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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Erin D. Lewis; Dayong Wu; Joel B. Mason; Athar H. Chishti; +4 Authors

    The forms of iron currently available to correct iron deficiency have adverse effects, including infectious diarrhea, increased susceptibility to malaria, inflammation and detrimental changes to the gut microbiome. These adverse effects limit their use such that the growing burden of iron deficiency has not abated in recent decades. Here, we summarize the protocol of the “Safe Iron Study”, the first clinical study examining the safety and efficacy of novel forms of iron in healthy, iron-replete adults. The Safe Iron Study is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial conducted in Boston, MA, USA. This study compares ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (FeSO4·H2O) with two novel forms of iron supplements (iron hydroxide adipate tartrate (IHAT) and organic fungal iron metabolite (Aspiron™ Natural Koji Iron)). In Phase I, we will compare each source of iron administrated at a low dose (60 mg Fe/day). We will also determine the effect of FeSO4 co-administrated with a multiple micronutrient powder and weekly administration of FeSO4. The forms of iron found to produce no adverse effects, or adverse effects no greater than FeSO4 in Phase I, Phase II will evaluate a higher, i.e., a therapeutic dose (120 mg Fe/day). The primary outcomes of this study include ex vivo malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) infectivity of host erythrocytes, ex vivo bacterial proliferation (of selected species) in presence of host plasma and intestinal inflammation assessed by fecal calprotectin. This study will test the hypotheses that the novel forms of iron, administered at equivalent doses to FeSO4, will produce similar increases in iron status in iron-replete subjects, yet lower increases in ex vivo malaria infectivity, ex vivo bacterial proliferation, gut inflammation. Ultimately, this study seeks to contribute to development of safe and effective forms of supplemental iron to address the global burden of iron deficiency and anemia. Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03212677; registered: 11 July 2017.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Gates Open Researcharrow_drop_down
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    Gates Open Research
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    DOAJ
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Gates Open Researcharrow_drop_down
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      Gates Open Research
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      DOAJ
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: DOAJ
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Wang, Gu-Qi;
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Stinton, Laura M; Myers, Robert P; Coffin, Carla S; Fritzler, Marvin J;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ BMC Gastroenterologyarrow_drop_down
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    BMC Gastroenterology
    Article
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      BMC Gastroenterology
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gorczynski, Reginald M.;

    The type 1 membrane glycoprotein CD200, widely expressed on multiple cells/tissues, uses a structurally similar receptor (CD200R1), whose expression is more restricted to cells of the myeloid and lymphoid lineages, to transmit signals affecting responses in multiple physiological systems. Thus CD200 expression is reported to exert effects on cancer growth, autoimmune and allergic disorders, infection, transplantation, bone development and homeostasis, and reproductive biology. It was initially thought, based on the idea that CD200R1 was mostly expressed on cells of myeloid origin, that CD200:CD200R1 interactions were primarily dedicated to controlling myeloid cell function. However additional members of the CD200R family have now also been identified, although their function(s) remain unclear, and CD200R1 itself is now known to be expressed by subsets of T cells and other cells. Together these observations add layers of complexity to our understanding of CD200-related regulation. In common with a number of physiological systems, the mechanism(s) of CD200-induced signaling seem to fit within a similar framework of opposing actions of kinases and phosphatases. This paper highlights the advances in our knowledge of immunoregulation achieved following CD200:CD200R interaction and the potential clinical applicability of that information.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Timsina, Jigyasha; Gomez-Fonseca, Duber; Xiong, Chengjie; Schindler, Suzanne E; +22 Authors

