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  • “Lituanistika”, International Resea...

  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Niendorf, Mathias;

    Straipsnyje yra analizuojama žymaus lietuvių istoriko išeivijoje Zenono Ivinskio (1908 – 1971) gyvenimas ir kūryba, didžiausią dėmesį kreipiant jo paskutiniųjų metų, praleistų Vokietijoje 1963 – 1971 m. laikotarpio veiklai. Šiai analizei ypatingai pasitarnavo jo asmeniniai dokumentai, saugomi Bonos ir Berlyno universitetų archyvuose, 1968 m. istoriko autobiografija bei autoriaus rašytinis palikimas, saugomas Vilniaus universiteto bibliotekos Rankraščių skyriuje. Šie šaltiniai leidžia susidaryti vaizdą apie Zenono Ivinskio vykdomos veiklos aplinkybes, jo akademinę karjerą pokario Vokietijoje, kontaktus su studentais, kolegomis Vokietijoje ir užsienyje, netgi Sovietų Sąjungoje. Itin vertingas Zenono Ivinskio istorinis palikimas – jo darbo rezultatai lietuvių istorikų netirtame Vatikano archyve bei savo darbų novatoriškos tematikos pasirinkimas ir teiginių formulavimas, kurie nebūtų buvę praleisti sovietų cenzūros. Zenonas Ivinskis į Lietuvos istoriografiją savo darbais įnešė svarų indėlį. Reikšminiai žodžiai: Zenonas Ivinskis; Istoriografija; Istorijos mokslas; Emigracija; Išeivija; Vokietija (Germany); Lietuvos istoriografija This article deals about the famous Lithuanian historian in exile, whereas the focus concentrates on his last years spent in Germany (1963-1971). As sources serve especially the personnel files in the University Archives of Bonn and Berlin. These materials allow giving an overview about Ivinskis' material circumstances, his carrier in the academic world in Postwar-Germany and his contacts: to students, colleagues in Germany and abroad, even in the Soviet Union. Although an analyze of the exile publications itself lies beyond the scope of this article, it seems that Ivinskis has made the best use of his situation by researching in the up to then unknown to Lithuanian historians Vatican Archives as well as by choosing topics and presenting theses which would not have passed Soviet censorship. At the end the author suggests further research about Ivinskis' influence in Lithuanian historiography.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ “Lituanistika”, Inte...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Januszewska-Jurkiewicz, Joanna;

    Recenzijoje aptariama 2003 m. išleista Šarūno Liekio knyga "A state within a state?" : Jewish autonomy in Lithuania 1918–1925". Monografijoje analizuojamos žydų bendruomenės teisės Lietuvoje, aptariami žydų mažumos santykiai su Lietuvos valstybe, svarstomas jų autonomijos klausimas. Aprašoma, kaip ši autonomija kūrėsi, ir koks bendradarbiavo modelis su Lietuvos valdžia susiklostė. Knygoje taip pat analizuojama žydų ekonominė padėtis, jų autonomijos vidinė struktūra, bendruomenės gyvenimas, santykiai su kaimynais. Knygą sudaro įvadas, keturi skyriai ir penktasis – postscriptum. Pirmajame aprašoma žydų ir lietuvių bendradarbiavimo genezė ir žydų tautinės autonomijos susiklostymo pagrindai. Antrajame kalbama apie žydų autonomijos modelio teorinį ir praktinį veikimą. Trečiasis skirtas žydų autonomijos institucionalizacijos procesui aptarti. Ketvirtajame diskutuojama apie žydų turėtas teises. Vyrauja probleminis chronologinis dėstymo būdas. Autorius remiasi gausiais šaltiniais, naudoja daug statistinės informacijos, pasakoja objektyviai, nuosekliai ir drąsiai. Išvadas formuluoja korektiškai. Ne visada autorius padeda galutinį tašką. Penktajame skyriuje aprašydamas Vilniaus žydų bendruomenę 1939 m. Vilniaus atgavimo kontekste, įžvelgia daug įvairių prieštaravimų ir nėra linkęs daryti griežtų apibendrinimų. Tai liudija, kad ši knyga reikšmingai papildo šios temos tyrimų lauką.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ “Lituanistika”, Inte...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Mróz, Lech;

    Reikšminiai žodžiai: Abiejų Tautų Respublika (ATR; Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów; Žečpospolita; Sandrauga; Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth); Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė (LDK; Grand Duchy of Lithuania; GDL); Lenkija (Lenkijos karalystė. Kingdom of Poland. Poland); Istorija; Tautybės; Čigonai/romai; Tautinės mažumos; Religinės mažumos; Tautinė tapatybė; Etniniai santykiai; Lithuania; History; Nationalities; Gypsies/Roma; Ethnic minorities; Religious minorities; National identity; Ethnic relations

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ “Lituanistika”, Inte...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Wegrzyn, Iwona;

