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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gerliakienė, Veronika;

    Vilniaus bažnyčių dekorą papildo gausybė trumpų lotyniškų įvairaus pobūdžio įrašų, kurių apimtis varijuoja nuo vieno žodžio ar kelių žodžių junginio iki kelių eilučių. Tie įrašai ryškiai skiriasi nuo kitos gana didelės Vilniaus bažnyčių įrašų grupės – epitafijų. Straipsnyje pateikta, glaustų paaiškinimų ir pavyzdžių lydima, trumpųjų lotyniškų Vilniaus bažnyčių įrašų klasifikacija, kuri galėtų tapti atspirties tašku tolesniems tyrinėjimams. Ją sudaro: 1) aiškinamieji įrašai (įrašai, padedantys išvengti klaidingos interpretacijos, paaiškinantys šalia esantį vaizdinį, suteikiantys informacijos); 2) fundaciniai, donaciniai įrašai (įrašai, kuriuose įamžinamas vienas ar keli asmenys, dovanoję bažnyčiai žemės, iš kurios gaunamos pajamos sudarydavo sąlygas pragyventi dvasininkui ir egzistuoti parapijai, arba asmenys, finansiškai rėmę bažnyčios statybą ar restauraciją); 3) proginiai įrašai (tai didžiausios apimties, dažniausiai dvikalbiai (lotynų-lietuvių) įrašai, kuriuose įamžinama tam tikra ypatinga proga, bažnytinio gyvenimo įvykis, nebūtinai susijęs su konkrečia bažnyčia); 4) memorialiniai įrašai skirti iškiliems bažnyčios ar valstybės asmenims atminti; 5) įspėjamieji įrašai; 6) embleminiai įrašai (šiuo terminu vadinama grupė įrašų, negalinčių funkcionuoti be freskos piešinio); 7) Šv. Rašto ir brevijoriaus citatos; 8) votyviniai įrašai; 9) Litanijos pobūdžio įrašai; 10) sentenciniai įrašai. Įrašai egzistavo ne kaip puošybinis elementas, jų paskirtis buvo paaiškinti, apsaugoti nuo klaidingos interpretacijos, įamžinti įvykį ar asmens atminimą, išreikšti tam tikrą konceptą. Reikšminiai žodžiai: Barokas; Inskripcijų klasifikacijos; Vilniaus bažnyčios; Vilnius, lietuvių literatūra (lotynų); Įrašai dekore; Įrašas; Inscription; Inscriptions on church buildings; Lithuanian literature (Latin); Short inscriptions; Vilnius; Vilnius churches Baroque architecture of Lithuanian churches is distinguished by a great amount of various inscriptions. This article deals with short Latin inscriptions, their classification and description. There are eleven types of such texts: explanatory, fundative and donative, occasional, memorial, precautionary, emblematic, votive, like litany, sentential. The last group consists of a few texts, which couldn't find place among those named above. Inscriptions were written not for (or not only for) decorative purposes. It is possible to speak about joint composition of the text and image (fresco, picture, sculpture, plastic figure), nevertheless the function of the text isn't aesthetic. Classification given above proves that short inscriptions aimed at teaching, explaining, preventing from misinterpretation, immortalizing an event or a person, and expressing a certain concept corresponding with different forms of art.

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    Literatūra (Vilnius)
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Literatūra (Vilnius)
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      Literatūra (Vilnius)
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Literatūra (Vilnius)
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    Authors: Ioannidou, O; Erduran, S;

    The rapid changes in science and society during the last decade have demonstrated the need for readiness to address the uncertain future through the development of future-oriented skills. Despite previous attempts, there is still no consensus regarding what is meant by “future-oriented skills” and how these could be integrated into science curricula. Stakeholders’ views about what future-oriented skills are and how they should be taught would provide a clearer understanding of their needs and their perceived characteristics of effective new teaching approaches. Thus, given the pivotal role that policymakers play in education policies, this study investigated the views of 35 policymakers based in the United Kingdom, Italy, Finland, and Lithuania. Participants completed an online survey that elicited their views on future-oriented skills, as well as ways of integrating them into national science curricula. The data analysis included descriptive statistics and qualitative analysis based on the principles of thematic analysis. The qualitative analysis followed a combination of inductive and deductive coding approaches. The findings of this study highlight that among other skills, participants stressed the need for introducing problem-solving and critical thinking in science classrooms in order to better address the uncertainty of future challenges, such as environmental issues. Therefore, policymakers seem to agree that there is a need for moving away from traditional teacher-centred approaches when teaching future-oriented skills. These results provide valuable insights into policymakers’ needs and expectations. In doing so, this study can serve as a starting point for a systematic approach toward integrating future-oriented skills into science curricula. Keywords: future challenges, futures education, future-oriented skills, science curriculum, policymakers’ views.

