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  • 2018-2022
  • Open Access
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Orzikh, Yu.H.;

    The article is devoted to the problems of application of the notary’s duty to keep notarial secrecy (confidentiality). Theoretical, legislative and practical aspects of notarial secrecy and its application are investigated. In particular, notarial secrecy is considered as the basis of notarial activity and ethical rules of notariat and its organization. The assumption is made that in case of practical impossibility to keep notarial secrecy and threats to notarial secrecy, the level of public trust in the notarial institute will decrease. This, in turn, will lead to a more rapid formation of personal trust relationships and appeal to the notary not as a subject, which can provide appropriate legal assistance and protection of rights and interests, but as a representative of the institute to which the law is required to apply and to whom the person would not turn unless the law required it. The author emphasizes the impossibility of the existence of a notary institution in the conditions of inefficient legislative regulation of notarial secrecy (confidentiality). The ambiguity of legislative regulation is a generating factor for differential law enforcement practice (application of law). Thus, on the materials of the requests of the relevant authorities and officials, in the conditions of necessity to keep notarial secret, the content and nature of the requested information and documents from notaries are analyzed. At the same time, the author emphasizes that even the most perfect legislative regulation of notarial secrecy cannot withstand the realities of everyday law enforcement (application of law) and will entail again ambiguous and differentiated practice of law enforcement. The causal link assumed by the author is that every law enforcement entity operates within the conditions and legal frameworks constructed by the law governing it, the entity, its activities and such regulatory framework, as a rule, without taking into account the features of notarial activity. In other words, the lack of systematicity in the legal system is reproduced in the activities of law enforcement entities, and therefore can be overcome by adjusting the activities of law enforcement entities by the entities themselves. That is why the author believes that quality and effective legislative regulation is a necessary but not sufficient condition for solving the problem of law enforcement practice. The solution to the problem should be based on the basis of qualitative legislation and dialogue of the subjects of law enforcement, which will allow each party to hear the position of the other and create a mechanism for implementation of specific norms without violating them (infringing them) and / or abusing their application. The conclusion is made about the possibility of using mediation in a law enforcement practice (application of law practice) where law enforcement subjects are able and agree on a single interpretation of a specific law in a particular situation. У статті досліджуються проблемні питання правозастосування обов’язку нотаріуса зберігати нотаріальну таємницю. Досліджуються теоретичні, законодавчі та практично-прикладні аспекти нотаріальної таємниці та її правозастосування. Зокрема, нотаріальна таємниця розглядається як базис нотаріальної діяльності та етичних правил організації нотаріальної діяльності. Робиться припущення, що в разі практичної неможливості зберігати нотаріальну таємницю та загрози нотаріальній таємниці рівень довіри суспільства до інститут нотаріату буде знижуватися. Це, своєю чергою, призведе до більш стрімкого формування зв’язків особистісної довіри та звернення до нотаріуса не як до суб’єкта, що може надати відповідну правову допомогу та захист прав та інтересів, а як до представника інституту, до якого зобов’язує звертатися закон і до якого особа не зверталась би, якби того не вимагав закон. Автор наголошує на неможливості існування інституту нотаріату в умовах неефективного законодавчого регулювання нотаріальної таємниці. Неоднозначність законодавчого регулювання стає генеруючим чинником для ди-ференційної практики правозастосування. Так, на матеріалах запитів відповідних органів та посадових осіб в умовах необхідності зберігати нотаріальну таємницю проводиться аналіз змісту та характеру запитуваної інформації та документів від нотаріусів. Водночас автор наголошує, що навіть максимально ідеальне законодавче регулювання нотаріальної таємниці може не витримати реалій повсякденного правозастосування і потягне за собою знову ж таки неоднозначну та диференційовану практику правозастосування. Каузальний зв’язок, який припускається автором, полягає в тому, що кожен суб’єкт правозастосування діє в умовах та правових межах, що сконструйовані нормативно-правовим базисом, що регулює його, суб’єкта, діяльність і такий нормативно-правовий базис побудований, як правило, без урахування особливостей нотаріальної діяльності. Тобто брак системності в правовій системі відтворюється в діяльності суб’єктів правозастосування, а отже, і долатися він може через коригування діяльності суб’єктів правозастосування самими суб’єктами. Саме тому автор вважає, що якісне та ефективне законодавче регулювання є необхідною, але не достатньою умовою вирішення проблеми практики правозастосування. Вирішення проблеми має бути побудоване на фундаменті якісного законодавчого регулювання та діалогу суб’єктівправозастосування, який дасть змогу кожній стороні почути позицію іншої та створити механізм реалізації конкретних норм без їх порушення та/чи зловживань в їх застосуванні. Сформульовано висновок про можливість застосу-вання медіації в такій правозастосовній практиці, де суб’єкти правозастосування здатні та мають змогу домовитись про єдину інтерпретацію конкретної норми в конкретній ситуації.

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    Authors: Mccormick, Kes;

    Природоорієнтовані рішення надають багато переваг у вирішенні низки проблем, пов’язаних зі сталим розвитком міст. Зокрема, вони допомагають обмежити вплив кліматичних змін, покращити біорізноманіття та підвищити якість навколишнього середовища, одночасно сприяючи економічній діяльності та соціальному добробуту. Читайте далі та дізнайтеся більше про природоорієнтовані рішення у світі розвитку міст!