    Straipsnyje pristatomas unikalus, visiškai emocinis Kraševskio santykis su Vilniumi. Dramatiškuose Vilniuje prabėgusios rašytojo jaunystės atsiminimuose įkalinimo ir ištrėmimo į Rusiją grėsmės išgyvenimus papildo miesto, turinčio didingą praeitį, vaizdinys, kuris tapo vaisingu kūrybinio įkvėpimo šaltiniu. Ankstyvųjų Kraševskio novelių puslapiuose regimas subjektyvus, bet nepaprastai realistiškas Vilniaus paveikslas. Miesto, kuris, rašytojo akimis, išgyveno šlovingas akimirkas. Kraševskis kuria daugiaklodį Vilniaus portretą, kuriame susijungia praeitį menantys pasakojimai ir senoji architektūra, sostinės ir universiteto miesto, bei intelektualinio gyvenimo erdvės prisiminimai. Straipsnyje pagrindinis dėmesys skiriamas klaidingai pamirštoms ankstyvosioms Kraševskio novelėms, daliai jo Vilniaus periodo prisiminimų ir Vilniui skirtiems istoriniams veikalams. Šie darbai įdomūs ne tik dėl literatūrinio Vilniaus vaizdavimo, bet pirmiausia kaip vertingas liudijimas kartos, gyvenusios mieste carinės priespaudos laikais, mieste, virš kurio kabojo piktavalio Nikolajaus Novosilcovo šešėlis. Reikšminiai žodžiai: Vilniaus universitetas (VU; Vilnius University); Realizmas; Jutimiškumas; University of Vilnius; Realism; Physiological sketch; Literatūra; Josef Ignac Kraszewski; Vilnius; Universitetas; Kartos istorija; Literature; Josef Ignac Kraszewski; Vilnius; University; History of generation The paper presents a unique, fully emotional Kraszcwski's attitude towards Vilnius. The dramatic memories of his Vilnius youth which mostly consists of his imprisonment and the threat of being deported to Russia when combined with the beauty and magnificent history of the city turned out to be extremely inspiring and artistically fertile. On the pages of Kraszcwski's early novels the author recorded the subjective but in parts deeply realistic picture of the city. The city which, from the writer's perspective, has the moments of its glory behind. Still the memory of the gorgeous past preserved in the buildings and relevant stories, the memory of erstwhile Vilnius capital city status and its rank as the university town and the intellectual life centre let Kraszewski create the amazing multidimensional portrait of the city. The basis of the paper are erroneously forgotten early Kraszewski's novels, the parts of his memories concerning his stay in Vilnius and the historical works dedicated to the city. These works seem to be interesting not only as a literary topic of Vilnius but first of all they turn out to be a valuable testimony of the history of the generation that was to live in the city mutilated by tsarist repressions, in the city which the malevolent shadow of Nicholas Novosilcov hanged out.

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    Authors: Czapiewski, Edward;

    Straipsnyje analizuojamas Rusijos faktorius Baltijos jūros regione nuo XVIII a. iki XIX a. pradžios. Nuo XVIII a. II pusės iki pat XIX a. pradžios Rusija vykdė apdairią politiką, nes turėjo priešų. Po Šiaurės karo susilpnėjusi Švedija neketino atsisakyti supervalstybės siekių ir savo ambicijas grindė aljanso su Prancūzija bei netiesiogiai su Turkija galimybe. Rusijos priešu buvo ir Anglija, tačiau geopolitinį balansą padėjo palaikyti Prūsija. Rusijai buvo svarbu prorusiškų grupuočių buvimas Abiejų Taurų Respublikoje (ATR), ji jautė ir ruošėsi artėjantiems ATR padalinimams. Straipsnyje atskleidžiama įsigalėjimo Baltijos jūros regione tikslų padiktuota Rusijos politinių ir karinių veiksmų genezė bei gerai apgalvota politinė programa. Po paskutiniojo ATR padalinimo 1795 m. Rusija okupavo etninės Lietuvos teritoriją ir Kuršą. Po 1806–1809 m. karo su Švedija, visa Suomijos teritorija buvo inkorporuota į Rusijos imperiją. Didelių Baltijos regiono teritorijų aneksavimas ir kitų žemių prisijungimas, kurioms buvo charakteringa skirtinga istorinė ir socialinė raida, tapo priežastimi, dėl kurios Rusijos caras Aleksandras I nusprendė vykdyti liberalesnę politiką okupuotų kraštų gyventojų atžvilgiu, lyginant su ta politika, kurios buvo laikomasi kitų Rusijos teritorijos gyventojų atžvilgiu.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ “Lituanistika”, Inte...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ “Lituanistika”, Inte...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Ragaišienė, Vilija;