    BACKGROUND: The SOMAscan assay has an advantage over immunoassay-based methods because it measures a large number of proteins in a cost-effective manner. However, the performance of this technology compared to the routinely used immunoassay techniques needs to be evaluated. OBJECTIVE: We performed comparative analyses of SOMAscan and immunoassay-based protein measurements for five cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and neurodegeration: NfL, Neurogranin, sTREM2, VILIP-1 and SNAP-25. METHODS: We compared biomarkers measured in ADNI (N=689), Knight-ADRC (N=870), DIAN (N=115), and Barcelona-1 (N=92) cohorts. Raw protein values were transformed using z-score in order to combine measures from the different studies. sTREM2 and VILIP-1 had more than one analyte in SOMAscan; all available analytes were evaluated. Pearson’s correlation coefficients between SOMAscan and immunoassays were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic curve and area under the curve were used to compare prediction accuracy of these biomarkers between the two platforms. RESULTS: Neurogranin, VILIP-1 and NfL showed high correlation between SOMAscan and immunoassay measures (r > 0.9). sTREM2 had a fair correlation (r > 0.6), whereas SNAP-25 showed weak correlation (r = 0.06). Measures in both platforms provided similar predicted performance for all biomarkers except SNAP-25 and one of the sTREM2 analytes. sTREM2 showed higher AUC for SOMAscan based measures. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that SOMAscan performs as well as immunoassay approaches for NfL, Neurogranin, VILIP-1 and sTREM2. Our study shows promise for using SOMAscan as an alternative to traditional immunoassay-based measures. Follow-up investigation will be required for SNAP-25 and additional established biomarkers.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2022
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Europe PubMed Central
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jong Hae Kim; Tae Kyun Kim; Junyong In; Dong Kyu Lee; +2 Authors

    Bias affects the true intervention effect in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), making the results unreliable. We evaluated the risk of bias (ROB) of quasi-RCTs or RCTs reported in the Korean Journal of Anesthesiology (KJA) between 2010 and 2016. Six kinds of bias (selection, performance, detection, attrition, reporting, and other biases) were evaluated by determining low, unclear, or high ROB for eight domains (random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, blinding of personnel, blinding of outcome assessment, incomplete outcome data, selective reporting, and other bias) according to publication year. We identified 296 quasi-RCTs or RCTs. Random sequence generation was performed better than allocation concealment (51.7% vs. 20.9% for the proportion of low ROB, P < 0.001 and P = 0.943 for trend, respectively). Blinding of outcome assessment was superior to blinding of participants and personnel (42.9% vs. 15.5% and 23.0% for the proportion of low ROB, P = 0.026 vs. P = 0.003 and 0.896 for trend, respectively). Handling of incomplete outcome data was performed best with the highest proportion of low ROB (84.8%). Selective reporting had the lowest proportion of low ROB (4.7%). However, the ROB improved year by year (P < 0.001 for trend). Authors and reviewers should consider allocation concealment after random sequence generation, blinding of participants and personnel, and full reporting of results to improve the quality of RCTs submitted hereafter for publication in the KJA.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ DOAJarrow_drop_down
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    DOAJ
    Article . 2017
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      Article . 2017
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    Authors: Natalia B. Fernandez; Natalia B. Fernandez; Patrik Vuilleumier; Patrik Vuilleumier; +4 Authors

    Congenital amusia in its most common form is a disorder characterized by a musical pitch processing deficit. Although pitch is involved in conveying emotion in music, the implications for pitch deficits on musical emotion judgements is still under debate. Relatedly, both limited and spared musical emotion recognition was reported in amusia in conditions where emotion cues were not determined by musical mode or dissonance. Additionally, assumed links between musical abilities and visuo-spatial attention processes need further investigation in congenital amusics. Hence, we here test to what extent musical emotions can influence attentional performance. Fifteen congenital amusic adults and fifteen healthy controls matched for age and education were assessed in three attentional conditions: executive control (distractor inhibition), alerting, and orienting (spatial shift) while music expressing either joy, tenderness, sadness, or tension was presented. Visual target detection was in the normal range for both accuracy and response times in the amusic relative to the control participants. Moreover, in both groups, music exposure produced facilitating effects on selective attention that appeared to be driven by the arousal dimension of musical emotional content, with faster correct target detection during joyful compared to sad music. These findings corroborate the idea that pitch processing deficits related to congenital amusia do not impede other cognitive domains, particularly visual attention. Furthermore, our study uncovers an intact influence of music and its emotional content on the attentional abilities of amusic individuals. The results highlight the domain-selectivity of the pitch disorder in congenital amusia, which largely spares the development of visual attention and affective systems.

