In 1935 a politically active physician was exiled from his urban home in northern Italy to the countryside several hundred kilometres away. There he found himself in a world of squabbling petty gentry, overworked peasants and negligent, fornicating clergy. Ordinary people had recourse in their spiritual life more often to folklore, witchcraft and superstition, the exile noted, than to the parish church and its despised priest. The people placed their faith in gnomes and magic spells. They even said of themselves that Christianity (and hence Civilization) had never reached as far as their land. Even so those same apparent pagans did attend Mass on high holidays and venerated the Blessed Virgin Mary. The physician in question was the Italian anti-fascist Carlo Levi; the apparently God-forsaken land was Lucania (Basilicata), in southern Italy, not Lithuania. Similar stories of the remnants of ancient arcane behaviour might be told of peasants in other western European countries. When reading sixteenth-century Protestant polemical literature such as the De diis Samagitiarum caeterorumque sarmatarum et falsorum christianorum of Jan Łaski with its list of the pagan deities and of the Žemaitijans and Sarmatians and other false Christians, or the Annual Reports sent to Rome by Lithuanian Jesuits describing their missionary efforts in the Lithuanian and Livonian countryside, we might wonder whether for them Christ had stopped at the Polish border.
Straipsnyje analizuojamas Kauno evangelikų liuteronų parapijos gyvenimas 1919-1953 m. Taip pat apžvelgiamas parapijos įkūrimas ir gyvenimas iki 1919 m. Analizuojami Kauno evangelikų liuteronų santykiai su valstybe. Pagrindinis dėmesys skiriamas lietuvių ir vokiečių santykių raiškai. In 1919-1953, the Evangelical Lutheran church of Kaunas Germans was an integral part of Kaunas community life. The Evangelical Lutheran church, being the dominant German religion, was especially important for local Germans. According to the census of 17 September 1923, 5759 Evangelical Lutherans lived in Kaunas County; they constituted approximately 3,01 percent of total Kaunas county residents. More than half of Evangelical Lutherans were of German nationality (i.e. 2975 people). The research revealed that in 1919-1953 Kaunas Evangelical Lutheran church was equally important for Lithuanians. In the 20th century, the number of Lithuanian Evangelical Lutherans considerably increased. The struggle for domination and leadership in the church caused conflicts between German and Lithuanian communities. The conflict between Lithuanian and German Evangelical Lutherans started after the First General Evangelical Lutheran Synod in the independent Lithuania. The two groups, based on nationalistic elements, strived for the domination in Evangelical Lutheran church. The conflict prolonged until mid-1930s. During the conflict two separate Evangelical Lutheran parishes (Lithuanian and German) operated in Kaunas. The Lithuanian Government issued a legal act joining the parishes. At the beginning it was hard for both groups to cooperate jointly, but in 1936-1939 the cooperation can be assessed as close. Though, this period was quite short, it gave nevertheless a lot of benefits for spiritual and material condition of the parish. After the repatriation in Spring 1941, Kaunas Evangelical Lutheran parish was operational for more than a decade, but on 29 March 1953 Soviet government finally shut down the parish.