    The article examines the expression of a person living in the area of the Southern South Aukštaitian, describing the appearance and physical characteristics, features of the character and temper, social status and relationships based on the material in the two-volume "Comprehensive Dictionary of the Southern South Aukštaitian Subdialects" (Vol I published in 2016, Vol II in 2019). To begin with, the study includes all sentences that use the word man. It is also based on the examples where it is replaced by pronouns (I, you, he, she etc.), kinship terms (mother, father, brother, sister, grandson, granddaughter, aunt, uncle etc.), nouns that designate individuals by the gender (boy, girl, woman, woman, man etc.) and other. All the sentences in the dictionary that speak of man are analysed. The lexicographic data show that a person (man, woman, child) is an individual living in the Southern South Aukštaitian area. He/she is a kind-hearted, sincere, open, tolerant, cheerful and witty, hardworking and creative representative of the people and dialect; also energetic and persevering, though not always physically strong and capable. The analysis carried out reveals the genesis of the concept of man, and shows the attitude of several generations to man. The illustrative sentences highlight the stereotypical image of a person living in the Southern South Aukštaitian area (cheerful, generous, and hardworking, believes in God and is superstitious, values the family etc.) and show the new emerging traits (laziness, drinking, stealing, disobeying, immoral and dishonest etc.). The analysis of the dialectical discourse reveals the difference between the archaic and contemporary approaches; the ongoing changes in material and spiritual life are revealed. The material in the dictionary reveals the wonderful harmony of man and nature, which has been formed over several centuries, with the community living in a relatively isolated, closed environment. The worldview of man living in the area of the Southern South Aukštaitian area is interwoven with the old mythological world, the mysteries of the Catholic faith, and the realities of the present. Although the world is changing, old values and customs are disappearing and villages are abandoned, people are optimistic about the world. Work, family, faith in God and man are their greatest values. Reikšminiai žodžiai: Žmogus; Tarminis žodynas; Pietinių pietų aukštaičių šnektos; Etnolingvistika; Man; Dialectal dictionary; Southern South Aukštaitian subdialects; Ethnolinguistics

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    Database „Lituanistika“
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2020
    License: CC BY
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      Database „Lituanistika“
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2020
      License: CC BY
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    Authors: Matwiejczuk, Paweł;

    This article presents the results of research on selected correspondence of Philip Melanchthon to certain Polish men. Letters To the Polish Nobleman are an expression of concern about the fate of the Christian Europe threatened by Turks. Melanchthon is seen primarily as an educator who outlines the image of an ideal citizen and knight humanist. The article contains short biographical study of Eustathius von Knobelsdorf and two Melanchthon’s writings translated from the Latin into the Polish language. Reikšminiai žodžiai: Bajorija; Didikai ir magnatai; Filipas Melanchtonas; Humanizmas; Korespondencija; Lenkija (Lenkijos karalystė. Kingdom of Poland. Poland); Reformacija; Reformacija, Pilypas Melanchtonas; Corresponddence; Correspondence; Humanism; Nobility; Philip Melanchthon; Philip Melanchton; Reformation

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    Authors: Romanowicz, Paulina;

    Recenzijoje aptariama 2011 m. išleista P. Blaževičiaus knyga "Seniausieji Lietuvos žaislai". Remiantis archeologiniais duomenimis knygoje atskleidžiama žaislų istorija Lietuvoje. Pavadinimas klaidinantis, nes tyrime nėra analizuojami patys seniausi Lietuvos žaislai. Teigiama, jog yra žinomi tik atskiri priešistoriniai radiniai, kuriuos galima vadinti žaidimų elementais, tuo tarpu pagrindinis dėmesys knygoje sutelktas į XIII–XVIII a. radinius. Sąvoka "seniausi" pavadinime yra klaidinga. "Žaislo" sąvoka taip pat reikalauja paaiškinimo, nes kalbama ne tik apie žaislus, bet ir suaugusiųjų žaidimų papildomus elementus (žaidimo lentos ir kt.). Tyrimo metu rasti 351 artefaktai ar jų fragmentai. 66% radinių rasti Vilniaus Žemutinėje pilyje. Nemažas kiekis radinių aptikti Kernavėje, Trakuose ir Klaipėdoje. Kitose Lietuvos vietose rasti tik pavieniai objektai. Abejonių kelia chronologija. Nemažai aptariamų radinių prasilenkia su autoriaus apsibrėžtais laiko rėmais. Kai kuriais atvejais nėra aiškus tikrasis objektų atsiradimo ir eksploatavimo laikas. Monografijos privalumas – plėtojama žaislų tipologija, kuri pratęsia ankstesnių autorių sudarytas vaikų žaislų tipologines schemas, taip pat naudojami metodai. Pagal paskirtį visi radiniai suskirstyti į 8 kategorijas, apibrėžtas jų naudojimas lyties ir amžiaus požiūriu. Stalo žaidimai priskiriami suaugusiųjų kategorijai. Tačiau tam tikrais atvejai pasirinkta tipologija kelia abejonių, atrodo, kad dalis radinių dirbtinai priskirti tam tikrai kategorijai. Gausiausia vaikams ir suaugusiems skirtų radinių grupė susijusi su sportu ir muzika. Vietomis trūksta gilesnio radinių ir vietos kur jie rasti istorinio įkontekstinimo.