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    Authors: Orzikh, Yurii; Dryshliuk, Andrii;

    Relevant problems of the practice of application of law and permanent process of improvement of the Ukrainian legislation are examined in this article. In particular authors stress on contradiction between process of the permanent improvement of the legislation and sustainability, predictability and legal certainty as principles of legal system. On the one hand, constant reforming of the legislation of Ukraine does not give possibility for subjects of law to create stable legal relations, which are regulated in a predictable way. On the other hand, legislation of Ukraine must be actual and even few “step ahead” the actual situation in Ukraine. It must give necessary methods, tools and legal instruments, which regulate relations between subjects of law. Described judicial and notarial practical cases show in what way flexibility of the legislation could be provided in conditions of the ongoing changes. Authors consider that qualified and high-quality application of the current legislation by the subjects of application of law gives possibility to provide flexibility of the legislation. Such application of law is done by subjects applying the law, although their actions are not directly provided for by the legislation, but they are not prohibited either. Essential principle of such application of law must be the whole tendency to create those legal consequences of the application of law which will not lead to the direct infringement of somebodies rights and interests within the process of application of law. Illustrated lawsuit and case of notarial practice show how exactly interpretative mechanism and analogy as a tool of the subject applying the law help to avoid infringements of rights and interests of heirs of the deceased person.

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    Authors: Orzikh, Yurii;
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    http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=u...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2019
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      Part of book or chapter of book . 2019
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    Authors: Mellquist, Simone;

    The present parallel corpus investigation shows that the Russian correspondences to Swedish bipartite comitatives: med- ‘with’-constructions with the structure [med + NP + PP], largely can be predicted from the presence and positions of NPs referring to inalienable body parts in the constructions. When a Swedish bipartite med-construction contains an inalienable in the first (subject) part of the bipartite med-construction: [med + NPinalienable + P + NP], perfective converb constructions is the most frequent Russian correspondence. Swedish: Han står med händerna mot ryggstödet ‘She is standing with her hands against the backrest of the chair’ corresponds to Russian on stoit položiv ruki na spinku sidenja, [… put(pfv):cvb hands[acc] on back:dim:acc sitting:gen]. When there is an alienable NP in the first part and an inalienable NP in the PP part: [med + NPalienable + P + NPinalienable], by contrast, the Swedish bipartite med-constructions frequently correspond to Russian comitative (s+instrumental) constructions. Swedish: Hon står med ett glas i handen; Russian: Ona stoit so stakanom v ruke [with glass:ins in hand:loc] ‘She is standing with a glass in her hand.’ The study shows two more important correspondence types, bare instrumental constructions expressing manner, Swedish: med ryggen mot publiken corresponds to Russian: spinoj k publike [back:ins towards audience:dat] ‘with his back to the audience’; and finite constructions expressing condition or temporal condition, Swedish Men med valet av Donald Trump till USA: s president försvann det sista hoppet om utländskt stöd ‘But with the election of Donald Trump as the president of the USA, the last hope of foreign support disappeared’; Russian No posle togo kak Donal′d Tramp byl vybran prezidentom SŠA, poslednjaja nadežda na inostrannuju podderžku isčezla. ‘But after Donald Trump was elected president of the USA, the last hope of foreign support disappeared’. These four Russian correspondence types represent four different ontological types, as they mark relations between, eventualities (states/temporary properties), entities, manners, and states of affairs, respectively.

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    Authors: Voytenko, Volodymyr; Solodchuk, Maksym;
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    У статті розглянуто теоретичні аспекти історії розвитку уявлень про тривогу і тривожні стани. Особливої уваги в роботі надано аналізу розуміння раціональної та патологічної тривоги й характерних особливостей її проявів при невротичних і психотичних станах. Методи дослідження представлені порівнянням і співвіднесенням існуючих історичних і сучасних теорій і підходів до вивчення тривоги й тривожних станів, їх дефініції в психології та психіатрії, що й стало теоретико-методологічною основою дослідження. З’ясовано, що більшість авторів відрізняють патологічну тривогу від раціональної за рівнем: інтенсивності афекту і його тривалістю, адекватності небезпеки, що існує, включення механізмів психологічного захисту, впливу на якість життя пацієнта. Підкреслено, що раціональна тривога має адаптаційний характер, мобілізує всі сили організму для пристосування до нових умов існування. Тим самим завдяки своєму адаптаційному характеру раціональна тривога є проміжним варіантом між істинною тривогою і страхом. При патології швидше відбувається перехід істинної тривоги у страх (безглузда ідея при шизофренії, агорафобія або інші види фобії при тривожних розладах). Отже, в раціональній тривозі вже закладені елементи патологічної тривоги. Зроблено висновок, що до теперішнього часу проблемі порівняльного аналізу феномену тривоги при невротичних і психотичних станах присвячено велику кількість науково-практичних робіт. Однак основну увагу більшості дослідників цього питання було направлено на підтвердження відмінностей, а не на пошуки механізмів, які їх об’єднують. Подібними механізмами можуть стати адаптаційні стратегії, способи подолання тривоги.