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    Frontiers in Education
    Article . 2022
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ “Lituanistika”, Inte...arrow_drop_down
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      Frontiers in Education
      Article . 2022
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Andriekienė, Rūta Marija; Aleksandravičius, Bronislovas;

    The article presents a theoretical analysis of the strategies of creating a basic school in a rural area: the strategies and the essence of management, the variety of conceptions of strategies, the understanding of the culture of the culture of school as an organization, the peculiarities of creating school culture, the links between creating school culture and its development We have also presented a research into the strategies of creating the culture of rural basic school, i.e., the methodological background, strategy and process of the research, the explication of the research and the interpretation of its results in the frames of rural basic school, the attitude of the administration to the peculiarities of creating culture, the teachers' opinion of the strategy of creating the culture of a rural basic school, the parents' opinion of strategy of creating the culture of a rural basic school, the students' thoughts about school culture and the perspectives of creating it. The text also covers the marks of creating the culture of a rural basic school and gives some general conclusions and suggestions. Straipsnyje pateikiama kaimo pagrindinės mokyklos kultūros kūrimo strategijų teorinė analizė: strategijos ir strateginio valdymo esmė, jų sampratų įvairovė; mokyklos, kaip organizacijos, kultūros samprata; mokyklos kultūros kūrimo ypatumai; mokyklos kultūros kūrimo ir strateginės plėtros sąsajos. Supažindinama su kaimo pagrindinės mokyklos kultūros kūrimo strategijų realijų tyrimu: kaimo pagrindinės mokyklos strateginių planų analize kultūros kūrimo kontekste; vadovų požiūriu į kultūros kūrimo strategijos ypatumus; pedagogų nuomone apie kaimo pagrindinės mokyklos kultūros kūrimo strategiją; tėvų nuomone apie kaimo pagrindinės mokyklos kultūros kūrimą; mokinių pasisakymais apie mokyklos kultūrą ir jos kūrimo perspektyvą. Nustatyti kaimo pagrindinės mokyklos kultūros kūrimo strateginiai orientyrai bei pateikiamos bendros išvados ir pasiūlymai. Reikšminiai žodžiai: Kaimo pagrindinė mokykla; Organizacijos kultūra; Planavimas; Strategija; Strateginis planavimas; Planning; Rural basic school; Strategy; Strategy planning; The culture of an organization

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    Authors: Radzevičienė, Sigutė;

    Straipsnyje pateikiama lietuvių impresionisto Igno Jurkūno-Šeiniaus švediškosios kūrybos genezė, pasitelkiant rašytojo estetinės bei etinės suvokties aspektą. Archyvinės medžiagos pavyzdžiais siekiama išgryninti argumentus, paaiškinančius švediško bei lietuviško saviraiškos junginio gimimą, tapsmą, brandą. Kultūros apybraiža "Lietuvių kultūra" (1917) - pirmasis Šeiniaus kūrinys švedų kalba - šiandien gali būti aktuali dviem požiūriais: kultūriniu-istoriniu ir interpretaciniu. Į pirmojo lauką patektų XX a. pradžioje kaupta intelektinė bei dvasinė rašytojo patirtis, kiek vėliau iškilusios švediškosios kultūros aktualijos; į antrojo - jau susiklosčiusių, išgrynėjusių rašytojo nuostatų meninė išraiška. Nors "Lietuvių kultūros" apybraižoje Šeinius apibūdina individualaus menininko gebėjimus kaip būtinus meninės kūrybos veiksnius, sykiu patvirtina galiojant ir pasaulėvokos visuotinumo dėsnį. "Lietuvių kultūroje" rašytojas įžvalgiai saisto individualumo ir visuotinumo sąsajas mene. Kaip individuali meninio žodžio raiška humanistinio apibendrinimo semiasi iš kalbos prigimties, jos visuotinumo, taip originalus vaizduojamasis menas bendražmogiškų prasmių mokosi iš gamtos. Polifoniskas regos aspektas, kuomet gretinamas humanizmo visuotinumas ir kūrėjo individualybė, gamta ir talentas, stilius ir tendencijos, būdingas ne tik Šeiniaus bendrosioms meno nuostatoms. Rašytojas, dar ankstyvajame savo impresionistinės lietuviškosios kūrybos etape brandinęs tokią estetinės pasaulėjautos sampratą bei raišką, "Lietuvių kultūros" švediškoje ištarmėje paklojo konceptualius pamatus visai vėlesniajai savo kūrybai. Reikšminiai žodžiai: Literatūra; švedų literatūra; Literatūros estetika; Intertekstualumas; Šeinius kaip asmuo; Lithuanian literature; Swedish literature; Aesthetics of literature; Intertextuality; Scheynius' persononality This article is intended for an analysis of the problems of aesthetics origin of the Swedish works by Ignas Scheynius, arising in the bilingual literary narration. The aforementioned aspect of exploration is important in studying the Swedish creation ("The Lithuanian Culture") of the Lithuanian impressionist I. Scheynius and the paradigm of Lithuanism in it. I. Scheynius was the personality who belonged to Lithuanian and Swedish cultures. He was one who modernized Lithuanian prose in the beginning of the 20th century. Scheynius consolidated not even in Lithuanian literature, but also in Swedish literature. It's easy to notice the blend of cultures when we confront Lithuanian literal works with Swedish. Connection and influence between those cultures are of several aspects. One of them that is analysed in the article is such as the aesthetics origin. The nature of intercultural connection is settled in one culture's influence to another. The problems of aesthetics are sensed in Scheynius' Swedish works.