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    Authors: Drolet, Mélanie; Bénard, Élodie; Jit, Mark; Hutubessy, Raymond; +1 Authors

    OBJECTIVES: To describe all published articles that have conducted comparisons of model-based effectiveness and cost-effectiveness results in the field of vaccination. Specific objectives were to 1) describe the methodologies used and 2) identify the strengths and limitations of the studies. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE and Embase databases for studies that compared predictions of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of vaccination of two or more mathematical models. We categorized studies into two groups on the basis of their data source for comparison (previously published results or new simulation results) and performed a qualitative synthesis of study conclusions. RESULTS: We identified 115 eligible articles (only 5% generated new simulations from the reviewed models) examining the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of vaccination against 14 pathogens (69% of studies examined human papillomavirus, influenza, and/or pneumococcal vaccines). The goal of most of studies was to summarize evidence for vaccination policy decisions, and cost-effectiveness was the most frequent outcome examined. Only 33%, 25%, and 3% of studies followed a systematic approach to identify eligible studies, assessed the quality of studies, and performed a quantitative synthesis of results, respectively. A greater proportion of model comparisons using published studies followed a systematic approach to identify eligible studies and to assess their quality, whereas more studies using new simulations performed quantitative synthesis of results and identified drivers of model conclusions. Most comparative modeling studies concluded that vaccination was cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: Given the variability in methods used to conduct/report comparative modeling studies, guidelines are required to enhance their quality and transparency and to provide better tools for decision making.

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    Authors: Guimaraes, Patricia Neves; Hongoh, Valerie; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Sia, Drissa;

    La stigmatisation et la discrimination sont des conséquences fréquentes après la divulgation de statuts séropositifs; ces facteurs sont particulièrement problématiques dans les communautés rurales où « tout le monde connaît tout le monde ». Dans cette étude de cas, les chercheurs, qui mènent des études ethnographiques sur le terrain dans les zones reculées du Brésil, ont décidé de se faire passer pour des amis ou des parents des sujets de recherche vivant avec le VIH afin de protéger les sujets de la divulgation accidentelle de leur statut sérologique aux membres de leur communauté. Ces actes de « tromperie délibérée » soulèvent des questions sur l'honnêteté et l'intégrité dans la recherche et la façon d'équilibrer les enjeux de confidentialité dans la communication des résultats de recherche aux communautés et au grand public. Stigmatization and discrimination are common consequences following disclosure of HIV serostatus; such factors are especially problematic in rural communities where “everyone knows everyone”. In this case study, researchers conducting ethnographic field studies in remote areas of Brazil decided to impersonate friends or relatives of research participants living with HIV as a means to protect participants from inadvertent disclosure of their serostatus to fellow community members. These acts of “wilful deception” raise issues about honesty and integrity in research, and how to balance issues of confidentiality with communicating research findings to communities and the broader public. Étude de cas / Case study

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    BioéthiqueOnline
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    Authors: Duncan, Laura; Georgiades, Katholiki; Birch, Stephen; Comeau, Jinette; +3 Authors

    © The Author(s) 2019. Objective: To estimate the alignment between the Ontario Ministry of Children and Youth Services (MCYS) expenditures for children’s mental health services and population need, and to quantify the value of adjusting for need in addition to population size in formula-based expenditure allocations. Two need definitions are used: “assessed need,” as the presence of a mental disorder, and “perceived need,” as the subjective perception of a mental health problem. Methods: Children’s mental health need and service contact estimates (from the 2014 Ontario Child Health Study), expenditure data (from government administrative data), and population counts (from the 2011 Canadian Census) were combined to generate formula-based expenditure allocations based on 1) population size and 2) need (population size adjusted for levels of need). Allocations were compared at the service area and region level and for the 2 need definitions (assessed and perceived). Results: Comparisons were made for 13 of 33 MCYS service areas and all 5 regions. The percentage of MCYS expenditure reallocation needed to achieve an allocation based on assessed need was 25.5% at the service area level and 25.6% at the region level. Based on perceived need, these amounts were 19.4% and 27.2%, respectively. The value of needs-adjustment ranged from 8.0% to 22.7% of total expenditures, depending on the definition of need. Conclusion: Making needs adjustments to population counts using population estimates of children’s mental health need (assessed or perceived) provides additional value for informing and evaluating allocation decisions. This study provides much-needed and current information about the match between expenditures and children’s mental health need.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Erin D. Lewis; Dayong Wu; Joel B. Mason; Athar H. Chishti; +4 Authors

