Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
4,956 Research products, page 1 of 496

  • 2013-2022
  • Open Access
  • Research
  • NARCIS

10
arrow_drop_down
Relevance
arrow_drop_down
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abreu, Henso; Araujo Pereira, Rodrigo; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; +1,033 more
    Publisher: SpringerOpen
    Countries: France, France, Turkey, Poland, Spain, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Denmark, France ...

    A search for a chargino-neutralino pair decaying via the 125 GeV Higgs boson into photons is presented. The study is based on the data collected between 2015 and 2018 with the ATLAS detector at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 139 fb(-1) of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. No significant excess over the expected background is observed. Upper limits at 95% confidence level for a massless (chi) over tilde (0)(1) are set on several electroweakino production cross-sections and the visible cross-section for beyond the Standard Model processes. In the context of simplified supersymmetric models, 95% confidence-level limits of up to 310 GeV in m((chi) over tilde (+/-)(1)/(chi) over tilde (0)(2)), where m((chi) over tilde (0)(1)) = 0.5 GeV, are set. Limits at 95% confidence level are also set on the (chi) over tilde (+/-)(1)(chi) over tilde (0)(2) cross-section in the mass plane of m((chi) over tilde (+/-)(1)/(chi) over tilde (0)(2)) and m((chi) over tilde (0)(1)), and on scenarios with gravitino as the lightest supersymmetric particle. Upper limits at the 95% confidence-level are set on the higgsino production cross-section. Higgsino masses below 380 GeV are excluded for the case of the higgsino fully decaying into a Higgs boson and a gravitino. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT) Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Ministry of Education, Youth & Sports - Czech Republic Czech Republic Government Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) Netherlands Government Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT) Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Colciencias Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT) National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) German-Israeli Foundation for Scientific Research and Development Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP) Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada European Union (EU) European Research Council (ERC) National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Poland Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology PROMETEO Programme Generalitat Valenciana, Spain Ministry of Energy & Natural Resources - Turkey CERCA Programme Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain Federal Ministry of Education & Research (BMBF) Science & Technology Facilities Council (STFC) Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS) Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan Ministry of Science and Technology, China United States Department of Energy (DOE) Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) Danish Natural Science Research Council French National Research Agency (ANR) Herakleitos program - EU-ESF, Greece Slovenian Research Agency - Slovenia Goran Gustafssons Stiftelse, Sweden Greek Ministry of Development-GSRT National Science Foundation (NSF) Aristeia program - EU-ESF, Greece German Research Foundation (DFG) Canada Foundation for Innovation MES of Russia, Russia Federation Thales program - EU-ESF, Greece Wallenberg Foundation, Sweden Canton of Geneva, Switzerland Horizon 2020, European Union Canton of Bern, Switzerland Australian Research Council Austrian Science Fund (FWF) Chinese Academy of Sciences Israel Science Foundation NRC KI, Russia Federation Czech Republic Government Royal Society of London Benoziyo Center, Israel Compute Canada, Canada DST/NRF, South Africa Hong Kong SAR, China COST, European Union CEA-DRF/IRFU, France Greek NSRF, Greece Max Planck Society SERI, Switzerland Leverhulme Trust MNE/IFA, Romania SRNSFG, Georgia BSF-NSF, Israel CANARIE, Canada YerPhI, Armenia MSSR, Slovakia BMWFW, Austria CNRST, Morocco MIZS, Slovenia BCKDF, Canada DNRF, Denmark MESTD, Serbia SSTC, Belarus MINECO, Spain HGF, Germany RCN, Norway NCN, Poland NRC, Canada CRC, Canada SRC, Sweden RGC, China ANPCyT CERN JINR

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bos, Iwan;
    Publisher: Maastricht University, Graduate School of Business and Economics
    Country: Netherlands

