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  • Canadian Journal of Infectious Dise...

  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ip, Stephen(Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology) Ford, Jo-Ann(Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology) Lau, Kirby(Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology) Marquez, Vladimir(Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology) Guan, Marisa(Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology) Klassen, Carolyn(Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology) Chan, Jessica(United Chinese Community Enrichment Services Society (SUCCESS)) Kwan, WC Peter(Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology) Krajden, Mel(BC Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver) Yoshida, Eric M(Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology);

    BACKGROUND: The seroprevalences of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are 0.4% and 0.8%, respectively, in Canada, but varying rates have been reported in different populations.OBJECTIVES: To determine the seroprevalences of HBV and HCV among attendees of an Asian health fair in the Lower Mainland, British Columbia, as well as to correlate questionnaire answers regarding vaccination status to serological profiles.METHODS: Attendees at an Asian health fair were invited to participate in the present study on a voluntary basis. They provided answers to a questionnaire including ethnicity and vaccination status. Blood was then drawn for HBV and HCV serology. Active HBV was defined as HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) positive while HCV seroprevalence was defined as HCV antibody reactive. Previous exposure to HBV was defined as HBV core antibody (anti-HBc) positive and HBsAg negative. Nonimmunity was defined as anti-HBc negative and HBV surface antibody negative. Only those with correct demographic information matched to serological results were included in the study.RESULTS: There were 192 consenting attendees of the fair, of whom 112 were included in the study. Of the participants, 91% were Chinese. Active HBV infection was found in three participants (2.7% [95% CI 0.6% to 7.6%]) and HCV infection was found in two participants (1.8% [95% CI 0.2% to 6.3%]). More than 40% of participants had been previously exposed to HBV (42% [95% CI 33% to 51%]). Almost 20% demonstrated nonimmunity to HBV (19% [95% CI 12% to 27%]). There was significant discordance when questionnaire answers regarding vaccination status were compared with serological profiles.CONCLUSION: The seroprevalences of HBV and HCV in this cohort were 2.7% and 1.8%, respectively – higher than nationally reported rates. Our results highlight that the lack of knowledge of HBV infection and vaccination status remains a significant clinical issue in the Asian community of British Columbia.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Webster, Duncan(Department of Medical Microbiology, Dalhousie University) Chui, Linda(Provincial Laboratory for Public Health, Department of Laboratory Medicine & Pathology) Tyrrell, Gregory J(Provincial Laboratory for Public Health, Department of Laboratory Medicine & Pathology) Marrie, Thomas J(Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine);

    INTRODUCTION: While Staphylococcus aureus is an uncommon but serious cause of traditional community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), it is a predominant cause of nosocomial pneumonia in addition to the unique clinical entity of health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP). A cohort of bacteremic S aureus pneumonia cases was reviewed to determine the role of HCAP among the cohort, and to assess for differences between CAP and HCAP.PATIENTS AND METHODS: Bacteremic S aureus pneumonia cases were identified from a prospective study of all patients diagnosed with CAP who presented to hospitals in Edmonton, Alberta, between November 2000 and November 2002. These cases were subsequently reviewed retrospectively. Demographic, clinical and microbiological data were obtained, and patients were classified as having CAP or HCAP. Relatedness of isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis in conjunction with epidemiological information.RESULTS: There were 28 cases of bacteremic S aureus pneumonia identified. Fifty-seven per cent were reclassified as having HCAP, and 43% remained classified as having CAP. The CAP cohort was significantly younger than the HCAP cohort (mean age 49.0±23.7 years versus 67.8±18.6 years; P=0.035) with higher rates of intravenous drug use (50% versus 0%; P=0.002). Long-term care facility residence (44%) was common in the HCAP cohort. The HCAP cohort presented with more severe illness, having a higher mean pneumonia severity index score (143.1±41.1 versus 98.2±54.6; P=0.028), and despite fewer embolic complications, there was a trend toward a significantly higher mortality rate (31% versus 0%; P=0.052). Two community-acquired isolates cultured in the setting of intravenous drug use were methicillin-resistant, and no isolates were positive for Panton-Valentine leukocidin. There was evidence of relatedness involving 44% of the HCAP isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis.CONCLUSION: HCAP accounts for a significant number of cases that, when using traditional definitions, would be classified as CAP. Severity of illness and mortality was excessive within the HCAP group. There was evidence of relatedness and spread of common strains in the HCAP cohort. The present study supports recommendations for treatment guidelines directed toward the entity of HCAP and the empirical coverage of S aureus among certain high-risk groups.