    The forms of iron currently available to correct iron deficiency have adverse effects, including infectious diarrhea, increased susceptibility to malaria, inflammation and detrimental changes to the gut microbiome. These adverse effects limit their use such that the growing burden of iron deficiency has not abated in recent decades. Here, we summarize the protocol of the “Safe Iron Study”, the first clinical study examining the safety and efficacy of novel forms of iron in healthy, iron-replete adults. The Safe Iron Study is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial conducted in Boston, MA, USA. This study compares ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (FeSO4·H2O) with two novel forms of iron supplements (iron hydroxide adipate tartrate (IHAT) and organic fungal iron metabolite (Aspiron™ Natural Koji Iron)). In Phase I, we will compare each source of iron administrated at a low dose (60 mg Fe/day). We will also determine the effect of FeSO4 co-administrated with a multiple micronutrient powder and weekly administration of FeSO4. The forms of iron found to produce no adverse effects, or adverse effects no greater than FeSO4 in Phase I, Phase II will evaluate a higher, i.e., a therapeutic dose (120 mg Fe/day). The primary outcomes of this study include ex vivo malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) infectivity of host erythrocytes, ex vivo bacterial proliferation (of selected species) in presence of host plasma and intestinal inflammation assessed by fecal calprotectin. This study will test the hypotheses that the novel forms of iron, administered at equivalent doses to FeSO4, will produce similar increases in iron status in iron-replete subjects, yet lower increases in ex vivo malaria infectivity, ex vivo bacterial proliferation, gut inflammation. Ultimately, this study seeks to contribute to development of safe and effective forms of supplemental iron to address the global burden of iron deficiency and anemia. Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03212677; registered: 11 July 2017.

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    Gates Open Research
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    Authors: Wang, Gu-Qi;
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    Authors: Stinton, Laura M; Myers, Robert P; Coffin, Carla S; Fritzler, Marvin J;
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    BMC Gastroenterology
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    Authors: Gorczynski, Reginald M.;

    The type 1 membrane glycoprotein CD200, widely expressed on multiple cells/tissues, uses a structurally similar receptor (CD200R1), whose expression is more restricted to cells of the myeloid and lymphoid lineages, to transmit signals affecting responses in multiple physiological systems. Thus CD200 expression is reported to exert effects on cancer growth, autoimmune and allergic disorders, infection, transplantation, bone development and homeostasis, and reproductive biology. It was initially thought, based on the idea that CD200R1 was mostly expressed on cells of myeloid origin, that CD200:CD200R1 interactions were primarily dedicated to controlling myeloid cell function. However additional members of the CD200R family have now also been identified, although their function(s) remain unclear, and CD200R1 itself is now known to be expressed by subsets of T cells and other cells. Together these observations add layers of complexity to our understanding of CD200-related regulation. In common with a number of physiological systems, the mechanism(s) of CD200-induced signaling seem to fit within a similar framework of opposing actions of kinases and phosphatases. This paper highlights the advances in our knowledge of immunoregulation achieved following CD200:CD200R interaction and the potential clinical applicability of that information.

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    Authors: Timsina, Jigyasha; Gomez-Fonseca, Duber; Xiong, Chengjie; Schindler, Suzanne E; +22 Authors

    BACKGROUND: The SOMAscan assay has an advantage over immunoassay-based methods because it measures a large number of proteins in a cost-effective manner. However, the performance of this technology compared to the routinely used immunoassay techniques needs to be evaluated. OBJECTIVE: We performed comparative analyses of SOMAscan and immunoassay-based protein measurements for five cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and neurodegeration: NfL, Neurogranin, sTREM2, VILIP-1 and SNAP-25. METHODS: We compared biomarkers measured in ADNI (N=689), Knight-ADRC (N=870), DIAN (N=115), and Barcelona-1 (N=92) cohorts. Raw protein values were transformed using z-score in order to combine measures from the different studies. sTREM2 and VILIP-1 had more than one analyte in SOMAscan; all available analytes were evaluated. Pearson’s correlation coefficients between SOMAscan and immunoassays were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic curve and area under the curve were used to compare prediction accuracy of these biomarkers between the two platforms. RESULTS: Neurogranin, VILIP-1 and NfL showed high correlation between SOMAscan and immunoassay measures (r > 0.9). sTREM2 had a fair correlation (r > 0.6), whereas SNAP-25 showed weak correlation (r = 0.06). Measures in both platforms provided similar predicted performance for all biomarkers except SNAP-25 and one of the sTREM2 analytes. sTREM2 showed higher AUC for SOMAscan based measures. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that SOMAscan performs as well as immunoassay approaches for NfL, Neurogranin, VILIP-1 and sTREM2. Our study shows promise for using SOMAscan as an alternative to traditional immunoassay-based measures. Follow-up investigation will be required for SNAP-25 and additional established biomarkers.