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    Authors: Gomoliszek, Joanna;

    Straipsnyje pateikiami specifinių, t. y. komplikuotų ir kontroversinių lietuvių ir lenkų santykių tarpukario Lietuvos laikotarpiu tyrimų medžiaga. Šių santykių priežastys turi savo istorines priežastis. Lietuvos Respublikos (1918-1940) vidaus politika nebuvo palanki lenkų tautinės mažumos atžvilgiu. Tai skatino lenkų tautinio identiteto savivokos stiprėjimą bei jų nacionalinės savigarbos jausmus. Socialine šios situacijos išraiška galima įvardyti ir aktyvų įvairių lenkų kultūros bei švietimo organizacijų bei institucijų kūrimąsi minėtu laikotarpiu. Kauno (Vytauto Didžiojo) universiteto lenkų tautybės studentai taip pat buvo iniciatyvūs ir 1927 m. balandžio mėn. išleido savo periodinio laikraščio „Iskry" („Žiežirbos") pirmąjį numerį. Šis leidinys yra šiame straipsnyje pateikiamų tyrimų šaltinis. Reikšminiai žodžiai: Lietuvos lenkų bendruomenė; Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas (VDU); Studentų spauda The Polish-Lithuanian relations in the 20-year-long interval period between the World Wars were extremely difficult and controversial. The reasons behind this were of historical and legal nature. The politics of the independent Republic of Lithuania (1918-1940) were mainly aimed at restricting the position of the Polish minority. Under these circumstances the Poles were struggling to sustain their national identity by means of, for example, establishing various organizations of cultural and educational profile. Such initiatives were undertaken within the students' society at the University of Kovno (Kaunas). Polish students participated vigorously in the university's activities. Throughout the years, starting with 1927, they were elected to Students' Representative body and from the 1s' of April 1927 they issued their own periodical by the title of "Iskry" ("Žiežirbos", "The Sparks").

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    Authors: Šaknys, Žilvytis Bernardas;

    This article explores issues of ethnic and confessional intolerance of young Lithuanians. This problem is particularly relevant in realizing the Jewish status in Lithuania in the predawn of the tragedy of this nation. Based on the representative data which was collected from the Lithuanian ethnic cultural atlas, and on analysis of the communication of young people of different nationalities and religions, the article attempts to answer the following questions: whether the interwar Lithuanian rural culture influenced the rise of ethnic and confessional intolerance, and whether Jews professing Judaism were tolerated by the ethnic majority in the same way as other ethnic and confessional minorities. The analysis of the peasants’ attitude towards people of a different nationality and religion who ran businesses other than agriculture at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century revealed that Jews professing Judaism in most cases were tolerated in the same way as people confessing other religions and belonging to other social classes. In the examination of the communication of young people of other nationalities and religions in Lithuania, no major conflicts between Jews professing Judaism and Lithuanians were detected. The ungrounded arguments about the isolation and distrust between Lithuanians and Jews living in rural and urban areas were also denied. Straipsnyje gvildenamos lietuvių jaunimo etninės ir konfesinės tolerancijos problemos. Ši problematika ypač aktuali suvokiant žydų padėtį Lietuvoje, didžiosios šios tautos tragedijos priešaušryje. Remiantis reprezentatyvia lietuvių etninės kultūros atlasui rinkta medžiaga ir nagrinėjant skirtingų tikybų ir tautybių jaunimo bendravimą, straipsnyje siekiama atsakyti į klausimus: Ar tarpukario Lietuvos kaimo kultūra formavo etninės ir konfesinės netolerancijos jausmus; Ar judėjų tikybą išpažįstančius žydus, etninė dauguma toleravo kitaip negu kitas etnines ir konfesines mažumas? Išanalizavus XIX a. pabaigos – XX a. pirmosios valstiečių požiūrį į kitos tautybės, konfesijos nežemdirbišku verslu užsiimančius žmones nustatėme, kad judėjų tikėjimą išpažįstantys žydai dauguma atveju toleruoti kaip ir kitų konfesijų ir socialinių sluoksnių atstovai. Analizuodamas skirtingų tikybų ir tautybių jaunimo bendravimą Lietuvoje didesnių konfliktų tarp lietuvių ir judėjų tikėjimą išpažįstančių žydų - neaptikome. Paneigėme ir nepagrįstus teiginius apie tarpusavyje izoliuotą, tarpusavio nepasitikėjimu paremtą lietuvių ir žydų gyvenimą Lietuvos kaimuose ir mažuose miesteliuose Reikšminiai žodžiai: Agrarinė kultūra; Stereotipai; Etnologinis istorinis modelis; Agrarna kultura; Stereotyp "innego"; Folklor litewski; Etnologiczno-historyczny model