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    Authors: Kandola, Kami Lea, Amy(Stanton Territorial Health Authority, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories) White, Wanda(Yellowknife Health and Social Services, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories) Santos, Maria(Department of Health and Social Services, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories);

    INTRODUCTION: During the past decade, a trend toward increasing cases of Bordetella pertussis in older children and adults has been witnessed in Canada. The National Advisory Committee on Immunization now recommends that the adult formulation of the acellular pertussis (adult dTap) vaccine combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids be substituted for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids alone for the 14- to 16-year-old booster dose. In October 2000, the government of the Northwest Territories was one of the first to adopt adult dTap into their territorial immunization program free of charge.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of the acellular pertussis vaccine in children and adolescents on the epidemiology of pertussis in the Northwest Territories.METHODS: Pertussis is a reportable disease in the Northwest Territories, and data on the incidence rates of pertussis are available from 1989 to 2004. The present study reviews pertussis cases during three four-year periods: the whole-cell vaccine era (1993 to 1996); the preadult dTap era (1997 to 2000); and the postadult dTap era (2001 to 2004).RESULTS: The incidence of pertussis decreased from 18.0 cases per 10,000 population in 1993 to 0.2 cases per 10,000 population in 2004. The number of cases decreased from 186 to 129 to 19 cases in the three chronological time periods (ie, whole-cell vaccine era, preadult dTap era and postadult dTap era, respectively), with the most substantial reduction coming with the introduction of postadult dTap.CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be a decrease in the incidence of pertussis with the targeted introduction of adult dTap in the Northwest Territories.

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    Authors: Forward, Kevin R;

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae coinfection can vary depending on their individual incidence and prevalence rates.OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae coinfections by evaluating the results of testing in 2007 and 2008 to better inform testing and treatment decisions.METHODS: Specimens from the same patient submitted on the same day served as the basis for the present study. The age, sex and the source of the specimen were also linked to the accession number. Infection and coinfection rates were analyzed in both males and females.RESULTS: Concurrent testing was performed on 41,567 female specimens and 1827 male specimens, of which, 1495 female samples (3.6%) tested positive for C trachomatis infection and 88 (0.2%) tested positive for N gonorrhoeae infections. Only 31 females were coinfected; however, for those between 11 and 25 years of age, 25 of 61 females (40.1%) with N gonorrhoeae infection also tested positive for C trachomatis infection; conversely, 25 of 1248 females (2.0%) with C trachomatis infection also tested positive for N gonorrhoeae infection. For males, 213 (11.7%) tested positive for C trachomatis infection, and 59 (3.2%) tested positive for N gonorrhoeae infection. In 30 males with N gonorrhoeae between 11 and 25 years of age, and 149 males with C trachomatis, eight coinfections were observed (26.7% and 5.3%, respectively). Of those older than 25 years of age, only five of 905 men and six of 19,465 women were coinfected. None of the 10,935 women who were 30 years of age or older had coinfections.CONCLUSION: The N gonorrhoeae coinfection rate in males with C trachomatis may justify empirical antimicrobials; however, in females, the proportion of coinfected may not justify empirical treatment for N gonorrhoeae infection when the C trachomatis test is positive and N gonorrhoeae testing has not been performed.

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    Authors: Vanderkooi, Otto G; McConnell, Athena; Church, Deirdre L; Kellner, James D;

    Previous surveys of antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae have found differences depending on source of isolate (eg, higher resistance in lower respiratory tract [LRT] versus invasive isolate) and age (higher resistance in children versus adults). Susceptibility profiles in the Calgary Health Region (approximately 1.25 million population) over a 10-year period were studied. Prospective laboratory-based population surveillance for S pneumoniae disease has been conducted since 1998. Patient demographics and susceptibility testing were analyzed. In total, 2382 patient isolates were available for analysis from 1998 to 2007. Of these, 1170 isolates were invasive while 496 were LRT. Patient age distribution was: younger than five years, 14%; five to 17 years, 6%; 18 to 64 years, 56%; and 65 years or older, 24%. Mean patient age was 44.8 years and 60.0% were male. The overall incidence of nonsusceptibility was: penicillin, 8.2%; amoxicillin, 0.3%; cefuroxime, 6.2%; ceftriaxone, 1.7%; erythromycin, 8.8%; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), 25.6%; clindamycin, 2.3%; and levofloxacin, 0.2%. Overall resistance rates were stable, except for increasing erythromycin resistance from 5.4% (1998) to a high of 14.2% (2004) (P=0.007). Isolates that were nonsusceptible to penicillin or TMP-SMX were more likely to be multidrug resistant (P<0.001) compared with penicillin- or TMP-SMX-susceptible isolates. Compared with invasive isolates, LRT isolates showed more resistance to penicillin, TMP-SMX, cefuroxime and erythromycin, and were more likely to be multidrug resistant. Isolates from children younger than five years of age are more likely to be multidrug resistant and resistant to erythromycin and cefotaxime. Ongoing surveillance of S pneumoniae isolates is important because resistance rates vary by source and patient age among health care regions.