Remiantis vien pirminių šaltinių analize ir sinteze (straipsnyje panaudota trylikos Lietuvos centrinio valstybės archyvo (toliau – LCVA) fondų medžiaga, informacija, esanti publikuotuose dokumentuose, statistiniuose leidiniuose ir krašto periodinėje spaudoje), straipsnyje nagrinėjamas latvių konsulato Klaipėdoje raidos 1920–1940 m. etapai. Įvardijamos Latvijos konsulato steigimo, funkcionavimo ir uždarymo aplinkybės, išskiriami konsulų – Alfreds’o Misse, Peterio Kalcenavs’o, Karlio Freimanio, Janio Riekstiņš’o ir Janio Seskio – atvejai. Aptariama 1920–1940 m. Klaipėdoje veikusio Latvijos konsulato veikla, analizuojami Latvijos konsulato rangų pokyčiai, personalas, konsulų kultūrinė veikla. Based on the analysis and synthesis of primary sources, the article analyses the stages of development of the Latvian consulate in Klaipėda in 1920–1940. It specifies the circumstances of establishment, functioning and closure of the Latvian consulate with a focus on the following consults: Alfreds Misse, Peteris Kalcenavs, Karlis Freimanis, Janis Riekstiņš, and Janis Seskis. It discusses the activities of the Latvian consulate in Klaipėda in 1920–1940 and analyses the changes in the ranks of the Latvian consulate, its personnel and cultural activities of consuls. Until now the development of Latvian consulates in Lithuania has not received adequate attention from Lithuanian researchers. There are barely several publications on this topic in Lithuania. The works by Sandra Grigaravičiūtė and Zenonas Butkus are especially noteworthy. The topic was more extensively covered by Latvian researchers, namely Ē. Jēkabsons, V. Ščerbinskis and K. Kapenieks. The study on the Latvian consulate in Klaipėda in 1920–1940 is new, relevant and significant as it is the first comprehensive study revealing the appointment and activities of Latvian consuls in Klaipėda. The paper makes use of the previously unpublished archival data, periodical press, statistical publications, works of foreign historians. The research object is the circumstances of establishment, functioning and closure of the Latvian consulate in Klaipėda (1920–1940). The position of the Latvian consulate in the Klaipėda Region in 1939 also became the object of research. The article covers the period from May 1920 to February 1940. Year 1920 was selected as the starting point because it was the year of appointment of the Latvian career consular agent in Klaipėda Alfreds Misse, whereas the year 1940 marks the termination of activities of the Latvian consulate in Klaipėda after the transfer of Klaipėda to Germany. The aim of the article is to analyse the motives and process of establishment of the Consulate General of Latvia in Klaipėda and to reveal its activity fields in the period 1920–1940. The article discusses the activities of the Latvian consulate in Klaipėda in 1920–1940; it analyses the changes in the ranks of the Latvian consulate, its personnel and cultural activities of consuls. The analysis of primary and secondary sources prompts a conclusion that the Consulate General of Latvia was established in Klaipėda due to two reasons: 1) observation of events in the Klaipėda Region and collection of information; and 2) a numerous population of Latvians as foreigners in Klaipėda (the consulate intensified the relations with Latvians in the Klaipėda Region and sought to represent their interests). From May 1920 to February 1940 when the Klaipėda Region was transferred to Germany a total of 5 Latvian consuls were appointed to Klaipėda: Alfreds Misse, Peteris Kalcenavs (twice: 1924 and 1933–1934), Karlis Freimanis, Janis Riekstiņš, Janis Seskis (one of the most active Latvian consuls in the Klaipėda Region and Lithuania without the Klaipėda Region). The main fields of activity of the Consulate General of Latvia in Klaipėda were the following: participation in cultural events and educational campaigns. Latvian consuls in Klaipėda paid special attention to the Curonians in 1932–1933 and Latvian Jews in 1939. The analysis of the circumstances of formation of the Latvian consular corps in Klaipėda leads to the conclusion that the Consulate General of Latvia was one of the longest-standing foreign consulates in Klaipėda (1920–1940).
Straipsnio tikslas yra remiantis Arūno Sverdiolo kultūros filosofijos tyrinėjimais aiškinti egologiją, šiuo atveju – Juliaus Greimo ir Vytauto Kavolio personalizuotą kultūros interpretaciją didžiųjų karų, perversmų ar gilių sąstingių laikotarpiais. Pagrindinė tezė: remiantis Sverdiolo samprotavimais galima teigti, kad asmeninis kultūrinis-politinis, kritiškas ir praktiškas įsitraukimas į kultūros krizę ne tik skatina laisvą apsisprendimą dėl kultūros interpretacijos paradigmų kaitos, bet ir keičia transcendentalinį ego ir susijusius prasmės laukus. Jis hermeneutiškai interpretuoja A. J. Greimo egologiją, V. Kavolio kultūros sociologiją, krizės, tremties ir nuosmukio supratimą, ką šiame straipsnyje bandoma susieti. The purpose of the article is to analyze how existential phenomenology and hermeneutics of Sverdiolas helps to understand the formation of culture as a transcendental process in the periods of the social and cultural crisis. Sverdiolas explains in detail the egology of Greimas and the cultural sociology of Kavolis, their understanding of the crisis, the exile and decline of cultures, and the radical choices of public intellectuals. Since much is said about egology and participatory understanding, the article develops the concept of hermeneutical anthropology. In this connection, we discuss Sverdiolas’s relation to the hermeneutical anthropology of Cl. Geertz and the condition of the transgressive being, which partly explains the role of personal choice in the time of cultural crisis. The article asks where and how do existential hermeneutics become anthropological or sociological. Greimas is discussed in the context of the crisis of meaning and phenomenological egology, and Kavolis in the context of group symbolic interactionism, the sociology of trust and friendship.