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    Authors: Gorbatkov, Andrej;

    Straipsnyje nagrinėjami ir analizuojami baudžiamosios bylos dėl kontrabandos iškėlimo ypatumai, pirminės tipinės tyrimo situacijos ir versijos, pagrindinės tyrimo kryptys. Šie klausimai - vieni reikšmingiausių kontrabandos tyrimo metodikos klausimų. Jie sudaro šios nusikaltimų rūšies tyrimo metodinių rekomendacijų pagrindą. Reikšminiai žodžiai: Kontrabanda; Baudžiamojo proceso kodeksas; Contraband; Criminal Procedure Code The article analyses peculiarities of criminal proceedings on trafficking, primary typical investigation situations and versions, and the main investigation directions. These issues are the most significant in the methodology of trafficking investigation. They make the basis of methodological recommendations for trafficking investigation.

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    Authors: Avižinienė, Birutė;

    Straipsnyje pristatoma Dviejų Moterų (Gabrielės Petkevičaitės-Bitės ir Julijos Žymantienės-Žemaitės) komedija Velnias spąstuose ir jos ankstyviausia funkcionavimo terpė – lietuviškųjų vakarų teatras. Trumpai aptariamos komedijos sukūrimo aplinkybės, kūrinys analizuojamas kaip tipiškas mėgėjiško lietuvių teatro repertuaras. Komedijos ir jos konteksto organiškam ryšiui apibūdinti naudojamasi Hanso Roberto Jausso recepcijos kritikos teorija, konkrečiai – lūkesčių horizonto sąvoka. Dvaro, klebonijos salone ar valstiečių klojime statyta populiari komedija straipsnyje aptariama kaip dramos kūrinys, rašytas teatrui, kurį Balys Sruoga apibūdino kaip juodžemiškumo ir universitetiškumo fuziją. Analizuojant komediją atsižvelgiama į šiuos du ankstyvojo lietuvių teatro pradus. Komedija Velnias spąstuose vertinama kaip konkretus atvejis, leidžiantis aptarti meno kūrinio ir jo konteksto ryšius, atskleidžiančius lietuviško teatro genezės procesą. Reikšminiai žodžiai: Komedija; Komedija "Velnias spąstuose"; Lietuviškieji vakarai; Lietuviškieji vakarai: universitetiškumo ir juodžemiškumo fuzija; Universitetiškumo ir juodžemiškumo fuzija; Velnias spąstuose; Žiūrovų lūkesčių horizontas; Comedy; Comedy "The Trapped Devil"; Horizon of viewers expectations; Horizon of viewers' expectations; Lithuanian evenings; The Trapped Devil; University and black soil fusion A comedy “Velnias spąstuose” written by Two Women was one of the most popular dramas at that time. The article describes what led to such a favourable reception of the comedy and analyzes how it met the viewers’ expectations. The artistic logic of the comedy is explained by two origins of amateur Lithuanian theatre of that time given by Balys Sruoga: university origin, connected with organizational and ideological incentives of the early theatre, and black soil origin, connected with peasant audience expectations as the comedy is very realistic, its characters are typical, the authors tried to bring the action on the stage to the life of the viewers. The situation of the comedy writing and the first performance allows to adjust the university origin conception of the early amateur Lithuanian theatre as this comedy shows great influence of the manor cultural space: the authors were noblewomen, the comedy was secretly performed for the first time in the Medvilioniai manor owned by von Goes which was a cultural centre of that time.

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    Authors: Valūnaitė-Oleškevičienė, Giedrė; Gulbinskienė, Dalia; Drėgvaitė, Eglė;

    Globalization and the fast growth of technology have made our world more connected than it has ever been before, thus giving more significance to the issue of crosscultural gaps and the ways of translating them. The need to understand each other and to share new technology, medicine, literature, or knowledge is very high. Each language is unique and revolves around that country᾿s culture and morals. As Culler (2007) puts it, if languages were simply a nomenclature for a set of universal concepts, it would be easy to translate from one language to another. One would simply replace the French name for a concept with the English name. If languages were like this, the task of learning a new language would also be much easier than this. But anyone who has attempted either of these tasks has acquired, alas, a vast amount of direct proof that languages are not nomenclatures and the concepts of one language may differ radically from those of another. Each language articulates and organizes the world differently. Languages do not simply name existing categories; they articulate their own. And here arise cultural gaps and problems of equivalence because each language has its own culture, and those differences between cultures may cause more severe complications for the translator than do differences in language structure. Šio straipsnio tikslas – suteikti mokslinio tyrimo informacijos apie tarpkultūrinį vertimą ir kultūrines spragas, kurios atsiranda verčiant tarpkultūrinius tekstus, taip pat supažindinti su kultūrinėmis realijomis ir galimais vertimo metodais. Kristijono Donelaičio poema „Metai“ pasirinkta kaip pagrindinis šaltinis realijoms ir jų vertimo spragoms rasti. Vertimo spragos atsiranda, kai tos pačios reikšmės žodžio nėra kalboje. Kultūra daro labai didelę įtaką kalbai, ypač tam, kokios emocijos yra asocijuojamos su tam tikrais žodžiais ir terminais. Kadangi kultūros yra skirtingos, jos žmonių suprantamos nevienodai, iškyla nemažai problemų verčiant autorių, kilusių iš skirtingų kultūrų, tekstus. Tyrimas atskleidė, jog vertėjas Nadas Rastenis pasirinko laisvesnį poemos vertimo būdą, nes kultūrinių realijų vertimas priklauso nuo individualaus vertėjo ir jo turimų žinių. Reikšminiai žodžiai: Kultūrinės realijos; Tarpkultūrinis vertimas; Kultūrinės ir kalbinės spragos; Cross-cultural translation; Cultural and linguistic gaps; Culture specific items