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    Authors: Sadeghi-Aval, Pouya(Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Thunder Bay) Tsang, Raymond SW(Vaccine Preventable Bacterial Diseases, National Microbiology Laboratory) Jamieson, Frances B(Public Health Laboratories, Public Health Ontario) Ulanova, Marina(Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Thunder Bay);

    Before the introduction of the conjugate vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children. Although successful in reducing Hib cases, the vaccine confers no protection against other serotypes of H influenzae, such as a (Hia), or f (Hif). The emergence of invasive disease caused by non-Hib in northwestern Ontario (38 cases between 2002 and 2008) with predominance of Hia was previously reported by the authors. At that time, no cases of pediatric meningitis caused by H influenzae were recorded in the region. Continued surveillance identified 12 new cases of invasive non-Hib between January 2009 and July 2011. Among these cases, three young children developed meningitis with severe complications caused by Hia or Hif. The present article describes these cases along with the characteristics of recent H influenzae isolates from the region, (ie, their genetic background and antibiotic sensitivity). The findings point to the clonal nature of circulating Hia strains as well as to an increase in frequency and severity of pediatric invasive H influenzae infections in northwestern Ontario.

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    Authors: Rosner, Andrew J(Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Innovus Research Inc) Becker, Debbie L(Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Innovus Research Inc) Wong, Angelina H(Patient Access and Outcomes Research, Pharmacia Canada) Miller, Elizabeth(Patient Access and Outcomes Research, Pharmacia Canada) Conly, John M(Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto);

    BACKGROUND: A multinational randomized controlled trial has shown a trend toward early discharge of patients taking oral linezolid versus intravenous vancomycin (IV) in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Infection treatments resulting in shorter hospitalization durations are associated with cost savings from the hospital perspective.OBJECTIVE: To determine whether similar economic advantages are associated with oral linezolid, the costs and consequences of linezolid use following vancomycin IV versus the existing practice in the treatment of infections caused by MRSA were compared.METHODS: The charts of all patients admitted to one of three tertiary care teaching hospitals between January 1, 1997 and August 31, 2000 and treated with vancomycin IV for an active MRSA infection (skin and soft tissue only) were reviewed. Based on the vancomycin IV chart review data set and a simulated linezolid data set, the clinical consequences and the associated costs of MRSA treatment with vancomycin IV, and oral and IV forms of linezolid were quantified and compared within the framework of a cost-consequence analysis.RESULTS: Patients treated with oral and IV forms of linezolid compared with the existing practice had a shorter length of stay and required fewer home IV care services, which resulted in a cost savings of $750 (2001 values) to the Canadian health care perspective.CONCLUSIONS: The estimated cost savings associated with linezolid use not only offset the higher acquisition cost of the anti-infective, but may be substantial to health care systems across Canada, especially as the incidence of MRSA continues to rise.

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    Authors: Hughes, Christine A; Cashin, Richard P; Eurich, Dean T; Houston, Stan;