    Few today would doubt the need for competition rules in a free, marked-based society like the United States of America. From a free market philosophy perspective, however, there is something inherently paradoxical about the presence of competition policy. After all, the competition laws that are intended to combat restraints of trade are, in fact, themselves restraints of trade and their enforcement implies extensive government intervention. It is argued that competition policy is nevertheless compatible with the free market philosophy when the free market system would effectively disappear without it and it is shown that this possibility was considered real in the history of U.S. competition law enforcement. U.S. competition policy stimulates free market survival by shaping market structure and by promoting the free market spirit. Both make American competition policy consistent with the free market philosophy and consequently provide a moral justification for its presence.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Andreas Kamilaris; Nicolò Botteghi;
    Country: Netherlands

    As the Internet of Things (IoT) penetrates different domains and application areas, it has recently entered also the world of robotics. Robotics constitutes a modern and fast-evolving technology, increasingly being used in industrial, commercial and domestic settings. IoT, together with the Web of Things (WoT) could provide many benefits to robotic systems. Some of the benefits of IoT in robotics have been discussed in related work. This paper moves one step further, studying the actual current use of IoT in robotics, through various real-world examples encountered through a bibliographic research. The paper also examines the potential ofWoT, together with robotic systems, investigating which concepts, characteristics, architectures, hardware, software and communication methods of IoT are used in existing robotic systems, which sensors and actions are incorporated in IoT-based robots, as well as in which application areas. Finally, the current application of WoT in robotics is examined and discussed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Beck, T.H.L.; Degryse, H.A.; de Haas, R.; van Horen, N.;
    Publisher: Economics
    Country: Netherlands

    Using a novel way to identify relationship and transaction banks, we study how banks’ lending techniques affect funding to SMEs over the business cycle. For 21 countries we link the lending techniques that banks use in the direct vicinity of firms to these firms’ credit constraints at two contrasting points of the business cycle. We show that relationship lending alleviates credit constraints during a cyclical downturn but not during a boom period. The positive impact of relationship lending in an economic downturn is strongest for smaller and more opaque firms and in regions where the downturn is more severe.

  • Open Access Dutch; Flemish
    Authors: 
    Berkhout, E.; Volkerink, M.;
    Publisher: SEO
    Country: Netherlands

    Met dit paper wordt een volgende stap gemaakt in het onderzoek naar de aansluiting tussen onderwijs en arbeidsmarkt. Het belangrijkste verschil met eerdere studies is het gebruik van registerdata van zowel onderwijs als arbeidsmarkt. Dat is nog niet eerder gebeurd. Specifiek is de aansluiting tussen bètatechnisch opgeleiden en de technische sector in kaart gebracht. Allereerst is de arbeidsmarktpositie van recent gediplomeerde bètatechnici onderzocht 1, 2 en 5 jaar na diplomering. Daarna is gekeken naar de aansluiting van alle bètatechnisch opgeleide werknemers in 2012 in Nederland. Volgens de onderwijsregisters haalden in het diplomajaar 2006-2007 bijna 520 duizend personen een diploma in het voortgezet onderwijs (vo), middelbaar beroepsonderwijs (mbo) hoger beroepsonderwijs (hbo) of wetenschappelijk onderwijs (wo). Daarvan hadden er zo’n 107 duizend een diploma met bètatechnische richting. In 2007 stroomden zo’n 31 duizend bètatechnisch opgeleiden uit het onderwijs. De overgrote meerderheid vindt een baan. Het is niet vanzelfsprekend dat bètatechnisch opgeleiden in technische bedrijven werken. Ongeveer de helft van de bètatechnische schoolverlaters werkt vijf jaar na diplomering in een technisch bedrijf, maar de andere helft lekt weg naar andere bedrijven. De weglek neemt toe naarmate men hoger opgeleid is, en is vooral groter onder vrouwen en allochtonen. Ook na correctie voor samenstellingseffecten via multivariate analyses blijven deze conclusies overeind. De uitkomsten van de verkenningen in dit paper onderstrepen dat in discussies over ‘tekorten’ aan (bèta)technisch personeel er meer aandacht moet zijn voor het verbeteren van de aansluiting tussen onderwijs en arbeidsmarkt en het verminderen van de weglek van bètatechnisch personeel.