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    {"references": ["Bushkovich, P. (2008). Petr Velikij. Borba za vlast [Peter the Great. Struggle for power]. \u0420. 240. Sankt-Peterburg, Russia.", "Dutov, A.A. (2017). Nekotorye voprosy ikonografii svetlejshego knyazya Aleksandra Danilovicha Menshikova [Some questions of iconography of His Serene Highness Prince Alexander Danilovich Menshikov]. Petrovskoe vremya v licax-2017. Mat. nauch. konf. (Trudy Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha. XC) \u2013 Peter\u02bcs time in faces-2017. Mat. of sc. conf. (Works of the State Hermitage. HS). \u0420. 134\u2013146.", "Evangulova, O.S. (2001). A.D. Menshikov v Moskve. Usadba na bolshoj Myasnickoj ulice [A.D. Menshikov in Moscow. Homestead on Bolshaya Myasnitskaya Street]. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta \u2013 Bulletin of Moscow University. Ser. 8: History (\u2116 6). \u0420. 99\u2013110.", "Evangulova, O.S. (2000). A.D. Menshikov i Kurakiny. Dom na Myasnickoj v Moskve [A.D. Menshikov and Kurakins. Homestead on Bolshaya Myasnitskaya Street]. Petrovskoe vremya v licax-2000. Mat. nauch. konf. (Trudy Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha. XC) \u2013 Peter\u02bcs time in faces-2000. Mat. of sc. conf. (Works of the State Hermitage. HS). P. 16\u201319.", "Filipova, H.V. (2017). Misto Oleksandropol: zabuta \u00abstolytsia\u00bb kniazia O.D. Menshykova [The city of Alexandropol: the forgotten \u00abcapital\u00bb of the prince A.D. Menshikov]. Pratsi Tsentru pamiatkoznavstva \u2013 Works of the center of historical monuments. \u2116 31. P. 218\u2013226.", "Filipova, H.V. (2017). Pochepski tserkvy u chasy nalezhnosti mista do votchyn kniazia O.D. Menshykova [Pochep churches at the time when the city belonged to Prince A.D. Menshikov\u02bcs estates]. Mat. XIV konf. \u00abTserkva\u2013nauka\u2013suspilstvo: pytannia vzaiemodii\u00bb \u2013 Mat. of XIV conf. \u00abChurch\u2013science\u2013society: issues of interaction\u00bb. P. 59\u201361.", "Filipova, H.V. (2017). Zemelni stosunky starodubskoi starshyny z kniazem O.D. Menshykovym na prykladi volodin A.Yu. Lyzohuba [The land relations of the Starodub chieftain with Prince A.D. Menshikov on the example of the possessions of A.Yu. Lyzogub]. Mat. Mezhdunarodnoj nauchnoj konf., posviaschennoj 200-letyiu E.Y. Khrapovytskoho \u00abProblemy ystoryy y kultury pohranychia: humanytarnoe znanye y vyzovy vremeny\u00bb \u2013 Materials of the International scientific conf., dedicated to the 200th anniversary of E.Y.Khrapovytskiy \u00abProblems of the history and culture of the border region: humanitarian knowledge and challenges of time\u00bb. P. 171\u2013176.", "Filipova, H.V. (2018). Istoryko-pamiatkoznavchyj vymir obiektiv kulturnoi spadschyny Tsentralnoi ta Pivnichnoi Hetmanschyny: naslidky diialnosti rosijskykh uriadovtsiv (1690\u20131765 rr.) [Historical and remembrance dimensions of the objects of cultural heritage of the Central and Northern Hetmanate: the consequences of the activities of Russian government officials (1690\u20131765)]. Kyiv, Ukraine.", "Filipova, H.V. (2018). Orhanizatsijni osoblyvosti ta administratyvnyj aparat zemelnykh volodin kniazia O. Menshykova v Ukraini [Organizational features and administrative apparatus of land holdings of the prince A. Menshikov in Ukraine]. Siverianskyj litopys \u2013 Siverian chronicle. \u2116 1. P. 24\u201332.", "Filipova, H. (2019). Panegyric works and their connection with the Kyiv monasteries in the context of the relations between the Hetmanate and the Moscow kingdom in the early XVIII c. Orientalia Christiana Cracoviensia. \u2116 11. P. 77\u201390.", "Filipova, H.V. (2019). Vidobrazhennia vzaiemyn hetmana Ivana Mazepy z rosijskym nobilitetom u kontseptsii muzeiu Ivana Mazepy. Ivan Mazepa ta joho epokha. Zb. nauk. pr. [Reflection of Hetman Ivan Mazepa\u02bcs relations with the Russian nobility in the concept of the Ivan Mazepa Museum. Ivan Mazepa and his era. Coll. of sc. works]. \u0420. 133\u2013148.", "Kalyazina, N.V, Kalyazin, E.A. (2005). Knyaz Aleksandr Menshikov \u2013 stroitel Rossii [The prince Aleksandr Menshikov: the builder of Russia]. Vol. 1. Sankt-Peterburg, Russia.", "Kartashev, A.V. (2009). Ocherki po istorii russkoj cerkvi: V 2-h t. [Essays on the history of the Russian church: In 2 v.]. P. 383. Moscow, Russia.", "Krotov, P.A. (2007). Prizhiznennye portrety A.D. Menshikova: Problemy izucheniya [Lifelong portraits of A.D. Menshikov: issues of the study]. Menshikovskie chteniya \u2013 Menshikov readings. P. 21\u201331.", "Malizhenovskij, N.F. (2010). Kievskij zhenskij Florovskij (Voznesenskij) monastyr [Kyiv women\u02bcs Floriv (Voznesensk) monastery]. Krajnyaya O.A. (Comp.). \u0420. 71. Kyiv, Ukraine.", "Pogosyan, E.A. (2001). Petr I \u2013 arxitektor rossijskoj istorii [Petr the I \u2013 the architecture of russian history]. Seriya \u00abTerritoriya kultury\u00bb \u2013 \u00abTerritory of culture\u00bb series. \u0420. 164\u2013167, 182. Sankt-Peterburg, Russia.", "Pogosyan, E.A., Smorzhevskix-Smirnova, M.A. (2009). Eshhe raz o tajne ikony \u00abLiturgiya Gospodnya\u00bb [Once again about the secret icon \u00abLiturgy of the God\u00bb]. Tallinn: literatura, iskusstvo, kritika \u2013 Tallinn: literature, art, critics. \u2116 1.2. P. 74\u201399.", "Pogosyan, E.A., Smorzhevskix-Smirnova, M.A. (2011). \u00abLiturgiya Gospodnya\u00bb, gerbovaya ikona Tallinnskoj Nikolskoj cerkvi [\u00abLiturgy of the God\u00bb, heraldic icon of the Tallin Nikol church]. Petrovskoe vremya v licax-2011. K 30-letiyu Otdela Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha \u00abDvorec Menshikova\u00bb (1981\u20132011) \u2013 Peter\u02bcs time in faces-2011. To the 30th anniversary of the department of the State Hermitage \u00abMenshikovs\u02bc Palace\u00bb (1981\u20132011). P. 299\u2013306.", "Pogosyan, E.A., Smorzhevskix-Smirnova, M.A. (2011). Ikona \u00abLiturgiya Gospodnya\u00bb [The icon \u00abLiturgy of the God\u00bb]. Iskusstvo ikony Estonii \u2013 The art of the icon of Estonia. P. 74\u201377.", "Posternak, K.V. (2013). K voprosu ob avtorstve russkix ikonostasov epoxi barokko [To the question of the authorship of Russian iconostases of the Baroque era]. Vestnik PSTGU. Seriya V. Voprosy istorii i teorii xristianskogo iskusstva \u2013 Bulletin of the OSTHU. Series V. Questions of the history and theory of Christian art. \u2116 2 (11). P. 115\u2013127.", "Prokopiuk, O.B. (2012). Kyivska mytropoliia: topohrafiia posviat [Kyiv Metropolis: topography of the dedications]. \u0420. 156\u2013161. Kyiv, Ukraine.", "Shenk, F.B. (2001). Politicheskij mif i kollektivnaya identichnost: mif Aleksandra Nevskogo v rossijskoj istorii (1263\u20131998) [Political myth and collective identity: the myth of Alexander Nevsky in Russian history (1263\u20131998)]. Ab imperio. \u2116 1. 1\u20132. P. 141\u2013164.", "Sokolov, R.A. (2014). Aleksandr Nevskij v gosudarstvennoj i cerkovnoj ideologii v 1710\u20131720 g. [Alexander Nevsky in state and church ideology in 1710\u20131720]. Vestnik Udmurtskogo universiteta, Istoriya i filologiya \u2013 Bulletin of Udmurt University. History and philology. \u2116 3. P. 18\u201324.", "Sorokin, E.P. (1994). Iz istorii derevyannyx cerkvej Ust-Izhory. Knyaz Aleksandr Nevskij [From the history of ancient Russian churches of Ust-Izhori. The prince Aleksandr Nevskiy]. P. 31\u201333.", "Sorokin, E.P. (1993). Okrestnosti Peterburga. Iz istorii Izhorskoj zemli [Vicinity of St. Petersburg. From the history of Izhora land]. Ust-Izhora, Russia.", "Sorokin, E.P. (2000). Cerkov Sv. Blagovernogo knyazya Aleksandra Nevskogo v Ust-Izhore [Church of the Holy Prince Alexander Nevsky in Ust-Izhor]. Sankt-Peterburgskie eparxialnye vedomosti \u2013 St. Petersburg eparchial notices. \u2116 23. P. 113\u2013117."]} Summary. The purpose of the research is to analyze the mapping of the process of Russian expansion in Hetman Ukraine in 1710–1720s in the formation of the cult of the holy Prince Alexander Nevsky (Alexander Yaroslavich). The scientific novelty lies in the fact that the study of the outlined phenomena and events is an urgent need for modern Ukrainian historical science. The main reason for this updating is the relationship, including genetic, of some processes of the beginning of the XVIII c. and those that are happening today. Understanding the way of formulating the origins of Russian imperial propaganda, the main provisions of which were formed during the reign of Peter I, allows for a more thoughtful look at the Ukrainian-Russian confrontation not only in the military and economic, but also in the ideological field. The main conclusions of the study is finding the relationship between the origins of the official veneration of Alexander Nevsky and the aggressive foreign policy of the Moscow kingdom towards transforming it into the Russian empire during the first twenty years of the XVIII c., as well as reflecting this process on the realities of Hetman State. An analytical review of the main aspects of the realization of the cult of Alexander Nevsky in the cultural, religious, political life of Russia during the reign of Peter I and the formation of imperial autocracy was carried out. A direct relationship has been derived between the spread of the cult (the emergence of appropriate temple ordinations in Starodub regiment) and the administrative and economic activities on the lands of the northern Hetman State of Prince Alexander Menshikov, whose patron saint was Alexander Nevsky.