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Niendorf, Mathias;

    Straipsnyje yra analizuojama žymaus lietuvių istoriko išeivijoje Zenono Ivinskio (1908 – 1971) gyvenimas ir kūryba, didžiausią dėmesį kreipiant jo paskutiniųjų metų, praleistų Vokietijoje 1963 – 1971 m. laikotarpio veiklai. Šiai analizei ypatingai pasitarnavo jo asmeniniai dokumentai, saugomi Bonos ir Berlyno universitetų archyvuose, 1968 m. istoriko autobiografija bei autoriaus rašytinis palikimas, saugomas Vilniaus universiteto bibliotekos Rankraščių skyriuje. Šie šaltiniai leidžia susidaryti vaizdą apie Zenono Ivinskio vykdomos veiklos aplinkybes, jo akademinę karjerą pokario Vokietijoje, kontaktus su studentais, kolegomis Vokietijoje ir užsienyje, netgi Sovietų Sąjungoje. Itin vertingas Zenono Ivinskio istorinis palikimas – jo darbo rezultatai lietuvių istorikų netirtame Vatikano archyve bei savo darbų novatoriškos tematikos pasirinkimas ir teiginių formulavimas, kurie nebūtų buvę praleisti sovietų cenzūros. Zenonas Ivinskis į Lietuvos istoriografiją savo darbais įnešė svarų indėlį. Reikšminiai žodžiai: Zenonas Ivinskis; Istoriografija; Istorijos mokslas; Emigracija; Išeivija; Vokietija (Germany); Lietuvos istoriografija This article deals about the famous Lithuanian historian in exile, whereas the focus concentrates on his last years spent in Germany (1963-1971). As sources serve especially the personnel files in the University Archives of Bonn and Berlin. These materials allow giving an overview about Ivinskis' material circumstances, his carrier in the academic world in Postwar-Germany and his contacts: to students, colleagues in Germany and abroad, even in the Soviet Union. Although an analyze of the exile publications itself lies beyond the scope of this article, it seems that Ivinskis has made the best use of his situation by researching in the up to then unknown to Lithuanian historians Vatican Archives as well as by choosing topics and presenting theses which would not have passed Soviet censorship. At the end the author suggests further research about Ivinskis' influence in Lithuanian historiography.

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    Authors: Januszewska-Jurkiewicz, Joanna;

    Recenzijoje aptariama 2003 m. išleista Šarūno Liekio knyga "A state within a state?" : Jewish autonomy in Lithuania 1918–1925". Monografijoje analizuojamos žydų bendruomenės teisės Lietuvoje, aptariami žydų mažumos santykiai su Lietuvos valstybe, svarstomas jų autonomijos klausimas. Aprašoma, kaip ši autonomija kūrėsi, ir koks bendradarbiavo modelis su Lietuvos valdžia susiklostė. Knygoje taip pat analizuojama žydų ekonominė padėtis, jų autonomijos vidinė struktūra, bendruomenės gyvenimas, santykiai su kaimynais. Knygą sudaro įvadas, keturi skyriai ir penktasis – postscriptum. Pirmajame aprašoma žydų ir lietuvių bendradarbiavimo genezė ir žydų tautinės autonomijos susiklostymo pagrindai. Antrajame kalbama apie žydų autonomijos modelio teorinį ir praktinį veikimą. Trečiasis skirtas žydų autonomijos institucionalizacijos procesui aptarti. Ketvirtajame diskutuojama apie žydų turėtas teises. Vyrauja probleminis chronologinis dėstymo būdas. Autorius remiasi gausiais šaltiniais, naudoja daug statistinės informacijos, pasakoja objektyviai, nuosekliai ir drąsiai. Išvadas formuluoja korektiškai. Ne visada autorius padeda galutinį tašką. Penktajame skyriuje aprašydamas Vilniaus žydų bendruomenę 1939 m. Vilniaus atgavimo kontekste, įžvelgia daug įvairių prieštaravimų ir nėra linkęs daryti griežtų apibendrinimų. Tai liudija, kad ši knyga reikšmingai papildo šios temos tyrimų lauką.

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    Authors: Mróz, Lech;

    Reikšminiai žodžiai: Abiejų Tautų Respublika (ATR; Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów; Žečpospolita; Sandrauga; Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth); Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė (LDK; Grand Duchy of Lithuania; GDL); Lenkija (Lenkijos karalystė. Kingdom of Poland. Poland); Istorija; Tautybės; Čigonai/romai; Tautinės mažumos; Religinės mažumos; Tautinė tapatybė; Etniniai santykiai; Lithuania; History; Nationalities; Gypsies/Roma; Ethnic minorities; Religious minorities; National identity; Ethnic relations

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    Authors: Wegrzyn, Iwona;