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    Europe PubMed Central
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2022
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    Authors: Jong Hae Kim; Tae Kyun Kim; Junyong In; Dong Kyu Lee; +2 Authors

    Bias affects the true intervention effect in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), making the results unreliable. We evaluated the risk of bias (ROB) of quasi-RCTs or RCTs reported in the Korean Journal of Anesthesiology (KJA) between 2010 and 2016. Six kinds of bias (selection, performance, detection, attrition, reporting, and other biases) were evaluated by determining low, unclear, or high ROB for eight domains (random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, blinding of personnel, blinding of outcome assessment, incomplete outcome data, selective reporting, and other bias) according to publication year. We identified 296 quasi-RCTs or RCTs. Random sequence generation was performed better than allocation concealment (51.7% vs. 20.9% for the proportion of low ROB, P < 0.001 and P = 0.943 for trend, respectively). Blinding of outcome assessment was superior to blinding of participants and personnel (42.9% vs. 15.5% and 23.0% for the proportion of low ROB, P = 0.026 vs. P = 0.003 and 0.896 for trend, respectively). Handling of incomplete outcome data was performed best with the highest proportion of low ROB (84.8%). Selective reporting had the lowest proportion of low ROB (4.7%). However, the ROB improved year by year (P < 0.001 for trend). Authors and reviewers should consider allocation concealment after random sequence generation, blinding of participants and personnel, and full reporting of results to improve the quality of RCTs submitted hereafter for publication in the KJA.

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    Article . 2017
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    Authors: Natalia B. Fernandez; Natalia B. Fernandez; Patrik Vuilleumier; Patrik Vuilleumier; +4 Authors

    Congenital amusia in its most common form is a disorder characterized by a musical pitch processing deficit. Although pitch is involved in conveying emotion in music, the implications for pitch deficits on musical emotion judgements is still under debate. Relatedly, both limited and spared musical emotion recognition was reported in amusia in conditions where emotion cues were not determined by musical mode or dissonance. Additionally, assumed links between musical abilities and visuo-spatial attention processes need further investigation in congenital amusics. Hence, we here test to what extent musical emotions can influence attentional performance. Fifteen congenital amusic adults and fifteen healthy controls matched for age and education were assessed in three attentional conditions: executive control (distractor inhibition), alerting, and orienting (spatial shift) while music expressing either joy, tenderness, sadness, or tension was presented. Visual target detection was in the normal range for both accuracy and response times in the amusic relative to the control participants. Moreover, in both groups, music exposure produced facilitating effects on selective attention that appeared to be driven by the arousal dimension of musical emotional content, with faster correct target detection during joyful compared to sad music. These findings corroborate the idea that pitch processing deficits related to congenital amusia do not impede other cognitive domains, particularly visual attention. Furthermore, our study uncovers an intact influence of music and its emotional content on the attentional abilities of amusic individuals. The results highlight the domain-selectivity of the pitch disorder in congenital amusia, which largely spares the development of visual attention and affective systems.

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    Article . 2021
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    Authors: Drolet, Mélanie; Bénard, Élodie; Jit, Mark; Hutubessy, Raymond; +1 Authors

    OBJECTIVES: To describe all published articles that have conducted comparisons of model-based effectiveness and cost-effectiveness results in the field of vaccination. Specific objectives were to 1) describe the methodologies used and 2) identify the strengths and limitations of the studies. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE and Embase databases for studies that compared predictions of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of vaccination of two or more mathematical models. We categorized studies into two groups on the basis of their data source for comparison (previously published results or new simulation results) and performed a qualitative synthesis of study conclusions. RESULTS: We identified 115 eligible articles (only 5% generated new simulations from the reviewed models) examining the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of vaccination against 14 pathogens (69% of studies examined human papillomavirus, influenza, and/or pneumococcal vaccines). The goal of most of studies was to summarize evidence for vaccination policy decisions, and cost-effectiveness was the most frequent outcome examined. Only 33%, 25%, and 3% of studies followed a systematic approach to identify eligible studies, assessed the quality of studies, and performed a quantitative synthesis of results, respectively. A greater proportion of model comparisons using published studies followed a systematic approach to identify eligible studies and to assess their quality, whereas more studies using new simulations performed quantitative synthesis of results and identified drivers of model conclusions. Most comparative modeling studies concluded that vaccination was cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: Given the variability in methods used to conduct/report comparative modeli