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    Authors: Yurchuk, Yuliya;
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    The article describes the content and relationship between the concepts of «social security» and «social responsibility of the state». The social responsibility of the state is shown at the international and national levels, and it is implemented in different directions of public administration. It is established that the degree of social responsibility depends on the model of the social state adopted in the country. Different models of social states are characterized by different scope of social functions.Social security is considered as a tool for realization of functions of the state on social responsibility. It is determined that social security is directed at material support of citizens in the situation of social risks (illness, unemployment, old age, etc.) and it is implemented in two organizational and legal forms (social insurance and appropriation at the expense of budgets of different levels).The content and forms of social security of the population are substantiated depending on the degree of realization of the social responsibility of the state: basic and extended. The main trends of development of social security in the context of this differentiation are outlined and possible ways of elimination of the existing disadvantages, strengthening of social responsibility of the state are identified. У статті розкрито зміст і взаємозв’язок понять «соціальне забезпечення» та «соціальна відповідальність держави». Визначено, що соціальна відповідальність держави проявляється на міжнародному та національному рівнях і реалізується у різних напрямах державного управління. Встановлено, що ступінь вияву соціальної відповідальності держави залежить від моделі соціальної держави, прийнятої у країні. Різні моделі соціальних держав характеризуються різним обсягом соціальних функцій.Розглянуто соціальне забезпечення як інструмент реалізації функцій держави щодо соціальної відповідальності. Визначено, що соціальне забезпечення спрямоване на матеріальну підтримку громадян у ситуації соціальних ризиків (хвороба, безробіття, старість тощо) та здійснюється у двох організаційно-правових формах (соціальне страхування та асигнування за рахунок бюджетів різних рівнів).Обґрунтовано зміст та форми соціального забезпечення населення залежно від ступеня реалізації соціальної відповідальності держави: базового та розширеного. Окреслено основні тенденції розвитку соціального забезпечення у розрізі цієї диференціації та визначено можливі шляхи ліквідації існуючих недоліків, посилення соціальної відповідальності держави.

