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  • 2018-2022
  • Open Access
  • “Lituanistika”, International Research Database

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  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Burvytė, Sigita;

    Gyvenimo kokybė, arba gerovė, dažnai apibrėžiama ne tik kaip gera žmogaus emocinė būsena, bet ir adekvatus jo socialinis statusas visuomenėje, fizinė aplinka. Gyvenimo kokybė įvairiais aspektais analizuota užsienio mokslininkų straipsniuose, disertacijose (Campbell, Converse ir Rogers, 1977; Sen, 1993; Hollar, 1996; Felce, 2000; Veenhoven, 2000, 2001; Yuan, 2001; Noll, 2002; Galloway, 2006 ir kt.). Tačiau skirtingi autoriai įvairiai interpretuoja gyvenimo kokybę ir vis dar trūksta šios temos teorinio pagrindimo. Mokslinėje literatūroje iki šiol nėra pateikta vienareikšmiškos gyvenimo kokybės sampratos, nesutariama dėl gyvenimo kokybės vertinimo, metodologijos, pateikiami skirtingi vertinimo rodikliai. Iki šiol nėra vieno atsakymo į klausimą, kokie yra gyvenimo kokybės vertinimo komponentai bei sritys. Problema – žmonių gyvenimo kokybės ir vaikystės potyrių sąsajų vertinimo socialiniu aspektu tyrimų stoka. Tyrimo tikslas – nustatyti žmonių gyvenimo kokybės ir vaikystės potyrių sąsajas socialiniu aspektu, remiantis tyrimo rezultatais. Life quality is defined not only as a good emotional condition of a person, but also as his/her adequate social status in the society and physical environment. Different aspects of life quality are analysed by a number of scholars (Campbell, Converse, & Rogers, 1977; Sen, 1993; Hollar, 1996; Felce, 2000; Veenhoven, 2000, 2001; Yuan, 2001; Noll, 2002; Galloway, 2006 and others). Lithuanian authors also pay attention to the conception of life quality (Bagdonienė, 2000), links link the life quality and regional competition (Černiūtė, 2001), analyse the influence of human health on life quality (Rėklaitienė & Juozulynas, 2003; Jatulienė, Čepienė, Kalibatas, & Juozulynas, 2003), as well as conduct research on youth life quality (Bartkutė, 2005), children’s socialisation and adult life quality (Kvieskienė & Kvieska, 2012). Scholarly literature does not provide a single conception of life quality; there is a disagreement regarding the assessment methodology of life quality; as well as different assessment criteria are presented. There is no unanimous answer to the question what components and areas of life quality assessment are. The problem is that a more exhaustive social research on the assessment of the links between life quality and childhood experiences has not been conducted yet. The aim of the research is to present the links between human life quality and childhood experiences from the social standpoint on the basis of the research results. The following objectives are posed for the attainment of the aim: 1. To make a theoretical review of the assessment of the links between life quality and childhood experiences from the social standpoint; 2. To reveal the links between life quality and childhood experiences from the social standpoint. The following methods of data collection were applied: scientific literature analysis and interview. The methods of data analysis included open-ended questions used in the interview. The answers were analysed employing content analysis. The research results demonstrated that self-assessment of the quality of social life is related to childhood experiences in the social sphere. Childhood experiences are associated with other persons, which directly determines the development of social skills and life quality experiences in social sphere.

  • Open Access Polish
    Authors: 
    Stopka, Krzysztof;

    Armenians living in Kingdom of Poland and Great Duchy of Lithuania were mostly burghers, however, cases of social advancement were noted on Ruthenian territory officially belonging to the Crown. Initially, the advancement was possible only for royal court-based Armenian translators, but later also for those with merits for the country’s defence. Another way to advance socially was to marry a Polish nobleman. In such marriages religious differences rarely posed a serious problem; generally, females did not need to convert from their Christian Armenian denomination. Nevertheless, ennoblement was rarely attractive for Polish Armenians at that time; trade and other typically burgher activities brought more profit than the landownership privilege. For this reason ennobled men and their descendants often took on those activities anyway and pleaded their noble status only to escape inconvenient legal consequences or town court. A few Polish noble families of Armenian origin are dated back to that time: the Tyszkiewicz, the Siekierzyński, the Balicki, the Zwartowski, the Sołtanowicz-Chalepsk, the Lenkowicz-Ipohorski, the Iwaszkiewicz, the Makarowicz, the Domażyrski, the Pleszkowski.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Baltus, Vytautas; Žebrauskas, Tadas;