    Straipsnyje pristatomas unikalus, visiškai emocinis Kraševskio santykis su Vilniumi. Dramatiškuose Vilniuje prabėgusios rašytojo jaunystės atsiminimuose įkalinimo ir ištrėmimo į Rusiją grėsmės išgyvenimus papildo miesto, turinčio didingą praeitį, vaizdinys, kuris tapo vaisingu kūrybinio įkvėpimo šaltiniu. Ankstyvųjų Kraševskio novelių puslapiuose regimas subjektyvus, bet nepaprastai realistiškas Vilniaus paveikslas. Miesto, kuris, rašytojo akimis, išgyveno šlovingas akimirkas. Kraševskis kuria daugiaklodį Vilniaus portretą, kuriame susijungia praeitį menantys pasakojimai ir senoji architektūra, sostinės ir universiteto miesto, bei intelektualinio gyvenimo erdvės prisiminimai. Straipsnyje pagrindinis dėmesys skiriamas klaidingai pamirštoms ankstyvosioms Kraševskio novelėms, daliai jo Vilniaus periodo prisiminimų ir Vilniui skirtiems istoriniams veikalams. Šie darbai įdomūs ne tik dėl literatūrinio Vilniaus vaizdavimo, bet pirmiausia kaip vertingas liudijimas kartos, gyvenusios mieste carinės priespaudos laikais, mieste, virš kurio kabojo piktavalio Nikolajaus Novosilcovo šešėlis. Reikšminiai žodžiai: Vilniaus universitetas (VU; Vilnius University); Realizmas; Jutimiškumas; University of Vilnius; Realism; Physiological sketch; Literatūra; Josef Ignac Kraszewski; Vilnius; Universitetas; Kartos istorija; Literature; Josef Ignac Kraszewski; Vilnius; University; History of generation The paper presents a unique, fully emotional Kraszcwski's attitude towards Vilnius. The dramatic memories of his Vilnius youth which mostly consists of his imprisonment and the threat of being deported to Russia when combined with the beauty and magnificent history of the city turned out to be extremely inspiring and artistically fertile. On the pages of Kraszcwski's early novels the author recorded the subjective but in parts deeply realistic picture of the city. The city which, from the writer's perspective, has the moments of its glory behind. Still the memory of the gorgeous past preserved in the buildings and relevant stories, the memory of erstwhile Vilnius capital city status and its rank as the university town and the intellectual life centre let Kraszewski create the amazing multidimensional portrait of the city. The basis of the paper are erroneously forgotten early Kraszewski's novels, the parts of his memories concerning his stay in Vilnius and the historical works dedicated to the city. These works seem to be interesting not only as a literary topic of Vilnius but first of all they turn out to be a valuable testimony of the history of the generation that was to live in the city mutilated by tsarist repressions, in the city which the malevolent shadow of Nicholas Novosilcov hanged out.

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    Authors: Czapiewski, Edward;

    Straipsnyje analizuojamas Rusijos faktorius Baltijos jūros regione nuo XVIII a. iki XIX a. pradžios. Nuo XVIII a. II pusės iki pat XIX a. pradžios Rusija vykdė apdairią politiką, nes turėjo priešų. Po Šiaurės karo susilpnėjusi Švedija neketino atsisakyti supervalstybės siekių ir savo ambicijas grindė aljanso su Prancūzija bei netiesiogiai su Turkija galimybe. Rusijos priešu buvo ir Anglija, tačiau geopolitinį balansą padėjo palaikyti Prūsija. Rusijai buvo svarbu prorusiškų grupuočių buvimas Abiejų Taurų Respublikoje (ATR), ji jautė ir ruošėsi artėjantiems ATR padalinimams. Straipsnyje atskleidžiama įsigalėjimo Baltijos jūros regione tikslų padiktuota Rusijos politinių ir karinių veiksmų genezė bei gerai apgalvota politinė programa. Po paskutiniojo ATR padalinimo 1795 m. Rusija okupavo etninės Lietuvos teritoriją ir Kuršą. Po 1806–1809 m. karo su Švedija, visa Suomijos teritorija buvo inkorporuota į Rusijos imperiją. Didelių Baltijos regiono teritorijų aneksavimas ir kitų žemių prisijungimas, kurioms buvo charakteringa skirtinga istorinė ir socialinė raida, tapo priežastimi, dėl kurios Rusijos caras Aleksandras I nusprendė vykdyti liberalesnę politiką okupuotų kraštų gyventojų atžvilgiu, lyginant su ta politika, kurios buvo laikomasi kitų Rusijos teritorijos gyventojų atžvilgiu.