Gebėjimas kurti inovacijas yra vienas svarbiausių kiekvienos šiuolaikinės organizacijos konkurencinio pranašumo šaltinių. Šiandienos aktualijų kontekste iškyla ypač reikšminga problema – lyderių vaidmuo organizuojant efektyvius žinių vadybos bei inovacijų kūrimo procesus. Nors lyderystės tema buvo analizuojama gana plačiai XX a. antrojoje pusėje, tačiau XXI a. pripažįstama, kad šio laikmečio organizacijoms reikalinga naujos kokybės lyderystė, nes organizacijos ir jų aplinka keičiasi iš esmės. Šiame straipsnyje yra analizuojami kintantys požiūriai į lyderystę ir jos vaidmenį šiuolaikinėje organizacijoje, susitelkiama į inovatyvios lyderystės sampratos ir jos raiškos ypatumų analizę, siekiant identifikuoti šio fenomeno dedamąsias ir jų sąsajas su žinių valdymo ir inovacijų kūrimo procesais. Išanalizavus reikšmingus šios temos aspektus, buvo nustatytos inovatyvios lyderystės, žinių valdymo ir inovacijų sąsajos ir suformuotas integralus teorinis inovatyvios lyderystės, žinių valdymo ir inovacijų kūrimo modelis organizacijoje. The ability to create innovations is one of the most important sources of a competitive advantage for every modern organization, region, and state. In today’s context as a particularly significant problem arises the issue of the role of leaders in organizing effective knowledge management and innovation processes. Although the topic of leadership was analyzed quite extensively in the second half of the 20th century, in the 21st century, it is recognized that organizations of this age need a new quality of leadership, as the organizations themselves and their environments are undergoing profound changes. This paper analyzes the changing approaches to leadership and its role in a modern organization, focusing on the concept of innovative leadership and its peculiarities in order to identify the components of this phenomenon and their links to knowledge management and innovation processes. After analyzing significant aspects of this topic, identified were the relationships between innovative leadership, knowledge management, and innovation performance, as well as an integral theoretical model of innovative leadership, knowledge management, and innovation performance for driving continuous innovation performance has been developed.
The article deals with the documents of artwork commissioning, mostly contracts, in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 18th century. The article aims at defining the intentions of commissioners and drawing a link between the attitudes conveyed in these documents and other texts, which revealed the perception of art within the period in question. The commissioning of religious images corresponded to the notion of image postulated in the religious discourse of post-Tridentine era, manifesting and establishing it through laconic, summarizing language of contracts. These documents once again support the conclusion drawn from the research of other resources: the highest value was set upon the iconographic aspect of an artwork. In most cases, namely a commissioner determined the subject and the motifs of work. The expression was generally seen as an artist’s competence; however, the commissioner often enough gave supplementary recommendations considering the form of artwork: well-proportioned composition was among the most repeated requirements, along with the request for life-like images and ornateness. Many notions circulating through the texts were influenced by the tradition of rhetoric, which highlighted the importance of affects in the work of art. Therefore, documents of commissioning demonstrate the visual aims of the society, which have not been taken into consideration to a sufficient extent in the Lithuanian historiography so far.