    Architectural studies in Kaunas University of Technology shift towards implementation of BIM concept-based approach in design modules, which suggests the use of related software (Revit, ArchiCAD). Implementation of parametric design (3ds Max, Cinema4D) related subjects in the study process is in alarming situation because of the University’s and even national policy. Nevertheless, its wide usage, at least in the visual presentation of architectural projects, strongly suggests that graduates need to have knowledge of these technologies as it is often required in the general practice. However, the different concepts of BIM and parametric design modelling practice makes the study load too heavy for the students. Thus, it is vital to find a balanced solution for both of these subjects to be presented equally during architectural studies at the University. The aim of this paper is to analyse the opportunities and challenges of introducing parallel learning of both software.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Nikžentaitis, Alvydas;

    Vladas Sirutavičius parašė solidžią studiją tema, kuri ir šiandien kursto daug aistrų tiek Lietuvos vidaus politikoje, tiek jos santykiuose su Lenkija. Knyga apie lietuvių ir lenkų bei Lietuvos ir Lenkijos santykius 1988–1994 m. leidžia geriau suvokti ir dabartines šių santykių problemas. Reikia pabrėžti, jog autorius labai vykusiai pasirinko tyrimų objektą, analizuodamas bendrai, o ne bandydamas atskirti ir lietuvių santykius su lenkų tautine grupe, ir tarpvalstybinius dviejų šalių santykius. Perskaičius visą darbą, tampa akivaizdu kaip glaudžiai susijusios buvo (ir išliko) šios dvi problemos. Jau vien dėl šios priežasties ši studija turėtų tapti privalomu skaitiniu kai kuriems dešiniųjų pažiūrų Lietuvos politikams, bandantiems šias problemas dirbtinai atskirti vieną nuo kitos.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Petraitytė-Briedienė, Asta;
  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Morkevičiūtė, Modesta; Endriulaitienė, Auksė;

    Tyrimu siekta nustatyti darbo atlikimo būdo reikšmę ryšiui tarp perfekcionizmo, A tipo asmenybės ir darboholizmo COVID-19 pandemijos metu. 2021 m. vasario–balandžio mėnesiais atliktame tyrime dalyvavo 668 darbuotojai iš įvairių Lietuvos organizacijų. Darboholizmui vertinti naudota trumpoji Schaufeli ir kitų (2009) pasiūlytos skalės versija DUWAS-10. Perfekcionizmui matuoti naudota trumpoji daugiadimensio perfekcionizmo skalės versija (Hewitt et al., 1991). A tipo asmenybės konstrukcijai matuoti naudota Framinghamo A tipo asmenybės skalė (Haynes et al., 1980). Taikant moderacinių ryšių analizę nustatyta, kad darbo atlikimo būdas yra reikšmingas perfekcionizmo ir darboholizmo ryšio moderatorius. Teigiamas ryšys tarp perfekcionizmo ir darboholizmo yra stipresnis nuotolinį darbą dirbančių darbuotojų grupėje. Darbo atlikimo būdo kaip moderatoriaus reikšmė ryšiui tarp A tipo asmenybės konstrukcijos ir darboholizmo nėra statistiškai reikšminga. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the way of doing work for the relationship between employees’ perfectionism, type A personality and workaholism during COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 668 Lithuanian employees participated in a study. The sample included employees who worked in the workplace (n = 331), as well as those who worked completely from home (n = 337). The levels of workaholism were measured using DUWAS-10 (Schaufeli et al., 2009). A multidimensional perfectionism scale (Hewitt et al., 1991) was used for the measurement of perfectionism. Type A personality was assessed with the help of the Framingham type A personality scale (Haynes et al., 1980). It was revealed in a study that the positive relationship between perfectionism and workaholism was stronger in the group of complete remote workers. It was further found that the moderating role of the way of doing work was not significant for the relationship between type A personality and workaholism. Overall, the findings support the idea that remote work is an important variable determining the development of health-damaging working behaviors among those employees who excel perfectionistic attributes. Therefore, the way of doing work must be considered when addressing the well-being of employees.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Šidiškienė, Irma;