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    Authors: Valatka, Vytis;

    Straipsnyje yra analizuojamos logikos statuso, objekto bei kilmės interpretacijos scholastinėje logikoje Lietuvoje XVI a. antrojoje pusėje. Logikos statuso aiškinimas scholastinėje logikoje buvo pliuralistinio pobūdžio. Smigleckis laikėsi aristotelinės nuostatos, kuri logiką laikė scholastinių mokslų bendruoju instrumentu, o ne mokslu. Ortizas ir Viana aristotelišką nuostatą sujungė su okamistiniu požiūriu ir tokiu būdu logikai priskyrė praktinio mokslo statusą. Logikos objekto klausimu Ortizas laikėsi tomistinės nuostatos, o Smigleckis ir Viana pasrinko škotistinę - okamistinę logikos objekto sampratą. Vienintelis logikos kilmės aiškinimas scholastinėje logikoje, iš XVI a. antrosios pusės išlikęs iki mūsų dienų, yra randamas Ortizo logikos kurse. Jo teigimu, logikos mokslo kaip taisyklingo ir teisingo mąstymo principų visumos šaltinis yra refleksyvioji žmogaus patirtis, kurią galima įvardinti kaip intelektinį žmogaus pažintinių galių pažinimą. Nenuginčijamą scholastikos autoritetą Ortizas paskelbė teorinės logikos pirmuoju ir galutiniu kūrėju. Reikšminiai žodžiai: Teoriniai mokslai; Praktiniai mokslai; Bendrasis mokslų instrumentas; Theoretical sciences; Practical sciences; Common instrument of sciences Interpretations of the status and object of logic contained in the work of Marcin Šmiglecki, Pedro Viana and Diego Ortiz, representatives of scholastic logic in Lithuania in the second half of the 16th century, are scrutinised in this article. The author focuses on the main characteristics of these interpretations. He also presents a comparative analysis of them and identifies their principal theoretical sources. Special attention is paid to the concept of logic's origin, evolved solely in lectures on logic delivered by Ortiz. The article ends with the conclusion that in dealing with issues of the status and object of logic the abovementioned scholars entered several scholastic disputes and adhered to positions of different camps in those disputes.

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    Authors: Rowell, Stephen Christopher;

    Mansionarijus (lot. mansio - „buveinė") - kunigas (ne vienuolis), gyvenantis su kitais dvasininkais ir nuolat atliekantis bendrą dvasinį darbą pagal savo beneficijas ir teikėjo nustatytą tvarką. Mansionarijus traktuojamas panašiai kaip katedros kanauninkas, kolegijos-parapijos prebendorius, altarista. Jis privalėjo nuolat gyventi mansionariate, kasdieną aukoti šv. Mišias ir iškilmingai bei tvarkingai giedoti Švč. Mergelės Marijos valandas (kursą) katedros arba parapinės bažnyčios koplyčioje, teikti sakramentus tikintiesiems. Dažniausiai jie gyvendavo po tris, keturis, šešis, retkarčiais per aštuonis, o jų gyvenimo ir veiklos tvarką valdė jų pačių arba koliatoriaus išrinktas prepozitas. Mansionaria - tai pirmiausia išplito prie Vilniaus katedros koplyčių, o vėliau prie Varnių ir Lucko (Palenkės Januos) katedrose. Parapijose atsirado 1495-1535 metais. Steigėjai buvo valdovas, vyskupai, stambieji Žemvaldžiai, dažniausiai plito tarp nykstančių giminių - bet kuriuo atveju tai buvo didelė investicija. Straipsnyje aiškinamasi, kas buvo mansionarijai, kiek jų tarnavo Vilniaus ir kitose LDK vyskupijose, Kodėl jiems reikėjo kurtis Lietuvoje ir kiek tas kūrimasis buvo paveiktas vietinių reformų judėjimų? Reikšminiai žodžiai: Mansionarijus; Altarista; Katedra; Parapija; Dievo Motinos Mažosios valandos; Atmintis; Sielovada; Lenkija (Lenkijos karalystė. Kingdom of Poland. Poland); Vilnius; Palenkė; Mansionary; Chantry; Cathedral; Parish; Little Hours of Our Lady; Memorial; Pastoral duties; Lithuania; Vilnius; Podlasie A mansionary (from the Latin mansio, "a dwelling") was a member of a community of four to ten secular priests governed by a provost and required to reside by and serve a chantry chapel, similar to a cathedral canon or beneficed chantry priest. Every day they would sing the Hours of Our Lady and offer two Masses, one in honour of Our Lady or the Holy Trinity, and the other for the dead kin of the chantry founder. The chapels they served were attached to a cathedral or a parish church. Those established by the monarch often had pastoral duties, sometimes involving a school or hospice. In Lithuania, they appear from the late 15th century at the cathedrals of Vilnius, Varniai and Lutsk (in Janów Podlaski), and represented a considerable financial investment to establish and maintain. After the Council of Trent, they become even rarer, and concentrate more on pastoral and other educational duties. The paper discusses what a mansionary priest was, and how many of them served in the Diocese of Vilnius and other sees within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Why was it deemed meet and fit to establish a mansionariate in Lithuania at the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries, and how Were such foundations affected by local Reform movements?