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    Authors: Orzikh, Yu.H.;

    The article is devoted to the problems of application of the notary’s duty to keep notarial secrecy (confidentiality). Theoretical, legislative and practical aspects of notarial secrecy and its application are investigated. In particular, notarial secrecy is considered as the basis of notarial activity and ethical rules of notariat and its organization. The assumption is made that in case of practical impossibility to keep notarial secrecy and threats to notarial secrecy, the level of public trust in the notarial institute will decrease. This, in turn, will lead to a more rapid formation of personal trust relationships and appeal to the notary not as a subject, which can provide appropriate legal assistance and protection of rights and interests, but as a representative of the institute to which the law is required to apply and to whom the person would not turn unless the law required it. The author emphasizes the impossibility of the existence of a notary institution in the conditions of inefficient legislative regulation of notarial secrecy (confidentiality). The ambiguity of legislative regulation is a generating factor for differential law enforcement practice (application of law). Thus, on the materials of the requests of the relevant authorities and officials, in the conditions of necessity to keep notarial secret, the content and nature of the requested information and documents from notaries are analyzed. At the same time, the author emphasizes that even the most perfect legislative regulation of notarial secrecy cannot withstand the realities of everyday law enforcement (application of law) and will entail again ambiguous and differentiated practice of law enforcement. The causal link assumed by the author is that every law enforcement entity operates within the conditions and legal frameworks constructed by the law governing it, the entity, its activities and such regulatory framework, as a rule, without taking into account the features of notarial activity. In other words, the lack of systematicity in the legal system is reproduced in the activities of law enforcement entities, and therefore can be overcome by adjusting the activities of law enforcement entities by the entities themselves. That is why the author believes that quality and effective legislative regulation is a necessary but not sufficient condition for solving the problem of law enforcement practice. The solution to the problem should be based on the basis of qualitative legislation and dialogue of the subjects of law enforcement, which will allow each party to hear the position of the other and create a mechanism for implementation of specific norms without violating them (infringing them) and / or abusing their application. The conclusion is made about the possibility of using mediation in a law enforcement practice (application of law practice) where law enforcement subjects are able and agree on a single interpretation of a specific law in a particular situation. У статті досліджуються проблемні питання правозастосування обов’язку нотаріуса зберігати нотаріальну таємницю. Досліджуються теоретичні, законодавчі та практично-прикладні аспекти нотаріальної таємниці та її правозастосування. Зокрема, нотаріальна таємниця розглядається як базис нотаріальної діяльності та етичних правил організації нотаріальної діяльності. Робиться припущення, що в разі практичної неможливості зберігати нотаріальну таємницю та загрози нотаріальній таємниці рівень довіри суспільства до інститут нотаріату буде знижуватися. Це, своєю чергою, призведе до більш стрімкого формування зв’язків особистісної довіри та звернення до нотаріуса не як до суб’єкта, що може надати відповідну правову допомогу та захист прав та інтересів, а як до представника інституту, до якого зобов’язує звертатися закон і до якого особа не зверталась би, якби того не вимагав закон. Автор наголошує на неможливості існування інституту нотаріату в умовах неефективного законодавчого регулювання нотаріальної таємниці. Неоднозначність законодавчого регулювання стає генеруючим чинником для ди-ференційної практики правозастосування. Так, на матеріалах запитів відповідних органів та посадових осіб в умовах необхідності зберігати нотаріальну таємницю проводиться аналіз змісту та характеру запитуваної інформації та документів від нотаріусів. Водночас автор наголошує, що навіть максимально ідеальне законодавче регулювання нотаріальної таємниці може не витримати реалій повсякденного правозастосування і потягне за собою знову ж таки неоднозначну та диференційовану практику правозастосування. Каузальний зв’язок, який припускається автором, полягає в тому, що кожен суб’єкт правозастосування діє в умовах та правових межах, що сконструйовані нормативно-правовим базисом, що регулює його, суб’єкта, діяльність і такий нормативно-правовий базис побудований, як правило, без урахування особливостей нотаріальної діяльності. Тобто брак системності в правовій системі відтворюється в діяльності суб’єктів правозастосування, а отже, і долатися він може через коригування діяльності суб’єктів правозастосування самими суб’єктами. Саме тому автор вважає, що якісне та ефективне законодавче регулювання є необхідною, але не достатньою умовою вирішення проблеми практики правозастосування. Вирішення проблеми має бути побудоване на фундаменті якісного законодавчого регулювання та діалогу суб’єктівправозастосування, який дасть змогу кожній стороні почути позицію іншої та створити механізм реалізації конкретних норм без їх порушення та/чи зловживань в їх застосуванні. Сформульовано висновок про можливість застосу-вання медіації в такій правозастосовній практиці, де суб’єкти правозастосування здатні та мають змогу домовитись про єдину інтерпретацію конкретної норми в конкретній ситуації.