    Based on an analysis of eating during work hours, this article looks at the issue of maintaining informal social relations. Various forms of the gathering together of individuals are important in the maintenance of social relations. Very often, casual or leisure-time gatherings, whether they are to mark an important event or celebration, or are just a coffee or lunch break during work hours, involve eating or drinking. However, colleagues and co-workers do not always eat at the same time, especially regarding day-to-day eating during work hours. In this paper, the focus is on the relative importance of eating alone or eating in a group when researching the maintenance of informal relations. The first objective of this research is to clarify the social aspects in research on eating and to survey the scientific literature on commensality and eating alone. Second the paper looks at how eating in a group as opposed to individual eating are expressed as part of the daily eating routine with ones co-workers. By going through these objectives, the question is raised – how would ways of maintaining informal relations change if there an ever greater number of co-workers decided to eat alone?

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Bartkus, Jurgis;

    Straipsnyje analizuojama garso įrašo leistinumo problematika Lietuvos civiliniame procese ir Lietuvos arbitražo teisėje. Pirmoje straipsnio dalyje apžvelgiami požiūriai į neteisėtai surinktų įrodymų leistinumą civiliniame procese ir arbitraže. Daroma išvada, kad civiliniame procese yra trys galimi ir alternatyvūs požiūriai, o arbitraže šių požiūrių taikymas yra paliekamas arbitražo teismo diskrecijai. Antroje dalyje apžvelgiamas garso įrašo leistinumas Lietuvos civiliniame procese ir Lietuvos arbitražo teisėje. Atliktas tyrimas atskleidžia, kad Lietuvos Aukščiausiojo Teismo praktika garso įrašo leistinumo klausimu tobulintina garso įrašo leistinumo kriterijų ir privatumo apsaugos aspektais. Lietuvos arbitražo teisėje siūlytina atsisakyti arbitražo teismo diskrecijos nuspręsti dėl požiūrio į neteisėtai padaryto garso įrašo leistinumą ir išimtinai vadovautis požiūriu, kad neteisėtai padarytas garso įrašas yra per se neleistinas. This article analyzes the issue of the admissibility of audio recordings in Lithuanian civil proceedings and Lithuanian arbitration law. The first part of the article provides a general overview of possible attitudes towards the admissibility of illegally collected evidence in civil proceedings and arbitration. It is concluded that in civil proceedings there are three possible and alternative approaches, while in arbitration the possible application of all of these approaches is left to the discretion of the arbitral tribunal. The second part reviews the admissibility of audio recordings in Lithuanian civil proceedings and Lithuanian arbitration law. The research reveals that the case law of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Lithuania on the admissibility of audio recordings has to be improved on the application of the criteria of admissibility of audio recordings and on the protection of privacy. In Lithuanian arbitration law, it is suggested to waive the arbitration court’s discretion to decide on the approach to the admissibility of an illegally made audio recording and to follow the view that an illegally made audio recording is per se inadmissible.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Valienė, Rasa; Čiužauskaitė, Ilona;