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    Authors: Pleikienė, Ieva;

    Ekslibrisą galime vadinti tranzitiniu dailės žanru ne tik geografine – keliavimo, bet ir aktualumo prasme: sovietmetyje jis iškilo kaip ant mielių, staiga tapo aktualus ir patrauklus daugeliui, o aplinkybėms pasikeitus sunyko, vėl pasitraukė į meninio gyvenimo paraštę. Keliavimo galimybė judėjimo laisvės suvaržymo sąlygomis buvo pagrindinis jį aktualizavęs veiksnys. Straipsnyje norima parodyti pagrindines ekslibriso kelionių kryptis, išsiaiškinti, kokiame geografiniame areale ir kodėl susiformavo „praminti takai“, kas juos „mynė“. Tuo tikslu straipsnyje analizuojami ekslibriso populiarumą sovietmečio Lietuvoje skatinę motyvai: galimybės užmegzti ir palaikyti ryšius su įvairių šalių ekslibristais, eksponuoti kūrinius užsienyje. Remiantis statistiniais duomenimis nustatoma, kokie Lietuvos dailininkai intensyviausiai kūrė ekslibrisus ir dalyvavo parodose, kokiose šalyse jų kūriniai dažniausiai eksponuoti, kokie kolekcininkai jais domėjosi. Aptariama Lietuvos knygos ženklų sklaida išeivijoje, kontaktai su SSRS ekslibristais. Teksto teiginiai paremti parodų, kuriose dalyvavo Lietuvos ekslibristai, katalogų ir kitokių joms skirtų spaudinių (informacinių lankstinukų, kvietimų ir pan.) analize. Iš ekslibrisų parodų tyrimų, apie jas rašiusių autorių tekstų, dailininkų prisiminimų matyti, kad nemažą grupę Lietuvos dailininkų kurti ekslibrisus skatino noras eksponuoti juos užsienyje, užmegzti ryšius su Europos šalių kolekcininkais. Pirmieji jų atsirado XX a. antroje septinto dešimtmečio pusėje. Labiausiai bendrauta su Lenkijos, Danijos ir Italijos ekslibristais. Reikšminiai žodžiai: Ekslibrisas; Lietuviškų ekslibrisų parodos užsienyje; Sovietmetis; Tarptautinės ekslibrisų parodos; Ex-libris; Exhibitions of Lithuanian ex-libris abroad; Exhibitions of Lithuianian ex-libris abroad; International ex-libris exhibitions; International exhibitions of ex-libris; Lithuania; Soviet period; Soviet times We can call the ex libris a transit art in the sense of both geography/travel as well as topicality: during Soviet times, it suddenly became a pertinent and appealing art; once the circumstances changed, it retreated back to the margin of artistic life. The opportunity to travel under conditions of restricted freedom of movement was the key factor in its actualization. The article seeks to show the main directions of ex libris trips and to ascertain why and in what geographical area the "treaded paths" formed, and who "treaded" them. To that end, the article analyses the motives that prompted the popularity of the ex libris in Soviet Lithuania: opportunities to meet and form relationships with ex libris artists in various countries, as well as to exhibit artwork abroad. Based on statistical data, the paper establishes which Lithuanian artists were most intensely engaged in creating ex libris and participated in exhibitions, in which countries their work was most often exhibited, and which collectors were interested in them. The dispersion of Lithuanian bookplates in emigration and contacts with USSR ex libris artists are discussed. The paper’s propositions are based on an analysis of catalogues and other printed matter (leaflets, invitations, etc.) for exhibits that Lithuanian ex libris artists participated in. It is clear from the research on ex libris exhibits, as well as the texts of authors who wrote about them and the recollections of artists who took part in them, that a substantial group of Lithuanian artists were driven to create ex libris by a desire to exhibit them abroad and form relationships with European collectors. The first of them emerged in the late 1960s. A particular rapport was formed with ex libris artists in Poland, Denmark and Italy.