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    Authors: Mccormick, Kes;

    Природоорієнтовані рішення надають багато переваг у вирішенні низки проблем, пов’язаних зі сталим розвитком міст. Зокрема, вони допомагають обмежити вплив кліматичних змін, покращити біорізноманіття та підвищити якість навколишнього середовища, одночасно сприяючи економічній діяльності та соціальному добробуту. Читайте далі та дізнайтеся більше про природоорієнтовані рішення у світі розвитку міст!

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    Authors: Orzikh, Yurii; Dryshliuk, Andrii;

    Relevant problems of the practice of application of law and permanent process of improvement of the Ukrainian legislation are examined in this article. In particular authors stress on contradiction between process of the permanent improvement of the legislation and sustainability, predictability and legal certainty as principles of legal system. On the one hand, constant reforming of the legislation of Ukraine does not give possibility for subjects of law to create stable legal relations, which are regulated in a predictable way. On the other hand, legislation of Ukraine must be actual and even few “step ahead” the actual situation in Ukraine. It must give necessary methods, tools and legal instruments, which regulate relations between subjects of law. Described judicial and notarial practical cases show in what way flexibility of the legislation could be provided in conditions of the ongoing changes. Authors consider that qualified and high-quality application of the current legislation by the subjects of application of law gives possibility to provide flexibility of the legislation. Such application of law is done by subjects applying the law, although their actions are not directly provided for by the legislation, but they are not prohibited either. Essential principle of such application of law must be the whole tendency to create those legal consequences of the application of law which will not lead to the direct infringement of somebodies rights and interests within the process of application of law. Illustrated lawsuit and case of notarial practice show how exactly interpretative mechanism and analogy as a tool of the subject applying the law help to avoid infringements of rights and interests of heirs of the deceased person.

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    Authors: Orzikh, Yurii;
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    Part of book or chapter of book . 2019
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    Authors: Mellquist, Simone;

    The present parallel corpus investigation shows that the Russian correspondences to Swedish bipartite comitatives: med- ‘with’-constructions with the structure [med + NP + PP], largely can be predicted from the presence and positions of NPs referring to inalienable body parts in the constructions. When a Swedish bipartite med-construction contains an inalienable in the first (subject) part of the bipartite med-construction: [med + NPinalienable + P + NP], perfective converb constructions is the most frequent Russian correspondence. Swedish: Han står med händerna mot ryggstödet ‘She is standing with her hands against the backrest of the chair’ corresponds to Russian on stoit položiv ruki na spinku sidenja, [… put(pfv):cvb hands[acc] on back:dim:acc sitting:gen]. When there is an alienable NP in the first part and an inalienable NP in the PP part: [med + NPalienable + P + NPinalienable], by contrast, the Swedish bipartite med-constructions frequently correspond to Russian comitative (s+instrumental) constructions. Swedish: Hon står med ett glas i handen; Russian: Ona stoit so stakanom v ruke [with glass:ins in hand:loc] ‘She is standing with a glass in her hand.’ The study shows two more important correspondence types, bare instrumental constructions expressing manner, Swedish: med ryggen mot publiken corresponds to Russian: spinoj k publike [back:ins towards audience:dat] ‘with his back to the audience’; and finite constructions expressing condition or temporal condition, Swedish Men med valet av Donald Trump till USA: s president försvann det sista hoppet om utländskt stöd ‘But with the election of Donald Trump as the president of the USA, the last hope of foreign support disappeared’; Russian No posle togo kak Donal′d Tramp byl vybran prezidentom SŠA, poslednjaja nadežda na inostrannuju podderžku isčezla. ‘But after Donald Trump was elected president of the USA, the last hope of foreign support disappeared’. These four Russian correspondence types represent four different ontological types, as they mark relations between, eventualities (states/temporary properties), entities, manners, and states of affairs, respectively.

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    Authors: Voytenko, Volodymyr; Solodchuk, Maksym;
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    У статті розглянуто теоретичні аспекти історії розвитку уявлень про тривогу і тривожні стани. Особливої уваги в роботі надано аналізу розуміння раціональної та патологічної тривоги й характерних особливостей її проявів при невротичних і психотичних станах. Методи дослідження представлені порівнянням і співвіднесенням існуючих історичних і сучасних теорій і підходів до вивчення тривоги й тривожних станів, їх дефініції в психології та психіатрії, що й стало теоретико-методологічною основою дослідження. З’ясовано, що більшість авторів відрізняють патологічну тривогу від раціональної за рівнем: інтенсивності афекту і його тривалістю, адекватності небезпеки, що існує, включення механізмів психологічного захисту, впливу на якість життя пацієнта. Підкреслено, що раціональна тривога має адаптаційний характер, мобілізує всі сили організму для пристосування до нових умов існування. Тим самим завдяки своєму адаптаційному характеру раціональна тривога є проміжним варіантом між істинною тривогою і страхом. При патології швидше відбувається перехід істинної тривоги у страх (безглузда ідея при шизофренії, агорафобія або інші види фобії при тривожних розладах). Отже, в раціональній тривозі вже закладені елементи патологічної тривоги. Зроблено висновок, що до теперішнього часу проблемі порівняльного аналізу феномену тривоги при невротичних і психотичних станах присвячено велику кількість науково-практичних робіт. Однак основну увагу більшості дослідників цього питання було направлено на підтвердження відмінностей, а не на пошуки механізмів, які їх об’єднують. Подібними механізмами можуть стати адаптаційні стратегії, способи подолання тривоги.