  • Publication . Article . Research . Other literature type . 2013
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Davie, J. C. S.; Falloon, P. D.; Kahana, R.; Dankers, R.; Betts, R.; Portmann, F. T.; Wisser, D.; Clark, D. B.; Ito, A.; Masaki, Y.; +15 more
    Countries: United Kingdom, Germany, Netherlands, Netherlands, United Kingdom

    Future changes in runoff can have important implications for water resources and flooding. In this study, runoff projections from ISI-MIP (Inter-sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project) simulations forced with HadGEM2-ES bias-corrected climate data under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 have been analysed for differences between impact models. Projections of change from a baseline period (1981–2010) to the future (2070–2099) from 12 impacts models which contributed to the hydrological and biomes sectors of ISI-MIP were studied. The biome models differed from the hydrological models by the inclusion of CO2 impacts and most also included a dynamic vegetation distribution. The biome and hydrological models agreed on the sign of runoff change for most regions of the world. However, in West Africa, the hydrological models projected drying, and the biome models a moistening. The biome models tended to produce larger increases and smaller decreases in regionally averaged runoff than the hydrological models, although there is large inter-model spread. The timing of runoff change was similar, but there were differences in magnitude, particularly at peak runoff. The impact of vegetation distribution change was much smaller than the projected change over time, while elevated CO2 had an effect as large as the magnitude of change over time projected by some models in some regions. The effect of CO2 on runoff was not consistent across the models, with two models showing increases and two decreases. There was also more spread in projections from the runs with elevated CO2 than with constant CO2. The biome models which gave increased runoff from elevated CO2 were also those which differed most from the hydrological models. Spatially, regions with most difference between model types tended to be projected to have most effect from elevated CO2, and seasonal differences were also similar, so elevated CO2 can partly explain the differences between hydrological and biome model runoff change projections. Therefore, this shows that a range of impact models should be considered to give the full range of uncertainty in impacts studies.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nave, Gideon; Koppin, Christina; Manfredi, Dylan; Richards, Gareth; Watson, Steven James; Geffner, Mitchell; Yong, Jillian; Kim, Robert; Ross, Heather; Serrano-Gonzalez, Monica; +1 more
    Publisher: bioRxiv
    Country: Netherlands

    The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) has been associated with sexual dimorphism, with a lower 2D:4D in males. A large body of research has relied on the 2D:4D as a proxy for prenatal androgen exposure, and includes reports of relationships between 2D:4D and a wide range of human traits. Here, we examine the validity of the 2D:4D proxy by studying the association between 2D:4D and classical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, a condition characterized by excessive prenatal exposure to androgens during most of the gestational period. To this end, we retrospectively examine serial radiographs of the left hand obtained clinically in 91 youth with classical CAH (49.5% female) and 70 control youth (44.3% female). Replicating previous reports, we observe associations of the 2D:4D with sex (lower 2D:4D in males), age (increase of 2D:4D through development) and ethnicity (lower 2D:4D in Hispanic individuals). However, we find no evidence for differences in 2D:4D between CAH and controls (full sample: □ = 0.0003 [-0.007, 0.008]; females: □ = −0.004 [-0.015, 0.007]; males: □ = 0.003, [-0.007, 0.013]). Although our findings do not rule out a small association between the 2D:4D and CAH, they cast doubt on the usefulness of the 2D:4D as a biomarker for prenatal androgen exposure in behavioral research.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dieleman, Bas;
    Publisher: SSRN e-library
    Country: Netherlands

    For the purpose of this research, pension cuts are defined as a decrease in retirement benefits currently paid to retired citizens and (2) a decrease in accumulated pension rights related to past years of service. This paper focusses on such pension cuts in public pensions and employer sponsored private pensions in all Member States and the U.K. (hereafter the Member States) Similar to pension cuts is the adjustment of pensions to inflation or wage increase. As a result, such adjustments are included in the research. The research also includes many recent pension reforms in the Member States.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sinha Roy, Debdatta; Defryn, Christof; Golden, Bruce; Wasil, Edward;
    Publisher: Maastricht University, Graduate School of Business and Economics
    Country: Netherlands
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vet, L.E.M.;
    Country: Netherlands

    Engelse versie Duurzame troonrede

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
4,956 Research products, page 1 of 496
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abreu, Henso; Araujo Pereira, Rodrigo; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; +1,033 more
    Publisher: SpringerOpen
    Countries: France, France, Turkey, Poland, Spain, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Denmark, France ...