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    Authors: Gerliakienė, Veronika;

    Vilniaus bažnyčių dekorą papildo gausybė trumpų lotyniškų įvairaus pobūdžio įrašų, kurių apimtis varijuoja nuo vieno žodžio ar kelių žodžių junginio iki kelių eilučių. Tie įrašai ryškiai skiriasi nuo kitos gana didelės Vilniaus bažnyčių įrašų grupės – epitafijų. Straipsnyje pateikta, glaustų paaiškinimų ir pavyzdžių lydima, trumpųjų lotyniškų Vilniaus bažnyčių įrašų klasifikacija, kuri galėtų tapti atspirties tašku tolesniems tyrinėjimams. Ją sudaro: 1) aiškinamieji įrašai (įrašai, padedantys išvengti klaidingos interpretacijos, paaiškinantys šalia esantį vaizdinį, suteikiantys informacijos); 2) fundaciniai, donaciniai įrašai (įrašai, kuriuose įamžinamas vienas ar keli asmenys, dovanoję bažnyčiai žemės, iš kurios gaunamos pajamos sudarydavo sąlygas pragyventi dvasininkui ir egzistuoti parapijai, arba asmenys, finansiškai rėmę bažnyčios statybą ar restauraciją); 3) proginiai įrašai (tai didžiausios apimties, dažniausiai dvikalbiai (lotynų-lietuvių) įrašai, kuriuose įamžinama tam tikra ypatinga proga, bažnytinio gyvenimo įvykis, nebūtinai susijęs su konkrečia bažnyčia); 4) memorialiniai įrašai skirti iškiliems bažnyčios ar valstybės asmenims atminti; 5) įspėjamieji įrašai; 6) embleminiai įrašai (šiuo terminu vadinama grupė įrašų, negalinčių funkcionuoti be freskos piešinio); 7) Šv. Rašto ir brevijoriaus citatos; 8) votyviniai įrašai; 9) Litanijos pobūdžio įrašai; 10) sentenciniai įrašai. Įrašai egzistavo ne kaip puošybinis elementas, jų paskirtis buvo paaiškinti, apsaugoti nuo klaidingos interpretacijos, įamžinti įvykį ar asmens atminimą, išreikšti tam tikrą konceptą. Reikšminiai žodžiai: Barokas; Inskripcijų klasifikacijos; Vilniaus bažnyčios; Vilnius, lietuvių literatūra (lotynų); Įrašai dekore; Įrašas; Inscription; Inscriptions on church buildings; Lithuanian literature (Latin); Short inscriptions; Vilnius; Vilnius churches Baroque architecture of Lithuanian churches is distinguished by a great amount of various inscriptions. This article deals with short Latin inscriptions, their classification and description. There are eleven types of such texts: explanatory, fundative and donative, occasional, memorial, precautionary, emblematic, votive, like litany, sentential. The last group consists of a few texts, which couldn't find place among those named above. Inscriptions were written not for (or not only for) decorative purposes. It is possible to speak about joint composition of the text and image (fresco, picture, sculpture, plastic figure), nevertheless the function of the text isn't aesthetic. Classification given above proves that short inscriptions aimed at teaching, explaining, preventing from misinterpretation, immortalizing an event or a person, and expressing a certain concept corresponding with different forms of art.

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    Literatūra (Vilnius)
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Literatūra (Vilnius)
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    Authors: Ioannidou, O; Erduran, S;

    The rapid changes in science and society during the last decade have demonstrated the need for readiness to address the uncertain future through the development of future-oriented skills. Despite previous attempts, there is still no consensus regarding what is meant by “future-oriented skills” and how these could be integrated into science curricula. Stakeholders’ views about what future-oriented skills are and how they should be taught would provide a clearer understanding of their needs and their perceived characteristics of effective new teaching approaches. Thus, given the pivotal role that policymakers play in education policies, this study investigated the views of 35 policymakers based in the United Kingdom, Italy, Finland, and Lithuania. Participants completed an online survey that elicited their views on future-oriented skills, as well as ways of integrating them into national science curricula. The data analysis included descriptive statistics and qualitative analysis based on the principles of thematic analysis. The qualitative analysis followed a combination of inductive and deductive coding approaches. The findings of this study highlight that among other skills, participants stressed the need for introducing problem-solving and critical thinking in science classrooms in order to better address the uncertainty of future challenges, such as environmental issues. Therefore, policymakers seem to agree that there is a need for moving away from traditional teacher-centred approaches when teaching future-oriented skills. These results provide valuable insights into policymakers’ needs and expectations. In doing so, this study can serve as a starting point for a systematic approach toward integrating future-oriented skills into science curricula. Keywords: future challenges, futures education, future-oriented skills, science curriculum, policymakers’ views.

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    Frontiers in Education
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      Frontiers in Education
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    Authors: Andriekienė, Rūta Marija; Aleksandravičius, Bronislovas;