    Purpose – the purpose of this article was to present the main features of classical rhetoric and to reveal their transformations, focusing, in particular, on Aristotle’s theory of categories of persuasion, an important technique of rhetoric applied in modern public discourse. Design/methodology/approach – the paper is based on scientific literature analysis and comparative analysis of different types of public speeches from ancient times to the present day. Findings – the final thesis of this article states that, although the requirements for public speech have been modified throughout history, the ability to reach rhetorical persuasion depends on the capacity to speak under the canons of classical rhetoric. Moreover, the most effective communication strategy is based on the synthesis of logos, ethos and pathos categories and their application in modern public discourse. Practical implications – the paper reveals several practical implications important for leadership development. Ethical and effective eloquence is the key to leadership, encouraging young members of contemporary society to be equally responsible for preserving common values and overcoming global issues. The modern public discourse demonstrates an obvious tendency towards opposition in speaking and acting processes. This situation is conditioned by an obvious lack of synthesis of the logos, ethos and pathos categories in daily rhetoric activities. Although it is common to speak eloquently and convincingly, spoken words do not always match the actions taken, particularly in political discourse. Therefore, rhetoric values, such as res non verba taken from Antiquity, the cradle of European culture, ought to be included in the education and development system of future leaders. Research limitations/implications – the speakers selected for the scope of this review differ in terms of their intentions, purposes, and types of speeches, i.e. some are informative, while others are emotional or appealing. The difference in structure and type of public speeches limits the scope of the analysis. Moreover, an additional factor of distinct variables has to be taken in consideration analyzing modern public discourse, namely historical period, culture, age, religion, gender and occupation, and, last but not least, the circumstances of a public speech which can all have a negative impact on the evaluation of paper making the analysis superficial and incomplete. Originality/Value – within the great variety of rhetoric theories and conventions, some have been modified over time, although the fundamental ones remain unchanged to this day. This has not, however, reduced the significance of public speaking quite on the contrary public speaking has become a daily activity in everyone’s life. Therefore, Aristotle’s theory of rhetorical categories is an important approach to every public speaker and the most effective strategy leading to rhetorical persuasion. Moreover, the dissemination of rhetoric is promoted by a significant growth of communication throughout the world. Furthermore, stylistics, structural poetics, text linguistics, logic, advertising theory, pedagogy, psychology and other sciences are also based on the research of classical rhetorical traditions and transformations. By comparison, in the context of cultural integration, eloquence and the ability to communicate has become particularly important in social, political, educational or entrepreneurship activities.

  • Other research product . 2020
    Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Mickevičius, Arturas;

    Straipsnyje analizuojama Adomo Bremeniečio pateikta informacija apie sembus. Ketvirtoje kronikos knygoje suformuotas lietuviškoje istoriografijoje įsitvirtinęs naratyvas apie kilnius sembus – homines humanissimi ir žiauriausią gentį kuršius – gens crudelissima. Nepažįstamų kraštų ir žmonių aprašymas Adomo Bremeniečio kronikoje konstruojamas pagal klasikinei ir viduramžių istoriografijai būdingą modelį – „mes“ ir „jie“. Adomui „mes“ – tai civilizuoti krikščionys, o „jie“ – barbarai stabmeldžiai, kurių pasaulis baugus, nepažįstamas, keistas ir grėsmingas. Sembai ir kuršiai kaip tik ir buvo tokio pasaulio dalis. Kas lėmė tokį skirtingą kaimynystėje gyvenusių dviejų Vakarų baltų genčių apibūdinimą? Itin palankus požiūris į sembus, kurie tuo metu yra tokie pat stabmeldžiai barbarai, kaip ir kuršiai, neatitinka visame kronikos tekste matomo svetimųjų aprašymo modelio ir skatina ieškoti galimų paaiškinimų. Sakso Gramatiko pasakojimas apie Semboje įsikūrusius ir asimiliavusius danus, Adomo Bremeniečio – apie Baltijos pakrančių amazones, susilaukiančias palikuonių su atvykusiais prekiautojais ar karo belaisviais, pagaliau skandinavų centrus sembų žemėse fiksuojantys archeologiniai tyrimai leidžia kelti klausimą, ar homines humanissimi buvo sembai, ar Semboje įsikūrę „civilizuoti krikščionys“ – danai ir jų palikuonys? The article analyzes the information about Sambians provided by Adam of Bremen. In the fourth book of the chronicle, a narrative about Sambians – homines humanissimi and the most brutual tribe of the Curonians – gens crudelissima, is established in Lithuanian historiography. The description of unfamiliar lands and people in the Chronicle of Adam of Bremen is constructed according to the model of classical and medieval historiography – “we” and “they”. To Adam, “we” means civilized Christians, and “they” – barbarian idolaters whose world is frightening, unfamiliar, strange and menacing. The Sambians and the Curonians were just part of such a world. What led to such a different description of the two Western Baltic tribes? The particularly favorable attitude towards the Sambians, who at the time were as idolatrous barbarians as the Curonians, does not correspond to the pattern of description of strangers seen throughout the chronicle, and encourages the search for possible explanations. Saxo Grammaticus’ account of the Danes settled and assimilated in Sambia, Adam of Bremen’s story of the Baltic coastal Amazons with incoming merchants or prisoners of war, and archaeological excavatings indicating Scandinavian trading centres in the Sambian peninsula, allow the question to be asked whether homines humanissimi were the Sambians or perhaps “civilized Christians” settled in the Sambia – Danes and their descendants?