    A search for a chargino-neutralino pair decaying via the 125 GeV Higgs boson into photons is presented. The study is based on the data collected between 2015 and 2018 with the ATLAS detector at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 139 fb(-1) of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. No significant excess over the expected background is observed. Upper limits at 95% confidence level for a massless (chi) over tilde (0)(1) are set on several electroweakino production cross-sections and the visible cross-section for beyond the Standard Model processes. In the context of simplified supersymmetric models, 95% confidence-level limits of up to 310 GeV in m((chi) over tilde (+/-)(1)/(chi) over tilde (0)(2)), where m((chi) over tilde (0)(1)) = 0.5 GeV, are set. Limits at 95% confidence level are also set on the (chi) over tilde (+/-)(1)(chi) over tilde (0)(2) cross-section in the mass plane of m((chi) over tilde (+/-)(1)/(chi) over tilde (0)(2)) and m((chi) over tilde (0)(1)), and on scenarios with gravitino as the lightest supersymmetric particle. Upper limits at the 95% confidence-level are set on the higgsino production cross-section. Higgsino masses below 380 GeV are excluded for the case of the higgsino fully decaying into a Higgs boson and a gravitino. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT) Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Ministry of Education, Youth & Sports - Czech Republic Czech Republic Government Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) Netherlands Government Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT) Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Colciencias Comision Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (CONICYT) National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) German-Israeli Foundation for Scientific Research and Development Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP) Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada European Union (EU) European Research Council (ERC) National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Poland Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology PROMETEO Programme Generalitat Valenciana, Spain Ministry of Energy & Natural Resources - Turkey CERCA Programme Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain Federal Ministry of Education & Research (BMBF) Science & Technology Facilities Council (STFC) Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS) Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan Ministry of Science and Technology, China United States Department of Energy (DOE) Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) Danish Natural Science Research Council French National Research Agency (ANR) Herakleitos program - EU-ESF, Greece Slovenian Research Agency - Slovenia Goran Gustafssons Stiftelse, Sweden Greek Ministry of Development-GSRT National Science Foundation (NSF) Aristeia program - EU-ESF, Greece German Research Foundation (DFG) Canada Foundation for Innovation MES of Russia, Russia Federation Thales program - EU-ESF, Greece Wallenberg Foundation, Sweden Canton of Geneva, Switzerland Horizon 2020, European Union Canton of Bern, Switzerland Australian Research Council Austrian Science Fund (FWF) Chinese Academy of Sciences Israel Science Foundation NRC KI, Russia Federation Czech Republic Government Royal Society of London Benoziyo Center, Israel Compute Canada, Canada DST/NRF, South Africa Hong Kong SAR, China COST, European Union CEA-DRF/IRFU, France Greek NSRF, Greece Max Planck Society SERI, Switzerland Leverhulme Trust MNE/IFA, Romania SRNSFG, Georgia BSF-NSF, Israel CANARIE, Canada YerPhI, Armenia MSSR, Slovakia BMWFW, Austria CNRST, Morocco MIZS, Slovenia BCKDF, Canada DNRF, Denmark MESTD, Serbia SSTC, Belarus MINECO, Spain HGF, Germany RCN, Norway NCN, Poland NRC, Canada CRC, Canada SRC, Sweden RGC, China ANPCyT CERN JINR

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bos, Iwan;
    Publisher: Maastricht University, Graduate School of Business and Economics
    Country: Netherlands

    Few today would doubt the need for competition rules in a free, marked-based society like the United States of America. From a free market philosophy perspective, however, there is something inherently paradoxical about the presence of competition policy. After all, the competition laws that are intended to combat restraints of trade are, in fact, themselves restraints of trade and their enforcement implies extensive government intervention. It is argued that competition policy is nevertheless compatible with the free market philosophy when the free market system would effectively disappear without it and it is shown that this possibility was considered real in the history of U.S. competition law enforcement. U.S. competition policy stimulates free market survival by shaping market structure and by promoting the free market spirit. Both make American competition policy consistent with the free market philosophy and consequently provide a moral justification for its presence.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Andreas Kamilaris; Nicolò Botteghi;
    Country: Netherlands