Straipsnyje pristatomi kiekybinio tyrimo, kuriuo siekta atskleisti šiandien vyraujantį požiūrį į gitarą ir jos kaitą, rezultatai. Dauguma tyrime dalyvavusiųjų nemano, jog gitara yra nuvertinama ir laikoma prastesne už kitus instrumentus. Klasikinė gitara, didžia dalimi atstovaujanti akademinei muzikai, yra prastai žinoma, dažniausiai siejama su dainuojamaisiais, roko ir sunkiaisiais muzikos žanrais. Gitaros įvaizdį lemia šiuolaikinė populiarioji muzika ir gitaros vaidmuo joje, lengvas instrumento prieinamumas ir mokytojų mėgėjų gausa, šiuolaikinės gitaros atstovų ir pasaulio medijų formuojama nuomonė, jog gitara gali išmokti groti beveik bet kas, taip pat nepatrauklios kaijeros galimybės, klasikinės gitaros koncertų ir viešų reprezentacijų forma bei kokybė. The results of qualitative research, the aim of which was to reveal the current view on the guitar and its changes, are presented in this paper. Most of the research participants do not think that the guitar is underrated or thought of as a lesser instrument than the other ones. Classical guitar, that is usually associated with academic music, is not very well known and is usually associated with vocal, rock and hard music genres. The image of the guitar is caused by contemporary popular music culture and the guitar’s role in it as well as the availability of the instrument and a wide variety of amateur teachers. The other factors include the opinion of contemporary guitar representatives and the press that state that almost anyone can learn to play the guitar, also poor career options, the form and the quality of classical guitar concerts and its public representation.
Šalies ekonomikai atsigaunant po krizės, daugelis pramonės įmonių Lietuvoje vis aštriau susiduria su kvalifikuotų darbuotojų stygiumi. Tačiau dažniausiai šalies darbo rinkoje pristingama ne kažkokių ypatingų, vienetinių profesijų, keliančių išskirtinius reikalavimus žmogaus gebėjimams, žinioms, sveikatai, psichikos savybėms, bet jaučiamas trūkumas ir populiarių profesijų (tolimųjų pervežimų vairuotojų, suvirintojų, virėjų ir kt.). Dažnai šalies darbo rinkoje susiklosto net paradoksali situacija, kai valstybėje esant dideliam nedarbui ir išplėtotai švietimo sistemai, darbdaviai prašo leisti įsivežti iš trečiųjų šalių specialistų, nes nacionalinėje darbo rinkoje daugelio profesijų atstovų trūksta. Kai kurių specialistų trūkumas šalyje jaučiamas jau daug metų ir iki šiol nematyti požymių, kad padėtis keistųsi teigiama linkme. Siekiant darbo rinkoje subalansuoti darbo vietų pasiūlą ir paklausą bei racionaliai naudoti žmogiškąjį kapitalą, straipsnyje tiriamos priežastys, dėl kurių šalies darbo rinkoje nuolat stinga tam tikrų sričių specialistų, bei pateikiama siūlymų padėčiai taisyti. In Lithuania, where the economy is recovering from the crisis, many industrial enterprises encounter sharper increased shortages of qualified workers. However, in most cases this shortage in the country’s labor market is not around some one particular profession that raises selectively the requirements for human qualifications in knowledge, health, or psychic particularities, but for a multitude of popular vocations, such as for long-distance drivers, welders, cooks, etc. The national labor market frequently encounters paradoxical situations; during times of high unemployment and expanded educational levels employers ask the state for permission to import third country specialists because of deficits in many vocations. For some professions such shortages have already existed for several years with no indications of future improvement. Therefore, in order to balance the specialists’ requirements for the state and the labor market, many tasks arise for professional orientation. However, the situation in the labor market shows that the presently active national program for professional orientation limited within the framework of the educational system is not able to fully secure the country’s requirements for specialists. This prompts the search for the ways and means of improving the situation. The research has revealed that industrial subjects which should be the most interested part in satisfying the demand of specialists in the labour market do not participate in professional orientation at all or participate to a little extent. Iindustrial subjects have no programs of professional orientation and do not finance them. Furthemore, the research showed that the existing distinction between supply and demand in professions is formed not by the human factor of Lithuanian people or their intellectual or physiological ability to learn professions needed in the labour market. It appears because of axiological differences between personel choice and of fering a profession, and employers’ needs and expectations. To change the attitude of industrial subjects towards professional orientation, it is inmportant for enterprises and organizations to understand the advantage the effective professional orientation brings to them. Furthemore, in the process of preparing the management of human resources, it would be reasonable to supplement the programs with the course of professional orientation. Having specialists of professional orientation in enterprises and organizations would help to raise professional orientation in Lithuania to a higher level.