    BACKGROUND: Metabolic complications including diabetes mellitus (DM) have been associated with protease inhibitor (PI) therapy. Risk factors for the development of DM are not well-defined.OBJECTIVES: To determine risk factors for the development of new-onset DM in patients initiated on PI therapy.METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify predictors of developing DM in subjects started on PI therapy between January 1997 and January 2003. Diabetes cases were defined as physician documentation of DM in the outpatient medical chart and/or those subjects receiving an antidiabetic agent. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between new-onset DM and demographic characteristics, and between new-onset DM and total treatment days with PI therapy. Body mass index could not be entered into the model due to missing height measurements.RESULTS: A total of 496 subjects on PI therapy were included, of which 18 (3.6%) developed DM. The mean age of the subjects was 43.4±9.4 years (range 19 to 77) and the mean duration of therapy was 3.0±1.9 years (range 0.17 to 7.9). In the multivariate model, older subjects were more likely to develop DM (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.19; P=0.001). This corresponds to a 12% increased risk of DM for each one-year increase in age. Subjects that weighed more had an increased risk (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.10; P=0.001), as did those belonging to a non-Aboriginal minority group when compared with Caucasians (OR 6.67, 95% CI 1.56 to 28.41; P=0.01). A longer duration of PI therapy was also significantly associated with developing DM (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.17; P=0.02).CONCLUSION: A longer duration of PI therapy is associated with an increased risk of developing DM. As with HIV-negative subjects, demographic characteristics such as age, weight and ethnicity were important predictors of developing DM in the present study.

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    Authors: Rose, Gregory;

    The present case report describes a therapeutic dilemma regarding the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during transplantation of solid organs, places this phenomenon within the context of the literature, and makes recommendations for screening and therapy.

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    Authors: Chernesky, Max A(Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University);

    Lower genital tract infections with Chlamydia trachomatis are predominantly asymptomatic in men and women. Diagnostic technology has provided several approaches to the diagnosis of C trachomatis. Outside of cells, Chlamydia can die or degrade without optimal storage and transportation. Because some of the other assays perform better on certain specimen types, it is important for laboratories to recognize these differences and provide advice to physicians and nurses collecting patient specimens, with the objective of diagnosing lower genital tract infections to prevent transmission and upper tract damage. Most invasive specimens, such as cervical or urethral swabs, may be collected for culture, antigen or nucleic acid detection. Noninvasive samples such as first-void urine and vaginal swabs can be easily collected by the patient; these samples must be tested by more sensitive nucleic acid amplification tests. These newer investigative strategies should enable implementation of screening programs to identify and treat partners. Serology has not been particularly useful for the diagnosis of acute C trachomatis infections in adults. Presently, it appears that antibiotic-resistant C trachomatis is not a clinical problem. Laboratories providing C trachomatis diagnosis require participation in continuous quality improvement programs.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ip, Stephen(Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology) Ford, Jo-Ann(Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology) Lau, Kirby(Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology) Marquez, Vladimir(Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology) Guan, Marisa(Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology) Klassen, Carolyn(Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology) Chan, Jessica(United Chinese Community Enrichment Services Society (SUCCESS)) Kwan, WC Peter(Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology) Krajden, Mel(BC Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver) Yoshida, Eric M(Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology);

    BACKGROUND: The seroprevalences of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are 0.4% and 0.8%, respectively, in Canada, but varying rates have been reported in different populations.OBJECTIVES: To determine the seroprevalences of HBV and HCV among attendees of an Asian health fair in the Lower Mainland, British Columbia, as well as to correlate questionnaire answers regarding vaccination status to serological profiles.METHODS: Attendees at an Asian health fair were invited to participate in the present study on a voluntary basis. They provided answers to a questionnaire including ethnicity and vaccination status. Blood was then drawn for HBV and HCV serology. Active HBV was defined as HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) positive while HCV seroprevalence was defined as HCV antibody reactive. Previous exposure to HBV was defined as HBV core antibody (anti-HBc) positive and HBsAg negative. Nonimmunity was defined as anti-HBc negative and HBV surface antibody negative. Only those with correct demographic information matched to serological results were included in the study.RESULTS: There were 192 consenting attendees of the fair, of whom 112 were included in the study. Of the participants, 91% were Chinese. Active HBV infection was found in three participants (2.7% [95% CI 0.6% to 7.6%]) and HCV infection was found in two participants (1.8% [95% CI 0.2% to 6.3%]). More than 40% of participants had been previously exposed to HBV (42% [95% CI 33% to 51%]). Almost 20% demonstrated nonimmunity to HBV (19% [95% CI 12% to 27%]). There was significant discordance when questionnaire answers regarding vaccination status were compared with serological profiles.CONCLUSION: The seroprevalences of HBV and HCV in this cohort were 2.7% and 1.8%, respectively – higher than nationally reported rates. Our results highlight that the lack of knowledge of HBV infection and vaccination status remains a significant clinical issue in the Asian community of British Columbia.