    As the Internet of Things (IoT) penetrates different domains and application areas, it has recently entered also the world of robotics. Robotics constitutes a modern and fast-evolving technology, increasingly being used in industrial, commercial and domestic settings. IoT, together with the Web of Things (WoT) could provide many benefits to robotic systems. Some of the benefits of IoT in robotics have been discussed in related work. This paper moves one step further, studying the actual current use of IoT in robotics, through various real-world examples encountered through a bibliographic research. The paper also examines the potential ofWoT, together with robotic systems, investigating which concepts, characteristics, architectures, hardware, software and communication methods of IoT are used in existing robotic systems, which sensors and actions are incorporated in IoT-based robots, as well as in which application areas. Finally, the current application of WoT in robotics is examined and discussed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Beck, T.H.L.; Degryse, H.A.; de Haas, R.; van Horen, N.;
    Publisher: Economics
    Country: Netherlands

    Using a novel way to identify relationship and transaction banks, we study how banks’ lending techniques affect funding to SMEs over the business cycle. For 21 countries we link the lending techniques that banks use in the direct vicinity of firms to these firms’ credit constraints at two contrasting points of the business cycle. We show that relationship lending alleviates credit constraints during a cyclical downturn but not during a boom period. The positive impact of relationship lending in an economic downturn is strongest for smaller and more opaque firms and in regions where the downturn is more severe.

  • Open Access Dutch; Flemish
    Authors: 
    Berkhout, E.; Volkerink, M.;
    Publisher: SEO
    Country: Netherlands

    Met dit paper wordt een volgende stap gemaakt in het onderzoek naar de aansluiting tussen onderwijs en arbeidsmarkt. Het belangrijkste verschil met eerdere studies is het gebruik van registerdata van zowel onderwijs als arbeidsmarkt. Dat is nog niet eerder gebeurd. Specifiek is de aansluiting tussen bètatechnisch opgeleiden en de technische sector in kaart gebracht. Allereerst is de arbeidsmarktpositie van recent gediplomeerde bètatechnici onderzocht 1, 2 en 5 jaar na diplomering. Daarna is gekeken naar de aansluiting van alle bètatechnisch opgeleide werknemers in 2012 in Nederland. Volgens de onderwijsregisters haalden in het diplomajaar 2006-2007 bijna 520 duizend personen een diploma in het voortgezet onderwijs (vo), middelbaar beroepsonderwijs (mbo) hoger beroepsonderwijs (hbo) of wetenschappelijk onderwijs (wo). Daarvan hadden er zo’n 107 duizend een diploma met bètatechnische richting. In 2007 stroomden zo’n 31 duizend bètatechnisch opgeleiden uit het onderwijs. De overgrote meerderheid vindt een baan. Het is niet vanzelfsprekend dat bètatechnisch opgeleiden in technische bedrijven werken. Ongeveer de helft van de bètatechnische schoolverlaters werkt vijf jaar na diplomering in een technisch bedrijf, maar de andere helft lekt weg naar andere bedrijven. De weglek neemt toe naarmate men hoger opgeleid is, en is vooral groter onder vrouwen en allochtonen. Ook na correctie voor samenstellingseffecten via multivariate analyses blijven deze conclusies overeind. De uitkomsten van de verkenningen in dit paper onderstrepen dat in discussies over ‘tekorten’ aan (bèta)technisch personeel er meer aandacht moet zijn voor het verbeteren van de aansluiting tussen onderwijs en arbeidsmarkt en het verminderen van de weglek van bètatechnisch personeel.