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5,206 Research products, page 1 of 521
  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Burvytė, Sigita;

    Gyvenimo kokybė, arba gerovė, dažnai apibrėžiama ne tik kaip gera žmogaus emocinė būsena, bet ir adekvatus jo socialinis statusas visuomenėje, fizinė aplinka. Gyvenimo kokybė įvairiais aspektais analizuota užsienio mokslininkų straipsniuose, disertacijose (Campbell, Converse ir Rogers, 1977; Sen, 1993; Hollar, 1996; Felce, 2000; Veenhoven, 2000, 2001; Yuan, 2001; Noll, 2002; Galloway, 2006 ir kt.). Tačiau skirtingi autoriai įvairiai interpretuoja gyvenimo kokybę ir vis dar trūksta šios temos teorinio pagrindimo. Mokslinėje literatūroje iki šiol nėra pateikta vienareikšmiškos gyvenimo kokybės sampratos, nesutariama dėl gyvenimo kokybės vertinimo, metodologijos, pateikiami skirtingi vertinimo rodikliai. Iki šiol nėra vieno atsakymo į klausimą, kokie yra gyvenimo kokybės vertinimo komponentai bei sritys. Problema – žmonių gyvenimo kokybės ir vaikystės potyrių sąsajų vertinimo socialiniu aspektu tyrimų stoka. Tyrimo tikslas – nustatyti žmonių gyvenimo kokybės ir vaikystės potyrių sąsajas socialiniu aspektu, remiantis tyrimo rezultatais. Life quality is defined not only as a good emotional condition of a person, but also as his/her adequate social status in the society and physical environment. Different aspects of life quality are analysed by a number of scholars (Campbell, Converse, & Rogers, 1977; Sen, 1993; Hollar, 1996; Felce, 2000; Veenhoven, 2000, 2001; Yuan, 2001; Noll, 2002; Galloway, 2006 and others). Lithuanian authors also pay attention to the conception of life quality (Bagdonienė, 2000), links link the life quality and regional competition (Černiūtė, 2001), analyse the influence of human health on life quality (Rėklaitienė & Juozulynas, 2003; Jatulienė, Čepienė, Kalibatas, & Juozulynas, 2003), as well as conduct research on youth life quality (Bartkutė, 2005), children’s socialisation and adult life quality (Kvieskienė & Kvieska, 2012). Scholarly literature does not provide a single conception of life quality; there is a disagreement regarding the assessment methodology of life quality; as well as different assessment criteria are presented. There is no unanimous answer to the question what components and areas of life quality assessment are. The problem is that a more exhaustive social research on the assessment of the links between life quality and childhood experiences has not been conducted yet. The aim of the research is to present the links between human life quality and childhood experiences from the social standpoint on the basis of the research results. The following objectives are posed for the attainment of the aim: 1. To make a theoretical review of the assessment of the links between life quality and childhood experiences from the social standpoint; 2. To reveal the links between life quality and childhood experiences from the social standpoint. The following methods of data collection were applied: scientific literature analysis and interview. The methods of data analysis included open-ended questions used in the interview. The answers were analysed employing content analysis. The research results demonstrated that self-assessment of the quality of social life is related to childhood experiences in the social sphere. Childhood experiences are associated with other persons, which directly determines the development of social skills and life quality experiences in social sphere.

  • Open Access Polish
    Authors: 
    Stopka, Krzysztof;

    Armenians living in Kingdom of Poland and Great Duchy of Lithuania were mostly burghers, however, cases of social advancement were noted on Ruthenian territory officially belonging to the Crown. Initially, the advancement was possible only for royal court-based Armenian translators, but later also for those with merits for the country’s defence. Another way to advance socially was to marry a Polish nobleman. In such marriages religious differences rarely posed a serious problem; generally, females did not need to convert from their Christian Armenian denomination. Nevertheless, ennoblement was rarely attractive for Polish Armenians at that time; trade and other typically burgher activities brought more profit than the landownership privilege. For this reason ennobled men and their descendants often took on those activities anyway and pleaded their noble status only to escape inconvenient legal consequences or town court. A few Polish noble families of Armenian origin are dated back to that time: the Tyszkiewicz, the Siekierzyński, the Balicki, the Zwartowski, the Sołtanowicz-Chalepsk, the Lenkowicz-Ipohorski, the Iwaszkiewicz, the Makarowicz, the Domażyrski, the Pleszkowski.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Baltus, Vytautas; Žebrauskas, Tadas;