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    Authors: Webster, Duncan(Department of Medical Microbiology, Dalhousie University) Chui, Linda(Provincial Laboratory for Public Health, Department of Laboratory Medicine & Pathology) Tyrrell, Gregory J(Provincial Laboratory for Public Health, Department of Laboratory Medicine & Pathology) Marrie, Thomas J(Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine);

    INTRODUCTION: While Staphylococcus aureus is an uncommon but serious cause of traditional community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), it is a predominant cause of nosocomial pneumonia in addition to the unique clinical entity of health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP). A cohort of bacteremic S aureus pneumonia cases was reviewed to determine the role of HCAP among the cohort, and to assess for differences between CAP and HCAP.PATIENTS AND METHODS: Bacteremic S aureus pneumonia cases were identified from a prospective study of all patients diagnosed with CAP who presented to hospitals in Edmonton, Alberta, between November 2000 and November 2002. These cases were subsequently reviewed retrospectively. Demographic, clinical and microbiological data were obtained, and patients were classified as having CAP or HCAP. Relatedness of isolates was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis in conjunction with epidemiological information.RESULTS: There were 28 cases of bacteremic S aureus pneumonia identified. Fifty-seven per cent were reclassified as having HCAP, and 43% remained classified as having CAP. The CAP cohort was significantly younger than the HCAP cohort (mean age 49.0±23.7 years versus 67.8±18.6 years; P=0.035) with higher rates of intravenous drug use (50% versus 0%; P=0.002). Long-term care facility residence (44%) was common in the HCAP cohort. The HCAP cohort presented with more severe illness, having a higher mean pneumonia severity index score (143.1±41.1 versus 98.2±54.6; P=0.028), and despite fewer embolic complications, there was a trend toward a significantly higher mortality rate (31% versus 0%; P=0.052). Two community-acquired isolates cultured in the setting of intravenous drug use were methicillin-resistant, and no isolates were positive for Panton-Valentine leukocidin. There was evidence of relatedness involving 44% of the HCAP isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis.CONCLUSION: HCAP accounts for a significant number of cases that, when using traditional definitions, would be classified as CAP. Severity of illness and mortality was excessive within the HCAP group. There was evidence of relatedness and spread of common strains in the HCAP cohort. The present study supports recommendations for treatment guidelines directed toward the entity of HCAP and the empirical coverage of S aureus among certain high-risk groups.

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    Authors: Kandola, Kami Lea, Amy(Stanton Territorial Health Authority, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories) White, Wanda(Yellowknife Health and Social Services, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories) Santos, Maria(Department of Health and Social Services, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories);

    INTRODUCTION: During the past decade, a trend toward increasing cases of Bordetella pertussis in older children and adults has been witnessed in Canada. The National Advisory Committee on Immunization now recommends that the adult formulation of the acellular pertussis (adult dTap) vaccine combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids be substituted for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids alone for the 14- to 16-year-old booster dose. In October 2000, the government of the Northwest Territories was one of the first to adopt adult dTap into their territorial immunization program free of charge.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of the acellular pertussis vaccine in children and adolescents on the epidemiology of pertussis in the Northwest Territories.METHODS: Pertussis is a reportable disease in the Northwest Territories, and data on the incidence rates of pertussis are available from 1989 to 2004. The present study reviews pertussis cases during three four-year periods: the whole-cell vaccine era (1993 to 1996); the preadult dTap era (1997 to 2000); and the postadult dTap era (2001 to 2004).RESULTS: The incidence of pertussis decreased from 18.0 cases per 10,000 population in 1993 to 0.2 cases per 10,000 population in 2004. The number of cases decreased from 186 to 129 to 19 cases in the three chronological time periods (ie, whole-cell vaccine era, preadult dTap era and postadult dTap era, respectively), with the most substantial reduction coming with the introduction of postadult dTap.CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be a decrease in the incidence of pertussis with the targeted introduction of adult dTap in the Northwest Territories.