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    {"references": ["Bushkovich, P. (2008). Petr Velikij. Borba za vlast [Peter the Great. Struggle for power]. \u0420. 240. Sankt-Peterburg, Russia.", "Dutov, A.A. (2017). Nekotorye voprosy ikonografii svetlejshego knyazya Aleksandra Danilovicha Menshikova [Some questions of iconography of His Serene Highness Prince Alexander Danilovich Menshikov]. Petrovskoe vremya v licax-2017. Mat. nauch. konf. (Trudy Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha. XC) \u2013 Peter\u02bcs time in faces-2017. Mat. of sc. conf. (Works of the State Hermitage. HS). \u0420. 134\u2013146.", "Evangulova, O.S. (2001). A.D. Menshikov v Moskve. Usadba na bolshoj Myasnickoj ulice [A.D. Menshikov in Moscow. Homestead on Bolshaya Myasnitskaya Street]. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta \u2013 Bulletin of Moscow University. Ser. 8: History (\u2116 6). \u0420. 99\u2013110.", "Evangulova, O.S. (2000). A.D. Menshikov i Kurakiny. Dom na Myasnickoj v Moskve [A.D. Menshikov and Kurakins. Homestead on Bolshaya Myasnitskaya Street]. 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Menshykovym na prykladi volodin A.Yu. Lyzohuba [The land relations of the Starodub chieftain with Prince A.D. Menshikov on the example of the possessions of A.Yu. Lyzogub]. Mat. Mezhdunarodnoj nauchnoj konf., posviaschennoj 200-letyiu E.Y. Khrapovytskoho \u00abProblemy ystoryy y kultury pohranychia: humanytarnoe znanye y vyzovy vremeny\u00bb \u2013 Materials of the International scientific conf., dedicated to the 200th anniversary of E.Y.Khrapovytskiy \u00abProblems of the history and culture of the border region: humanitarian knowledge and challenges of time\u00bb. P. 171\u2013176.", "Filipova, H.V. (2018). Istoryko-pamiatkoznavchyj vymir obiektiv kulturnoi spadschyny Tsentralnoi ta Pivnichnoi Hetmanschyny: naslidky diialnosti rosijskykh uriadovtsiv (1690\u20131765 rr.) [Historical and remembrance dimensions of the objects of cultural heritage of the Central and Northern Hetmanate: the consequences of the activities of Russian government officials (1690\u20131765)]. Kyiv, Ukraine.", "Filipova, H.V. (2018). Orhanizatsijni osoblyvosti ta administratyvnyj aparat zemelnykh volodin kniazia O. Menshykova v Ukraini [Organizational features and administrative apparatus of land holdings of the prince A. Menshikov in Ukraine]. Siverianskyj litopys \u2013 Siverian chronicle. \u2116 1. P. 24\u201332.", "Filipova, H. (2019). Panegyric works and their connection with the Kyiv monasteries in the context of the relations between the Hetmanate and the Moscow kingdom in the early XVIII c. Orientalia Christiana Cracoviensia. \u2116 11. P. 77\u201390.", "Filipova, H.V. (2019). Vidobrazhennia vzaiemyn hetmana Ivana Mazepy z rosijskym nobilitetom u kontseptsii muzeiu Ivana Mazepy. Ivan Mazepa ta joho epokha. Zb. nauk. pr. [Reflection of Hetman Ivan Mazepa\u02bcs relations with the Russian nobility in the concept of the Ivan Mazepa Museum. Ivan Mazepa and his era. Coll. of sc. works]. \u0420. 133\u2013148.", "Kalyazina, N.V, Kalyazin, E.A. (2005). Knyaz Aleksandr Menshikov \u2013 stroitel Rossii [The prince Aleksandr Menshikov: the builder of Russia]. Vol. 1. Sankt-Peterburg, Russia.", "Kartashev, A.V. (2009). Ocherki po istorii russkoj cerkvi: V 2-h t. [Essays on the history of the Russian church: In 2 v.]. P. 383. Moscow, Russia.", "Krotov, P.A. (2007). Prizhiznennye portrety A.D. Menshikova: Problemy izucheniya [Lifelong portraits of A.D. Menshikov: issues of the study]. Menshikovskie chteniya \u2013 Menshikov readings. P. 21\u201331.", "Malizhenovskij, N.F. (2010). Kievskij zhenskij Florovskij (Voznesenskij) monastyr [Kyiv women\u02bcs Floriv (Voznesensk) monastery]. Krajnyaya O.A. (Comp.). \u0420. 71. Kyiv, Ukraine.", "Pogosyan, E.A. (2001). Petr I \u2013 arxitektor rossijskoj istorii [Petr the I \u2013 the architecture of russian history]. Seriya \u00abTerritoriya kultury\u00bb \u2013 \u00abTerritory of culture\u00bb series. \u0420. 164\u2013167, 182. Sankt-Peterburg, Russia.", "Pogosyan, E.A., Smorzhevskix-Smirnova, M.A. (2009). Eshhe raz o tajne ikony \u00abLiturgiya Gospodnya\u00bb [Once again about the secret icon \u00abLiturgy of the God\u00bb]. Tallinn: literatura, iskusstvo, kritika \u2013 Tallinn: literature, art, critics. \u2116 1.2. P. 74\u201399.", "Pogosyan, E.A., Smorzhevskix-Smirnova, M.A. (2011). \u00abLiturgiya Gospodnya\u00bb, gerbovaya ikona Tallinnskoj Nikolskoj cerkvi [\u00abLiturgy of the God\u00bb, heraldic icon of the Tallin Nikol church]. Petrovskoe vremya v licax-2011. K 30-letiyu Otdela Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha \u00abDvorec Menshikova\u00bb (1981\u20132011) \u2013 Peter\u02bcs time in faces-2011. To the 30th anniversary of the department of the State Hermitage \u00abMenshikovs\u02bc Palace\u00bb (1981\u20132011). P. 299\u2013306.", "Pogosyan, E.A., Smorzhevskix-Smirnova, M.A. (2011). Ikona \u00abLiturgiya Gospodnya\u00bb [The icon \u00abLiturgy of the God\u00bb]. Iskusstvo ikony Estonii \u2013 The art of the icon of Estonia. P. 74\u201377.", "Posternak, K.V. (2013). K voprosu ob avtorstve russkix ikonostasov epoxi barokko [To the question of the authorship of Russian iconostases of the Baroque era]. Vestnik PSTGU. Seriya V. Voprosy istorii i teorii xristianskogo iskusstva \u2013 Bulletin of the OSTHU. Series V. Questions of the history and theory of Christian art. \u2116 2 (11). P. 115\u2013127.", "Prokopiuk, O.B. (2012). Kyivska mytropoliia: topohrafiia posviat [Kyiv Metropolis: topography of the dedications]. \u0420. 156\u2013161. Kyiv, Ukraine.", "Shenk, F.B. (2001). Politicheskij mif i kollektivnaya identichnost: mif Aleksandra Nevskogo v rossijskoj istorii (1263\u20131998) [Political myth and collective identity: the myth of Alexander Nevsky in Russian history (1263\u20131998)]. Ab imperio. \u2116 1. 1\u20132. P. 141\u2013164.", "Sokolov, R.A. (2014). Aleksandr Nevskij v gosudarstvennoj i cerkovnoj ideologii v 1710\u20131720 g. [Alexander Nevsky in state and church ideology in 1710\u20131720]. Vestnik Udmurtskogo universiteta, Istoriya i filologiya \u2013 Bulletin of Udmurt University. History and philology. \u2116 3. P. 18\u201324.", "Sorokin, E.P. (1994). Iz istorii derevyannyx cerkvej Ust-Izhory. Knyaz Aleksandr Nevskij [From the history of ancient Russian churches of Ust-Izhori. The prince Aleksandr Nevskiy]. P. 31\u201333.", "Sorokin, E.P. (1993). Okrestnosti Peterburga. Iz istorii Izhorskoj zemli [Vicinity of St. Petersburg. From the history of Izhora land]. Ust-Izhora, Russia.", "Sorokin, E.P. (2000). Cerkov Sv. Blagovernogo knyazya Aleksandra Nevskogo v Ust-Izhore [Church of the Holy Prince Alexander Nevsky in Ust-Izhor]. Sankt-Peterburgskie eparxialnye vedomosti \u2013 St. Petersburg eparchial notices. \u2116 23. P. 113\u2013117."]} Summary. The purpose of the research is to analyze the mapping of the process of Russian expansion in Hetman Ukraine in 1710–1720s in the formation of the cult of the holy Prince Alexander Nevsky (Alexander Yaroslavich). The scientific novelty lies in the fact that the study of the outlined phenomena and events is an urgent need for modern Ukrainian historical science. The main reason for this updating is the relationship, including genetic, of some processes of the beginning of the XVIII c. and those that are happening today. Understanding the way of formulating the origins of Russian imperial propaganda, the main provisions of which were formed during the reign of Peter I, allows for a more thoughtful look at the Ukrainian-Russian confrontation not only in the military and economic, but also in the ideological field. The main conclusions of the study is finding the relationship between the origins of the official veneration of Alexander Nevsky and the aggressive foreign policy of the Moscow kingdom towards transforming it into the Russian empire during the first twenty years of the XVIII c., as well as reflecting this process on the realities of Hetman State. An analytical review of the main aspects of the realization of the cult of Alexander Nevsky in the cultural, religious, political life of Russia during the reign of Peter I and the formation of imperial autocracy was carried out. A direct relationship has been derived between the spread of the cult (the emergence of appropriate temple ordinations in Starodub regiment) and the administrative and economic activities on the lands of the northern Hetman State of Prince Alexander Menshikov, whose patron saint was Alexander Nevsky.