    Architectural studies in Kaunas University of Technology shift towards implementation of BIM concept-based approach in design modules, which suggests the use of related software (Revit, ArchiCAD). Implementation of parametric design (3ds Max, Cinema4D) related subjects in the study process is in alarming situation because of the University’s and even national policy. Nevertheless, its wide usage, at least in the visual presentation of architectural projects, strongly suggests that graduates need to have knowledge of these technologies as it is often required in the general practice. However, the different concepts of BIM and parametric design modelling practice makes the study load too heavy for the students. Thus, it is vital to find a balanced solution for both of these subjects to be presented equally during architectural studies at the University. The aim of this paper is to analyse the opportunities and challenges of introducing parallel learning of both software.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Nikžentaitis, Alvydas;

    Vladas Sirutavičius parašė solidžią studiją tema, kuri ir šiandien kursto daug aistrų tiek Lietuvos vidaus politikoje, tiek jos santykiuose su Lenkija. Knyga apie lietuvių ir lenkų bei Lietuvos ir Lenkijos santykius 1988–1994 m. leidžia geriau suvokti ir dabartines šių santykių problemas. Reikia pabrėžti, jog autorius labai vykusiai pasirinko tyrimų objektą, analizuodamas bendrai, o ne bandydamas atskirti ir lietuvių santykius su lenkų tautine grupe, ir tarpvalstybinius dviejų šalių santykius. Perskaičius visą darbą, tampa akivaizdu kaip glaudžiai susijusios buvo (ir išliko) šios dvi problemos. Jau vien dėl šios priežasties ši studija turėtų tapti privalomu skaitiniu kai kuriems dešiniųjų pažiūrų Lietuvos politikams, bandantiems šias problemas dirbtinai atskirti vieną nuo kitos.

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Petraitytė-Briedienė, Asta;
  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Morkevičiūtė, Modesta; Endriulaitienė, Auksė;

    Tyrimu siekta nustatyti darbo atlikimo būdo reikšmę ryšiui tarp perfekcionizmo, A tipo asmenybės ir darboholizmo COVID-19 pandemijos metu. 2021 m. vasario–balandžio mėnesiais atliktame tyrime dalyvavo 668 darbuotojai iš įvairių Lietuvos organizacijų. Darboholizmui vertinti naudota trumpoji Schaufeli ir kitų (2009) pasiūlytos skalės versija DUWAS-10. Perfekcionizmui matuoti naudota trumpoji daugiadimensio perfekcionizmo skalės versija (Hewitt et al., 1991). A tipo asmenybės konstrukcijai matuoti naudota Framinghamo A tipo asmenybės skalė (Haynes et al., 1980). Taikant moderacinių ryšių analizę nustatyta, kad darbo atlikimo būdas yra reikšmingas perfekcionizmo ir darboholizmo ryšio moderatorius. Teigiamas ryšys tarp perfekcionizmo ir darboholizmo yra stipresnis nuotolinį darbą dirbančių darbuotojų grupėje. Darbo atlikimo būdo kaip moderatoriaus reikšmė ryšiui tarp A tipo asmenybės konstrukcijos ir darboholizmo nėra statistiškai reikšminga. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the way of doing work for the relationship between employees’ perfectionism, type A personality and workaholism during COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 668 Lithuanian employees participated in a study. The sample included employees who worked in the workplace (n = 331), as well as those who worked completely from home (n = 337). The levels of workaholism were measured using DUWAS-10 (Schaufeli et al., 2009). A multidimensional perfectionism scale (Hewitt et al., 1991) was used for the measurement of perfectionism. Type A personality was assessed with the help of the Framingham type A personality scale (Haynes et al., 1980). It was revealed in a study that the positive relationship between perfectionism and workaholism was stronger in the group of complete remote workers. It was further found that the moderating role of the way of doing work was not significant for the relationship between type A personality and workaholism. Overall, the findings support the idea that remote work is an important variable determining the development of health-damaging working behaviors among those employees who excel perfectionistic attributes. Therefore, the way of doing work must be considered when addressing the well-being of employees.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Šidiškienė, Irma;