    The article presents a theoretical analysis of the strategies of creating a basic school in a rural area: the strategies and the essence of management, the variety of conceptions of strategies, the understanding of the culture of the culture of school as an organization, the peculiarities of creating school culture, the links between creating school culture and its development We have also presented a research into the strategies of creating the culture of rural basic school, i.e., the methodological background, strategy and process of the research, the explication of the research and the interpretation of its results in the frames of rural basic school, the attitude of the administration to the peculiarities of creating culture, the teachers' opinion of the strategy of creating the culture of a rural basic school, the parents' opinion of strategy of creating the culture of a rural basic school, the students' thoughts about school culture and the perspectives of creating it. The text also covers the marks of creating the culture of a rural basic school and gives some general conclusions and suggestions. Straipsnyje pateikiama kaimo pagrindinės mokyklos kultūros kūrimo strategijų teorinė analizė: strategijos ir strateginio valdymo esmė, jų sampratų įvairovė; mokyklos, kaip organizacijos, kultūros samprata; mokyklos kultūros kūrimo ypatumai; mokyklos kultūros kūrimo ir strateginės plėtros sąsajos. Supažindinama su kaimo pagrindinės mokyklos kultūros kūrimo strategijų realijų tyrimu: kaimo pagrindinės mokyklos strateginių planų analize kultūros kūrimo kontekste; vadovų požiūriu į kultūros kūrimo strategijos ypatumus; pedagogų nuomone apie kaimo pagrindinės mokyklos kultūros kūrimo strategiją; tėvų nuomone apie kaimo pagrindinės mokyklos kultūros kūrimą; mokinių pasisakymais apie mokyklos kultūrą ir jos kūrimo perspektyvą. Nustatyti kaimo pagrindinės mokyklos kultūros kūrimo strateginiai orientyrai bei pateikiamos bendros išvados ir pasiūlymai. Reikšminiai žodžiai: Kaimo pagrindinė mokykla; Organizacijos kultūra; Planavimas; Strategija; Strateginis planavimas; Planning; Rural basic school; Strategy; Strategy planning; The culture of an organization

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    Authors: Radzevičienė, Sigutė;

    Straipsnyje pateikiama lietuvių impresionisto Igno Jurkūno-Šeiniaus švediškosios kūrybos genezė, pasitelkiant rašytojo estetinės bei etinės suvokties aspektą. Archyvinės medžiagos pavyzdžiais siekiama išgryninti argumentus, paaiškinančius švediško bei lietuviško saviraiškos junginio gimimą, tapsmą, brandą. Kultūros apybraiža "Lietuvių kultūra" (1917) - pirmasis Šeiniaus kūrinys švedų kalba - šiandien gali būti aktuali dviem požiūriais: kultūriniu-istoriniu ir interpretaciniu. Į pirmojo lauką patektų XX a. pradžioje kaupta intelektinė bei dvasinė rašytojo patirtis, kiek vėliau iškilusios švediškosios kultūros aktualijos; į antrojo - jau susiklosčiusių, išgrynėjusių rašytojo nuostatų meninė išraiška. Nors "Lietuvių kultūros" apybraižoje Šeinius apibūdina individualaus menininko gebėjimus kaip būtinus meninės kūrybos veiksnius, sykiu patvirtina galiojant ir pasaulėvokos visuotinumo dėsnį. "Lietuvių kultūroje" rašytojas įžvalgiai saisto individualumo ir visuotinumo sąsajas mene. Kaip individuali meninio žodžio raiška humanistinio apibendrinimo semiasi iš kalbos prigimties, jos visuotinumo, taip originalus vaizduojamasis menas bendražmogiškų prasmių mokosi iš gamtos. Polifoniskas regos aspektas, kuomet gretinamas humanizmo visuotinumas ir kūrėjo individualybė, gamta ir talentas, stilius ir tendencijos, būdingas ne tik Šeiniaus bendrosioms meno nuostatoms. Rašytojas, dar ankstyvajame savo impresionistinės lietuviškosios kūrybos etape brandinęs tokią estetinės pasaulėjautos sampratą bei raišką, "Lietuvių kultūros" švediškoje ištarmėje paklojo konceptualius pamatus visai vėlesniajai savo kūrybai. Reikšminiai žodžiai: Literatūra; švedų literatūra; Literatūros estetika; Intertekstualumas; Šeinius kaip asmuo; Lithuanian literature; Swedish literature; Aesthetics of literature; Intertextuality; Scheynius' persononality This article is intended for an analysis of the problems of aesthetics origin of the Swedish works by Ignas Scheynius, arising in the bilingual literary narration. The aforementioned aspect of exploration is important in studying the Swedish creation ("The Lithuanian Culture") of the Lithuanian impressionist I. Scheynius and the paradigm of Lithuanism in it. I. Scheynius was the personality who belonged to Lithuanian and Swedish cultures. He was one who modernized Lithuanian prose in the beginning of the 20th century. Scheynius consolidated not even in Lithuanian literature, but also in Swedish literature. It's easy to notice the blend of cultures when we confront Lithuanian literal works with Swedish. Connection and influence between those cultures are of several aspects. One of them that is analysed in the article is such as the aesthetics origin. The nature of intercultural connection is settled in one culture's influence to another. The problems of aesthetics are sensed in Scheynius' Swedish works.

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    Authors: Gorbatkov, Andrej;

    Straipsnyje nagrinėjami ir analizuojami baudžiamosios bylos dėl kontrabandos iškėlimo ypatumai, pirminės tipinės tyrimo situacijos ir versijos, pagrindinės tyrimo kryptys. Šie klausimai - vieni reikšmingiausių kontrabandos tyrimo metodikos klausimų. Jie sudaro šios nusikaltimų rūšies tyrimo metodinių rekomendacijų pagrindą. Reikšminiai žodžiai: Kontrabanda; Baudžiamojo proceso kodeksas; Contraband; Criminal Procedure Code The article analyses peculiarities of criminal proceedings on trafficking, primary typical investigation situations and versions, and the main investigation directions. These issues are the most significant in the methodology of trafficking investigation. They make the basis of methodological recommendations for trafficking investigation.