  • Publication . Article . Research . Other literature type . 2013
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Davie, J. C. S.; Falloon, P. D.; Kahana, R.; Dankers, R.; Betts, R.; Portmann, F. T.; Wisser, D.; Clark, D. B.; Ito, A.; Masaki, Y.; +15 more
    Countries: United Kingdom, Germany, Netherlands, Netherlands, United Kingdom

    Future changes in runoff can have important implications for water resources and flooding. In this study, runoff projections from ISI-MIP (Inter-sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project) simulations forced with HadGEM2-ES bias-corrected climate data under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 have been analysed for differences between impact models. Projections of change from a baseline period (1981–2010) to the future (2070–2099) from 12 impacts models which contributed to the hydrological and biomes sectors of ISI-MIP were studied. The biome models differed from the hydrological models by the inclusion of CO2 impacts and most also included a dynamic vegetation distribution. The biome and hydrological models agreed on the sign of runoff change for most regions of the world. However, in West Africa, the hydrological models projected drying, and the biome models a moistening. The biome models tended to produce larger increases and smaller decreases in regionally averaged runoff than the hydrological models, although there is large inter-model spread. The timing of runoff change was similar, but there were differences in magnitude, particularly at peak runoff. The impact of vegetation distribution change was much smaller than the projected change over time, while elevated CO2 had an effect as large as the magnitude of change over time projected by some models in some regions. The effect of CO2 on runoff was not consistent across the models, with two models showing increases and two decreases. There was also more spread in projections from the runs with elevated CO2 than with constant CO2. The biome models which gave increased runoff from elevated CO2 were also those which differed most from the hydrological models. Spatially, regions with most difference between model types tended to be projected to have most effect from elevated CO2, and seasonal differences were also similar, so elevated CO2 can partly explain the differences between hydrological and biome model runoff change projections. Therefore, this shows that a range of impact models should be considered to give the full range of uncertainty in impacts studies.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nave, Gideon; Koppin, Christina; Manfredi, Dylan; Richards, Gareth; Watson, Steven James; Geffner, Mitchell; Yong, Jillian; Kim, Robert; Ross, Heather; Serrano-Gonzalez, Monica; +1 more
    Publisher: bioRxiv
    Country: Netherlands

    The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) has been associated with sexual dimorphism, with a lower 2D:4D in males. A large body of research has relied on the 2D:4D as a proxy for prenatal androgen exposure, and includes reports of relationships between 2D:4D and a wide range of human traits. Here, we examine the validity of the 2D:4D proxy by studying the association between 2D:4D and classical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, a condition characterized by excessive prenatal exposure to androgens during most of the gestational period. To this end, we retrospectively examine serial radiographs of the left hand obtained clinically in 91 youth with classical CAH (49.5% female) and 70 control youth (44.3% female). Replicating previous reports, we observe associations of the 2D:4D with sex (lower 2D:4D in males), age (increase of 2D:4D through development) and ethnicity (lower 2D:4D in Hispanic individuals). However, we find no evidence for differences in 2D:4D between CAH and controls (full sample: □ = 0.0003 [-0.007, 0.008]; females: □ = −0.004 [-0.015, 0.007]; males: □ = 0.003, [-0.007, 0.013]). Although our findings do not rule out a small association between the 2D:4D and CAH, they cast doubt on the usefulness of the 2D:4D as a biomarker for prenatal androgen exposure in behavioral research.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dieleman, Bas;
    Publisher: SSRN e-library
    Country: Netherlands

    For the purpose of this research, pension cuts are defined as a decrease in retirement benefits currently paid to retired citizens and (2) a decrease in accumulated pension rights related to past years of service. This paper focusses on such pension cuts in public pensions and employer sponsored private pensions in all Member States and the U.K. (hereafter the Member States) Similar to pension cuts is the adjustment of pensions to inflation or wage increase. As a result, such adjustments are included in the research. The research also includes many recent pension reforms in the Member States.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sinha Roy, Debdatta; Defryn, Christof; Golden, Bruce; Wasil, Edward;
    Publisher: Maastricht University, Graduate School of Business and Economics
    Country: Netherlands
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Vet, L.E.M.;
    Country: Netherlands

    Engelse versie Duurzame troonrede

Send a message
How can we help?
We usually respond in a few hours.