    Based on an analysis of eating during work hours, this article looks at the issue of maintaining informal social relations. Various forms of the gathering together of individuals are important in the maintenance of social relations. Very often, casual or leisure-time gatherings, whether they are to mark an important event or celebration, or are just a coffee or lunch break during work hours, involve eating or drinking. However, colleagues and co-workers do not always eat at the same time, especially regarding day-to-day eating during work hours. In this paper, the focus is on the relative importance of eating alone or eating in a group when researching the maintenance of informal relations. The first objective of this research is to clarify the social aspects in research on eating and to survey the scientific literature on commensality and eating alone. Second the paper looks at how eating in a group as opposed to individual eating are expressed as part of the daily eating routine with ones co-workers. By going through these objectives, the question is raised – how would ways of maintaining informal relations change if there an ever greater number of co-workers decided to eat alone?

  • Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Bartkus, Jurgis;

    Straipsnyje analizuojama garso įrašo leistinumo problematika Lietuvos civiliniame procese ir Lietuvos arbitražo teisėje. Pirmoje straipsnio dalyje apžvelgiami požiūriai į neteisėtai surinktų įrodymų leistinumą civiliniame procese ir arbitraže. Daroma išvada, kad civiliniame procese yra trys galimi ir alternatyvūs požiūriai, o arbitraže šių požiūrių taikymas yra paliekamas arbitražo teismo diskrecijai. Antroje dalyje apžvelgiamas garso įrašo leistinumas Lietuvos civiliniame procese ir Lietuvos arbitražo teisėje. Atliktas tyrimas atskleidžia, kad Lietuvos Aukščiausiojo Teismo praktika garso įrašo leistinumo klausimu tobulintina garso įrašo leistinumo kriterijų ir privatumo apsaugos aspektais. Lietuvos arbitražo teisėje siūlytina atsisakyti arbitražo teismo diskrecijos nuspręsti dėl požiūrio į neteisėtai padaryto garso įrašo leistinumą ir išimtinai vadovautis požiūriu, kad neteisėtai padarytas garso įrašas yra per se neleistinas. This article analyzes the issue of the admissibility of audio recordings in Lithuanian civil proceedings and Lithuanian arbitration law. The first part of the article provides a general overview of possible attitudes towards the admissibility of illegally collected evidence in civil proceedings and arbitration. It is concluded that in civil proceedings there are three possible and alternative approaches, while in arbitration the possible application of all of these approaches is left to the discretion of the arbitral tribunal. The second part reviews the admissibility of audio recordings in Lithuanian civil proceedings and Lithuanian arbitration law. The research reveals that the case law of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Lithuania on the admissibility of audio recordings has to be improved on the application of the criteria of admissibility of audio recordings and on the protection of privacy. In Lithuanian arbitration law, it is suggested to waive the arbitration court’s discretion to decide on the approach to the admissibility of an illegally made audio recording and to follow the view that an illegally made audio recording is per se inadmissible.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Valienė, Rasa; Čiužauskaitė, Ilona;

    Purpose – the purpose of this article was to present the main features of classical rhetoric and to reveal their transformations, focusing, in particular, on Aristotle’s theory of categories of persuasion, an important technique of rhetoric applied in modern public discourse. Design/methodology/approach – the paper is based on scientific literature analysis and comparative analysis of different types of public speeches from ancient times to the present day. Findings – the final thesis of this article states that, although the requirements for public speech have been modified throughout history, the ability to reach rhetorical persuasion depends on the capacity to speak under the canons of classical rhetoric. Moreover, the most effective communication strategy is based on the synthesis of logos, ethos and pathos categories and their application in modern public discourse. Practical implications – the paper reveals several practical implications important for leadership development. Ethical and effective eloquence is the key to leadership, encouraging young members of contemporary society to be equally responsible for preserving common values and overcoming global issues. The modern public discourse demonstrates an obvious tendency towards opposition in speaking and acting processes. This situation is conditioned by an obvious lack of synthesis of the logos, ethos and pathos categories in daily rhetoric activities. Although it is common to speak eloquently and convincingly, spoken words do not always match the actions taken, particularly in political discourse. Therefore, rhetoric values, such as res non verba taken from Antiquity, the cradle of European culture, ought to be included in the education and development system of future leaders. Research limitations/implications – the speakers selected for the scope of this review differ in terms of their intentions, purposes, and types of speeches, i.e. some are informative, while others are emotional or appealing. The difference in structure and type of public speeches limits the scope of the analysis. Moreover, an additional factor of distinct variables has to be taken in consideration analyzing modern public discourse, namely historical period, culture, age, religion, gender and occupation, and, last but not least, the circumstances of a public speech which can all have a negative impact on the evaluation of paper making the analysis superficial and incomplete. Originality/Value – within the great variety of rhetoric theories and conventions, some have been modified over time, although the fundamental ones remain unchanged to this day. This has not, however, reduced the significance of public speaking quite on the contrary public speaking has become a daily activity in everyone’s life. Therefore, Aristotle’s theory of rhetorical categories is an important approach to every public speaker and the most effective strategy leading to rhetorical persuasion. Moreover, the dissemination of rhetoric is promoted by a significant growth of communication throughout the world. Furthermore, stylistics, structural poetics, text linguistics, logic, advertising theory, pedagogy, psychology and other sciences are also based on the research of classical rhetorical traditions and transformations. By comparison, in the context of cultural integration, eloquence and the ability to communicate has become particularly important in social, political, educational or entrepreneurship activities.