Based on the author’s field studies, the article describes the characteristics of relationship between Lithuanians and Latvians in Šventoji, Skuodas, Žeimelis and Biržai regions and the attitude of one nation towards another. The Lithuanians living in Šventoji and Skuodas regions were less interested in the culture of their neighbours Latvians, but they lived together in peace and in a neighborly way. The Lithuanians’ living in Šventoji assessment of another is more stereotyped from their own cultural position. Those living in Skuodas noticed a surprising number of domestic differences; the Latvians seemed to them to be quite different, but they maintained friendly relations. The Lithuanians from Žeimelis region were more curious, maintained closer relations with the Latvians, were well acquainted with the Latvian culture and critical of their own. For the Lithuanians from Biržai region it was rather difficult to name Lithuanian and Latvian differences due to assimilation and acculturation processes in this region. But they drew attention to the character traits: Lithuanian submissiveness and Latvian arrogance. In their turn, the Latvians living in Lithuania stressed that Lithuanians and Latvians had a lot of similarities, good relationships and avoided generalizations. Only the Latvians living in Šventoji region described the Lithuanians more negatively. Relationship between these two nations may be explained by confessional differences and socio-economic factors, which emerged in the background of the history of migration. Religious difference was more pronounced in Šventoji region: people avoided mixed marriages, Catholics expressed a negative attitude towards Evangelical Lutherans. In Žeimelis and Biržai regions the same Lithuanian and Latvian Catholicism determined not only peaceful relationships, but also an active assimilation. Socio-economic factors influenced ethnic relations most during the interwar period.
Social work is characterized by constant challenges, difficult self-solutions, enormous tension and this causes many difficulties, especially for beginners. The systematic reflection of previous experience in decisions that may have both positive and negative consequences can facilitate selfdetermination by making better choices. Self-reflection is a meaningful way of teaching that provides the right conditions for improving one’s personal and professional development in a practical context. Analysing experience increases the professional growth and competencies of a person, and the quality of social work is increasing in the course of this process. Therefore, the training of social workers must take care of the learning process of the future specialists, so that future specialists would be able to overcome the difficulties that have arisen. One of the best solutions for making education more vibrant, intense and effective is to use experiential learning as an educational process booster. The article deals with the building of general competencies of social work students during the process of experiential learning. The research involved 11 students from Social Work study programme of Šiauliai State College who participated in the experiential learning activities for one week at the beginning of their studies. Method of structured written reflection was used to collect data for a qualitative study. Reflection questions were drawn up on the basis of planned activities and theoretical analysis, research object and aim. The qualitative study was based on the interpretive paradigm. Student written reflections were analyzed finding meaningful and critical units, which were categorised into subcategories and categories that were interpreted afterwards, presenting examples of confirmatory statements. The article reveal which instrumental, interpersonal and systemic competencies of social work students were built while participating in the experiential learning activities for one week. The use of experiential learning in the process of preparing social work professionals has two important aspects: first of all, the appropriate conditions for the reflection of personal and professional identity are needed during the course of studies, i.e. so that the students’ acquired experience interacts with the necessary competencies, knowledge, theory, skills as well as values in social work; secondly, to enable the student to independently, actively analyse the practical activities and identify, understand and solve emerging problems. Qualitative research results revealed several instrumental competencies which were developed during the experiential learning process. Social work study program students emphasize that they have developed skills to communicate in native language both orally and in writing, to identify, understand and solve problems, to plan and make good use of time, to search, process and analyze information from various sources and to create future visions. Teamwork skills, skills to be self-critical, to act, based on ethical principles, to be critical when evaluating teamwork, to be critical in terms of activities, to be socially responsible and to be critical in evaluating the behavior of others were recognized by the students as interpersonal competencies, which were developed during experiential activities. The experiential learning activities contributed to the development of instrumental and interpersonal competencies, and that was a base for the development of systemic competencies such as the skill to adapt in a new situation and withstand environmental pressures, to be proactive, to cultivate a spirit of entrepreneurial and intellectual curiosity, to apply theoretical knowledge in practice, to generate new ideas and to create and implement projects.