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    Authors: Avižinienė, Birutė;

    Straipsnyje pristatoma Dviejų Moterų (Gabrielės Petkevičaitės-Bitės ir Julijos Žymantienės-Žemaitės) komedija Velnias spąstuose ir jos ankstyviausia funkcionavimo terpė – lietuviškųjų vakarų teatras. Trumpai aptariamos komedijos sukūrimo aplinkybės, kūrinys analizuojamas kaip tipiškas mėgėjiško lietuvių teatro repertuaras. Komedijos ir jos konteksto organiškam ryšiui apibūdinti naudojamasi Hanso Roberto Jausso recepcijos kritikos teorija, konkrečiai – lūkesčių horizonto sąvoka. Dvaro, klebonijos salone ar valstiečių klojime statyta populiari komedija straipsnyje aptariama kaip dramos kūrinys, rašytas teatrui, kurį Balys Sruoga apibūdino kaip juodžemiškumo ir universitetiškumo fuziją. Analizuojant komediją atsižvelgiama į šiuos du ankstyvojo lietuvių teatro pradus. Komedija Velnias spąstuose vertinama kaip konkretus atvejis, leidžiantis aptarti meno kūrinio ir jo konteksto ryšius, atskleidžiančius lietuviško teatro genezės procesą. Reikšminiai žodžiai: Komedija; Komedija "Velnias spąstuose"; Lietuviškieji vakarai; Lietuviškieji vakarai: universitetiškumo ir juodžemiškumo fuzija; Universitetiškumo ir juodžemiškumo fuzija; Velnias spąstuose; Žiūrovų lūkesčių horizontas; Comedy; Comedy "The Trapped Devil"; Horizon of viewers expectations; Horizon of viewers' expectations; Lithuanian evenings; The Trapped Devil; University and black soil fusion A comedy “Velnias spąstuose” written by Two Women was one of the most popular dramas at that time. The article describes what led to such a favourable reception of the comedy and analyzes how it met the viewers’ expectations. The artistic logic of the comedy is explained by two origins of amateur Lithuanian theatre of that time given by Balys Sruoga: university origin, connected with organizational and ideological incentives of the early theatre, and black soil origin, connected with peasant audience expectations as the comedy is very realistic, its characters are typical, the authors tried to bring the action on the stage to the life of the viewers. The situation of the comedy writing and the first performance allows to adjust the university origin conception of the early amateur Lithuanian theatre as this comedy shows great influence of the manor cultural space: the authors were noblewomen, the comedy was secretly performed for the first time in the Medvilioniai manor owned by von Goes which was a cultural centre of that time.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ “Lituanistika”, Inte...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ “Lituanistika”, Inte...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Valūnaitė-Oleškevičienė, Giedrė; Gulbinskienė, Dalia; Drėgvaitė, Eglė;

    Globalization and the fast growth of technology have made our world more connected than it has ever been before, thus giving more significance to the issue of crosscultural gaps and the ways of translating them. The need to understand each other and to share new technology, medicine, literature, or knowledge is very high. Each language is unique and revolves around that country᾿s culture and morals. As Culler (2007) puts it, if languages were simply a nomenclature for a set of universal concepts, it would be easy to translate from one language to another. One would simply replace the French name for a concept with the English name. If languages were like this, the task of learning a new language would also be much easier than this. But anyone who has attempted either of these tasks has acquired, alas, a vast amount of direct proof that languages are not nomenclatures and the concepts of one language may differ radically from those of another. Each language articulates and organizes the world differently. Languages do not simply name existing categories; they articulate their own. And here arise cultural gaps and problems of equivalence because each language has its own culture, and those differences between cultures may cause more severe complications for the translator than do differences in language structure. Šio straipsnio tikslas – suteikti mokslinio tyrimo informacijos apie tarpkultūrinį vertimą ir kultūrines spragas, kurios atsiranda verčiant tarpkultūrinius tekstus, taip pat supažindinti su kultūrinėmis realijomis ir galimais vertimo metodais. Kristijono Donelaičio poema „Metai“ pasirinkta kaip pagrindinis šaltinis realijoms ir jų vertimo spragoms rasti. Vertimo spragos atsiranda, kai tos pačios reikšmės žodžio nėra kalboje. Kultūra daro labai didelę įtaką kalbai, ypač tam, kokios emocijos yra asocijuojamos su tam tikrais žodžiais ir terminais. Kadangi kultūros yra skirtingos, jos žmonių suprantamos nevienodai, iškyla nemažai problemų verčiant autorių, kilusių iš skirtingų kultūrų, tekstus. Tyrimas atskleidė, jog vertėjas Nadas Rastenis pasirinko laisvesnį poemos vertimo būdą, nes kultūrinių realijų vertimas priklauso nuo individualaus vertėjo ir jo turimų žinių. Reikšminiai žodžiai: Kultūrinės realijos; Tarpkultūrinis vertimas; Kultūrinės ir kalbinės spragos; Cross-cultural translation; Cultural and linguistic gaps; Culture specific items

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ “Lituanistika”, Inte...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ “Lituanistika”, Inte...arrow_drop_down
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