  • Other research product . 2020
    Open Access Lithuanian
    Authors: 
    Mickevičius, Arturas;

    Straipsnyje analizuojama Adomo Bremeniečio pateikta informacija apie sembus. Ketvirtoje kronikos knygoje suformuotas lietuviškoje istoriografijoje įsitvirtinęs naratyvas apie kilnius sembus – homines humanissimi ir žiauriausią gentį kuršius – gens crudelissima. Nepažįstamų kraštų ir žmonių aprašymas Adomo Bremeniečio kronikoje konstruojamas pagal klasikinei ir viduramžių istoriografijai būdingą modelį – „mes“ ir „jie“. Adomui „mes“ – tai civilizuoti krikščionys, o „jie“ – barbarai stabmeldžiai, kurių pasaulis baugus, nepažįstamas, keistas ir grėsmingas. Sembai ir kuršiai kaip tik ir buvo tokio pasaulio dalis. Kas lėmė tokį skirtingą kaimynystėje gyvenusių dviejų Vakarų baltų genčių apibūdinimą? Itin palankus požiūris į sembus, kurie tuo metu yra tokie pat stabmeldžiai barbarai, kaip ir kuršiai, neatitinka visame kronikos tekste matomo svetimųjų aprašymo modelio ir skatina ieškoti galimų paaiškinimų. Sakso Gramatiko pasakojimas apie Semboje įsikūrusius ir asimiliavusius danus, Adomo Bremeniečio – apie Baltijos pakrančių amazones, susilaukiančias palikuonių su atvykusiais prekiautojais ar karo belaisviais, pagaliau skandinavų centrus sembų žemėse fiksuojantys archeologiniai tyrimai leidžia kelti klausimą, ar homines humanissimi buvo sembai, ar Semboje įsikūrę „civilizuoti krikščionys“ – danai ir jų palikuonys? The article analyzes the information about Sambians provided by Adam of Bremen. In the fourth book of the chronicle, a narrative about Sambians – homines humanissimi and the most brutual tribe of the Curonians – gens crudelissima, is established in Lithuanian historiography. The description of unfamiliar lands and people in the Chronicle of Adam of Bremen is constructed according to the model of classical and medieval historiography – “we” and “they”. To Adam, “we” means civilized Christians, and “they” – barbarian idolaters whose world is frightening, unfamiliar, strange and menacing. The Sambians and the Curonians were just part of such a world. What led to such a different description of the two Western Baltic tribes? The particularly favorable attitude towards the Sambians, who at the time were as idolatrous barbarians as the Curonians, does not correspond to the pattern of description of strangers seen throughout the chronicle, and encourages the search for possible explanations. Saxo Grammaticus’ account of the Danes settled and assimilated in Sambia, Adam of Bremen’s story of the Baltic coastal Amazons with incoming merchants or prisoners of war, and archaeological excavatings indicating Scandinavian trading centres in the Sambian peninsula, allow the question to be asked whether homines humanissimi were the Sambians or perhaps “civilized Christians” settled in the Sambia – Danes and their descendants?

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