure the fluxes of thermal and fast neutrons generated by GCALOR in lithium fluoride and polyethylene regions respectively. The "minimum bias" events results and the flow of thermal and fast neutrons obtained by simulations are compared with real measurements of the ATLAS-MPX detectors.

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