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    Authors: Forward, Kevin R;

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae coinfection can vary depending on their individual incidence and prevalence rates.OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae coinfections by evaluating the results of testing in 2007 and 2008 to better inform testing and treatment decisions.METHODS: Specimens from the same patient submitted on the same day served as the basis for the present study. The age, sex and the source of the specimen were also linked to the accession number. Infection and coinfection rates were analyzed in both males and females.RESULTS: Concurrent testing was performed on 41,567 female specimens and 1827 male specimens, of which, 1495 female samples (3.6%) tested positive for C trachomatis infection and 88 (0.2%) tested positive for N gonorrhoeae infections. Only 31 females were coinfected; however, for those between 11 and 25 years of age, 25 of 61 females (40.1%) with N gonorrhoeae infection also tested positive for C trachomatis infection; conversely, 25 of 1248 females (2.0%) with C trachomatis infection also tested positive for N gonorrhoeae infection. For males, 213 (11.7%) tested positive for C trachomatis infection, and 59 (3.2%) tested positive for N gonorrhoeae infection. In 30 males with N gonorrhoeae between 11 and 25 years of age, and 149 males with C trachomatis, eight coinfections were observed (26.7% and 5.3%, respectively). Of those older than 25 years of age, only five of 905 men and six of 19,465 women were coinfected. None of the 10,935 women who were 30 years of age or older had coinfections.CONCLUSION: The N gonorrhoeae coinfection rate in males with C trachomatis may justify empirical antimicrobials; however, in females, the proportion of coinfected may not justify empirical treatment for N gonorrhoeae infection when the C trachomatis test is positive and N gonorrhoeae testing has not been performed.

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    Authors: Vanderkooi, Otto G; McConnell, Athena; Church, Deirdre L; Kellner, James D;

    Previous surveys of antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae have found differences depending on source of isolate (eg, higher resistance in lower respiratory tract [LRT] versus invasive isolate) and age (higher resistance in children versus adults). Susceptibility profiles in the Calgary Health Region (approximately 1.25 million population) over a 10-year period were studied. Prospective laboratory-based population surveillance for S pneumoniae disease has been conducted since 1998. Patient demographics and susceptibility testing were analyzed. In total, 2382 patient isolates were available for analysis from 1998 to 2007. Of these, 1170 isolates were invasive while 496 were LRT. Patient age distribution was: younger than five years, 14%; five to 17 years, 6%; 18 to 64 years, 56%; and 65 years or older, 24%. Mean patient age was 44.8 years and 60.0% were male. The overall incidence of nonsusceptibility was: penicillin, 8.2%; amoxicillin, 0.3%; cefuroxime, 6.2%; ceftriaxone, 1.7%; erythromycin, 8.8%; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), 25.6%; clindamycin, 2.3%; and levofloxacin, 0.2%. Overall resistance rates were stable, except for increasing erythromycin resistance from 5.4% (1998) to a high of 14.2% (2004) (P=0.007). Isolates that were nonsusceptible to penicillin or TMP-SMX were more likely to be multidrug resistant (P<0.001) compared with penicillin- or TMP-SMX-susceptible isolates. Compared with invasive isolates, LRT isolates showed more resistance to penicillin, TMP-SMX, cefuroxime and erythromycin, and were more likely to be multidrug resistant. Isolates from children younger than five years of age are more likely to be multidrug resistant and resistant to erythromycin and cefotaxime. Ongoing surveillance of S pneumoniae isolates is important because resistance rates vary by source and patient age among health care regions.

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    Authors: Sadeghi-Aval, Pouya(Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Thunder Bay) Tsang, Raymond SW(Vaccine Preventable Bacterial Diseases, National Microbiology Laboratory) Jamieson, Frances B(Public Health Laboratories, Public Health Ontario) Ulanova, Marina(Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Thunder Bay);

    Before the introduction of the conjugate vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children. Although successful in reducing Hib cases, the vaccine confers no protection against other serotypes of H influenzae, such as a (Hia), or f (Hif). The emergence of invasive disease caused by non-Hib in northwestern Ontario (38 cases between 2002 and 2008) with predominance of Hia was previously reported by the authors. At that time, no cases of pediatric meningitis caused by H influenzae were recorded in the region. Continued surveillance identified 12 new cases of invasive non-Hib between January 2009 and July 2011. Among these cases, three young children developed meningitis with severe complications caused by Hia or Hif. The present article describes these cases along with the characteristics of recent H influenzae isolates from the region, (ie, their genetic background and antibiotic sensitivity). The findings point to the clonal nature of circulating Hia strains as well as to an increase in frequency and severity of pediatric invasive H influenzae infections in northwestern Ontario.