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    Authors: Ragaišienė, Vilija;

    The article examines the expression of a person living in the area of the Southern South Aukštaitian, describing the appearance and physical characteristics, features of the character and temper, social status and relationships based on the material in the two-volume "Comprehensive Dictionary of the Southern South Aukštaitian Subdialects" (Vol I published in 2016, Vol II in 2019). To begin with, the study includes all sentences that use the word man. It is also based on the examples where it is replaced by pronouns (I, you, he, she etc.), kinship terms (mother, father, brother, sister, grandson, granddaughter, aunt, uncle etc.), nouns that designate individuals by the gender (boy, girl, woman, woman, man etc.) and other. All the sentences in the dictionary that speak of man are analysed. The lexicographic data show that a person (man, woman, child) is an individual living in the Southern South Aukštaitian area. He/she is a kind-hearted, sincere, open, tolerant, cheerful and witty, hardworking and creative representative of the people and dialect; also energetic and persevering, though not always physically strong and capable. The analysis carried out reveals the genesis of the concept of man, and shows the attitude of several generations to man. The illustrative sentences highlight the stereotypical image of a person living in the Southern South Aukštaitian area (cheerful, generous, and hardworking, believes in God and is superstitious, values the family etc.) and show the new emerging traits (laziness, drinking, stealing, disobeying, immoral and dishonest etc.). The analysis of the dialectical discourse reveals the difference between the archaic and contemporary approaches; the ongoing changes in material and spiritual life are revealed. The material in the dictionary reveals the wonderful harmony of man and nature, which has been formed over several centuries, with the community living in a relatively isolated, closed environment. The worldview of man living in the area of the Southern South Aukštaitian area is interwoven with the old mythological world, the mysteries of the Catholic faith, and the realities of the present. Although the world is changing, old values and customs are disappearing and villages are abandoned, people are optimistic about the world. Work, family, faith in God and man are their greatest values. Reikšminiai žodžiai: Žmogus; Tarminis žodynas; Pietinių pietų aukštaičių šnektos; Etnolingvistika; Man; Dialectal dictionary; Southern South Aukštaitian subdialects; Ethnolinguistics

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    Database „Lituanistika“
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2020
    License: CC BY
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      Database „Lituanistika“
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2020
      License: CC BY
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    Authors: Matwiejczuk, Paweł;

    This article presents the results of research on selected correspondence of Philip Melanchthon to certain Polish men. Letters To the Polish Nobleman are an expression of concern about the fate of the Christian Europe threatened by Turks. Melanchthon is seen primarily as an educator who outlines the image of an ideal citizen and knight humanist. The article contains short biographical study of Eustathius von Knobelsdorf and two Melanchthon’s writings translated from the Latin into the Polish language. Reikšminiai žodžiai: Bajorija; Didikai ir magnatai; Filipas Melanchtonas; Humanizmas; Korespondencija; Lenkija (Lenkijos karalystė. Kingdom of Poland. Poland); Reformacija; Reformacija, Pilypas Melanchtonas; Corresponddence; Correspondence; Humanism; Nobility; Philip Melanchthon; Philip Melanchton; Reformation

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    Authors: Romanowicz, Paulina;

    Recenzijoje aptariama 2011 m. išleista P. Blaževičiaus knyga "Seniausieji Lietuvos žaislai". Remiantis archeologiniais duomenimis knygoje atskleidžiama žaislų istorija Lietuvoje. Pavadinimas klaidinantis, nes tyrime nėra analizuojami patys seniausi Lietuvos žaislai. Teigiama, jog yra žinomi tik atskiri priešistoriniai radiniai, kuriuos galima vadinti žaidimų elementais, tuo tarpu pagrindinis dėmesys knygoje sutelktas į XIII–XVIII a. radinius. Sąvoka "seniausi" pavadinime yra klaidinga. "Žaislo" sąvoka taip pat reikalauja paaiškinimo, nes kalbama ne tik apie žaislus, bet ir suaugusiųjų žaidimų papildomus elementus (žaidimo lentos ir kt.). Tyrimo metu rasti 351 artefaktai ar jų fragmentai. 66% radinių rasti Vilniaus Žemutinėje pilyje. Nemažas kiekis radinių aptikti Kernavėje, Trakuose ir Klaipėdoje. Kitose Lietuvos vietose rasti tik pavieniai objektai. Abejonių kelia chronologija. Nemažai aptariamų radinių prasilenkia su autoriaus apsibrėžtais laiko rėmais. Kai kuriais atvejais nėra aiškus tikrasis objektų atsiradimo ir eksploatavimo laikas. Monografijos privalumas – plėtojama žaislų tipologija, kuri pratęsia ankstesnių autorių sudarytas vaikų žaislų tipologines schemas, taip pat naudojami metodai. Pagal paskirtį visi radiniai suskirstyti į 8 kategorijas, apibrėžtas jų naudojimas lyties ir amžiaus požiūriu. Stalo žaidimai priskiriami suaugusiųjų kategorijai. Tačiau tam tikrais atvejai pasirinkta tipologija kelia abejonių, atrodo, kad dalis radinių dirbtinai priskirti tam tikrai kategorijai. Gausiausia vaikams ir suaugusiems skirtų radinių grupė susijusi su sportu ir muzika. Vietomis trūksta gilesnio radinių ir vietos kur jie rasti istorinio įkontekstinimo.