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    Authors: Yurchuk, Yuliya;
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    The article describes the content and relationship between the concepts of «social security» and «social responsibility of the state». The social responsibility of the state is shown at the international and national levels, and it is implemented in different directions of public administration. It is established that the degree of social responsibility depends on the model of the social state adopted in the country. Different models of social states are characterized by different scope of social functions.Social security is considered as a tool for realization of functions of the state on social responsibility. It is determined that social security is directed at material support of citizens in the situation of social risks (illness, unemployment, old age, etc.) and it is implemented in two organizational and legal forms (social insurance and appropriation at the expense of budgets of different levels).The content and forms of social security of the population are substantiated depending on the degree of realization of the social responsibility of the state: basic and extended. The main trends of development of social security in the context of this differentiation are outlined and possible ways of elimination of the existing disadvantages, strengthening of social responsibility of the state are identified. У статті розкрито зміст і взаємозв’язок понять «соціальне забезпечення» та «соціальна відповідальність держави». Визначено, що соціальна відповідальність держави проявляється на міжнародному та національному рівнях і реалізується у різних напрямах державного управління. Встановлено, що ступінь вияву соціальної відповідальності держави залежить від моделі соціальної держави, прийнятої у країні. Різні моделі соціальних держав характеризуються різним обсягом соціальних функцій.Розглянуто соціальне забезпечення як інструмент реалізації функцій держави щодо соціальної відповідальності. Визначено, що соціальне забезпечення спрямоване на матеріальну підтримку громадян у ситуації соціальних ризиків (хвороба, безробіття, старість тощо) та здійснюється у двох організаційно-правових формах (соціальне страхування та асигнування за рахунок бюджетів різних рівнів).Обґрунтовано зміст та форми соціального забезпечення населення залежно від ступеня реалізації соціальної відповідальності держави: базового та розширеного. Окреслено основні тенденції розвитку соціального забезпечення у розрізі цієї диференціації та визначено можливі шляхи ліквідації існуючих недоліків, посилення соціальної відповідальності держави.

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