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    Authors: Rosner, Andrew J(Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Innovus Research Inc) Becker, Debbie L(Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Innovus Research Inc) Wong, Angelina H(Patient Access and Outcomes Research, Pharmacia Canada) Miller, Elizabeth(Patient Access and Outcomes Research, Pharmacia Canada) Conly, John M(Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto);

    BACKGROUND: A multinational randomized controlled trial has shown a trend toward early discharge of patients taking oral linezolid versus intravenous vancomycin (IV) in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Infection treatments resulting in shorter hospitalization durations are associated with cost savings from the hospital perspective.OBJECTIVE: To determine whether similar economic advantages are associated with oral linezolid, the costs and consequences of linezolid use following vancomycin IV versus the existing practice in the treatment of infections caused by MRSA were compared.METHODS: The charts of all patients admitted to one of three tertiary care teaching hospitals between January 1, 1997 and August 31, 2000 and treated with vancomycin IV for an active MRSA infection (skin and soft tissue only) were reviewed. Based on the vancomycin IV chart review data set and a simulated linezolid data set, the clinical consequences and the associated costs of MRSA treatment with vancomycin IV, and oral and IV forms of linezolid were quantified and compared within the framework of a cost-consequence analysis.RESULTS: Patients treated with oral and IV forms of linezolid compared with the existing practice had a shorter length of stay and required fewer home IV care services, which resulted in a cost savings of $750 (2001 values) to the Canadian health care perspective.CONCLUSIONS: The estimated cost savings associated with linezolid use not only offset the higher acquisition cost of the anti-infective, but may be substantial to health care systems across Canada, especially as the incidence of MRSA continues to rise.

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    Authors: Hughes, Christine A; Cashin, Richard P; Eurich, Dean T; Houston, Stan;

    BACKGROUND: Metabolic complications including diabetes mellitus (DM) have been associated with protease inhibitor (PI) therapy. Risk factors for the development of DM are not well-defined.OBJECTIVES: To determine risk factors for the development of new-onset DM in patients initiated on PI therapy.METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify predictors of developing DM in subjects started on PI therapy between January 1997 and January 2003. Diabetes cases were defined as physician documentation of DM in the outpatient medical chart and/or those subjects receiving an antidiabetic agent. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between new-onset DM and demographic characteristics, and between new-onset DM and total treatment days with PI therapy. Body mass index could not be entered into the model due to missing height measurements.RESULTS: A total of 496 subjects on PI therapy were included, of which 18 (3.6%) developed DM. The mean age of the subjects was 43.4±9.4 years (range 19 to 77) and the mean duration of therapy was 3.0±1.9 years (range 0.17 to 7.9). In the multivariate model, older subjects were more likely to develop DM (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.19; P=0.001). This corresponds to a 12% increased risk of DM for each one-year increase in age. Subjects that weighed more had an increased risk (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.10; P=0.001), as did those belonging to a non-Aboriginal minority group when compared with Caucasians (OR 6.67, 95% CI 1.56 to 28.41; P=0.01). A longer duration of PI therapy was also significantly associated with developing DM (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.17; P=0.02).CONCLUSION: A longer duration of PI therapy is associated with an increased risk of developing DM. As with HIV-negative subjects, demographic characteristics such as age, weight and ethnicity were important predictors of developing DM in the present study.

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    Authors: Rose, Gregory;

    The present case report describes a therapeutic dilemma regarding the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during transplantation of solid organs, places this phenomenon within the context of the literature, and makes recommendations for screening and therapy.

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    Authors: Chernesky, Max A(Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University);

    Lower genital tract infections with Chlamydia trachomatis are predominantly asymptomatic in men and women. Diagnostic technology has provided several approaches to the diagnosis of C trachomatis. Outside of cells, Chlamydia can die or degrade without optimal storage and transportation. Because some of the other assays perform better on certain specimen types, it is important for laboratories to recognize these differences and provide advice to physicians and nurses collecting patient specimens, with the objective of diagnosing lower genital tract infections to prevent transmission and upper tract damage. Most invasive specimens, such as cervical or urethral swabs, may be collected for culture, antigen or nucleic acid detection. Noninvasive samples such as first-void urine and vaginal swabs can be easily collected by the patient; these samples must be tested by more sensitive nucleic acid amplification tests. These newer investigative strategies should enable implementation of screening programs to identify and treat partners. Serology has not been particularly useful for the diagnosis of acute C trachomatis infections in adults. Presently, it appears that antibiotic-resistant C trachomatis is not a clinical problem. Laboratories providing C trachomatis diagnosis require participation in continuous quality improvement programs.

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