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    Authors: Gomoliszek, Joanna;

    Straipsnyje pateikiami specifinių, t. y. komplikuotų ir kontroversinių lietuvių ir lenkų santykių tarpukario Lietuvos laikotarpiu tyrimų medžiaga. Šių santykių priežastys turi savo istorines priežastis. Lietuvos Respublikos (1918-1940) vidaus politika nebuvo palanki lenkų tautinės mažumos atžvilgiu. Tai skatino lenkų tautinio identiteto savivokos stiprėjimą bei jų nacionalinės savigarbos jausmus. Socialine šios situacijos išraiška galima įvardyti ir aktyvų įvairių lenkų kultūros bei švietimo organizacijų bei institucijų kūrimąsi minėtu laikotarpiu. Kauno (Vytauto Didžiojo) universiteto lenkų tautybės studentai taip pat buvo iniciatyvūs ir 1927 m. balandžio mėn. išleido savo periodinio laikraščio „Iskry" („Žiežirbos") pirmąjį numerį. Šis leidinys yra šiame straipsnyje pateikiamų tyrimų šaltinis. Reikšminiai žodžiai: Lietuvos lenkų bendruomenė; Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas (VDU); Studentų spauda The Polish-Lithuanian relations in the 20-year-long interval period between the World Wars were extremely difficult and controversial. The reasons behind this were of historical and legal nature. The politics of the independent Republic of Lithuania (1918-1940) were mainly aimed at restricting the position of the Polish minority. Under these circumstances the Poles were struggling to sustain their national identity by means of, for example, establishing various organizations of cultural and educational profile. Such initiatives were undertaken within the students' society at the University of Kovno (Kaunas). Polish students participated vigorously in the university's activities. Throughout the years, starting with 1927, they were elected to Students' Representative body and from the 1s' of April 1927 they issued their own periodical by the title of "Iskry" ("Žiežirbos", "The Sparks").

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    Authors: Šaknys, Žilvytis Bernardas;

    This article explores issues of ethnic and confessional intolerance of young Lithuanians. This problem is particularly relevant in realizing the Jewish status in Lithuania in the predawn of the tragedy of this nation. Based on the representative data which was collected from the Lithuanian ethnic cultural atlas, and on analysis of the communication of young people of different nationalities and religions, the article attempts to answer the following questions: whether the interwar Lithuanian rural culture influenced the rise of ethnic and confessional intolerance, and whether Jews professing Judaism were tolerated by the ethnic majority in the same way as other ethnic and confessional minorities. The analysis of the peasants’ attitude towards people of a different nationality and religion who ran businesses other than agriculture at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century revealed that Jews professing Judaism in most cases were tolerated in the same way as people confessing other religions and belonging to other social classes. In the examination of the communication of young people of other nationalities and religions in Lithuania, no major conflicts between Jews professing Judaism and Lithuanians were detected. The ungrounded arguments about the isolation and distrust between Lithuanians and Jews living in rural and urban areas were also denied. Straipsnyje gvildenamos lietuvių jaunimo etninės ir konfesinės tolerancijos problemos. Ši problematika ypač aktuali suvokiant žydų padėtį Lietuvoje, didžiosios šios tautos tragedijos priešaušryje. Remiantis reprezentatyvia lietuvių etninės kultūros atlasui rinkta medžiaga ir nagrinėjant skirtingų tikybų ir tautybių jaunimo bendravimą, straipsnyje siekiama atsakyti į klausimus: Ar tarpukario Lietuvos kaimo kultūra formavo etninės ir konfesinės netolerancijos jausmus; Ar judėjų tikybą išpažįstančius žydus, etninė dauguma toleravo kitaip negu kitas etnines ir konfesines mažumas? Išanalizavus XIX a. pabaigos – XX a. pirmosios valstiečių požiūrį į kitos tautybės, konfesijos nežemdirbišku verslu užsiimančius žmones nustatėme, kad judėjų tikėjimą išpažįstantys žydai dauguma atveju toleruoti kaip ir kitų konfesijų ir socialinių sluoksnių atstovai. Analizuodamas skirtingų tikybų ir tautybių jaunimo bendravimą Lietuvoje didesnių konfliktų tarp lietuvių ir judėjų tikėjimą išpažįstančių žydų - neaptikome. Paneigėme ir nepagrįstus teiginius apie tarpusavyje izoliuotą, tarpusavio nepasitikėjimu paremtą lietuvių ir žydų gyvenimą Lietuvos kaimuose ir mažuose miesteliuose Reikšminiai žodžiai: Agrarinė kultūra; Stereotipai; Etnologinis istorinis modelis; Agrarna kultura; Stereotyp "innego"; Folklor litewski; Etnologiczno-historyczny model

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ “Lituanistika”, Inte...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ “Lituanistika”, Inte...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/