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  • DK
  • University of Southern Denmark Research Output
  • Transport Research

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  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Morten Monrad Pedersen; Peder Thusgaard Ruhoff;
    Country: Denmark

    Udgivelsesdato: 2002-May This paper describes a way of including entry ramps in the Nagel-Schreckenberg traffic model. The idea is to place what are called shadow cars on a highway next to cars on entry ramps, which enables the drivers to take ramp cars into account. The model is shown to capture important real-life traffic phenomena that have not been included in previous models. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the desirable properties of the Nagel-Schreckenberg model are retained.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Johan Jansson; Zeinab Rezvani;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Denmark

    Understanding public responses to environmental policies canhelp in achieving a move towards more renewable energy. Focusing on twotypes of public responses to a policy, namely public acceptance andpublic support, this study utilizes a survey of car owners (N=1,422) toexplore public responses to an environmental transport policy in Sweden.The results demonstrate higher levels of public acceptance than supportfor the policy and that adopters of Alternative Fuel Vehicles (AFVs) aremore prone to accept and support the policy by expressing higherintentions for continuous AFV adoption. Results of regression analysesshow that policy acceptance can be explained by environmental beliefs andprevious experience with AFVs. In addition, public support is alsoexplained by public acceptance, even when controlling for other factors,which lends support to the deduction that policy acceptance can betheorized as antecedent to policy support. This study emphasizes theimportance of understanding different types of public responses to anenergy policy in order to recognize drivers for, and barriers against,successfully implementing a policy and communicating it with the public.

  • Publication . Conference object . Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . 2021
    Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Reza Nasirigerdeh; Reihaneh Torkzadehmahani; Jan Baumbach; David Blumenthal;
    Publisher: Association for Computing Machinery
    Country: Denmark

    Federated learning (FL) is becoming an increasingly popular machine learning paradigm in application scenarios where sensitive data available at various local sites cannot be shared due to privacy protection regulations. In FL, the sensitive data never leaves the local sites and only model parameters are shared with a global aggregator. Nonetheless, it has recently been shown that, under some circumstances, the private data can be reconstructed from the model parameters, which implies that data leakage can occur in FL. In this paper, we draw attention to another risk associated with FL: Even if federated algorithms are individually privacy-preserving, combining them into pipelines is not necessarily privacy-preserving. We provide a concrete example from genome-wide association studies, where the combination of federated principal component analysis and federated linear regression allows the aggregator to retrieve sensitive patient data by solving an instance of the multidimensional subset sum problem. This supports the increasing awareness in the field that, for FL to be truly privacy-preserving, measures have to be undertaken to protect against data leakage at the aggregator.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Luca Ciacci; Ivano Vassura; Zhi Cao; Gang Liu; Fabrizio Passarini;
    Countries: Denmark, Italy, Belgium
    Project: EC | QUMEC (704633)

    Abstract Sustainable management strategies for securing long–term supply of rare earth elements is priority for Europe due to a complex and interlinked production chain and its dependence on Chinese export. Among rare earth elements, neodymium captured most attention due to its essential role in a wide spectrum of applications including green–energy technologies such as wind turbines and electric vehicles. Being complementary to primary production, end–of–life recycling would diversify neodymium supply, relieve the Chinese dominance on primary production and contrast the balance problem. However, neodymium recycling at end–of–life is not yet in place. In this work, we developed a dynamic material flow model to investigate neodymium stocks and flows in the EU–28 to 2016. The analysis enabled a detailed investigation of secondary sources of neodymium, which set essential boundary conditions for material recovery and recycling. We found that roughly up to 50% of the annual neodymium demand in the EU–28 could be met by domestic secondary supply, if latent recycling potentials were turned into actual capacity. Significant energy savings and GHG emissions cut could be also attained. However, product design, end–of–life collection, and scrap price issues are primary obstacles to neodymium recovery. Thus, unless going beyong those limits, establishing and maintaining a sustainable recycling chain for neodymium in the EU–28 will remain problematic.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Jingzheng Ren Ren; Marie Lützen;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Denmark

    This paper describes a methodology for the application of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) on the technology selection for emissions reduction from shipping under uncertainties and incomplete information. Nine criteria in four aspects, including technological (maturity), economic (capital cost and operation cost), environmental (effects of SO x, NO x, GHG, and PM reduction), and social-political aspects (government support and social acceptability), were used for the sustainability assessment. The study aims at developing the methodology for technology selection for emissions reduction from shipping by combining Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and VIKOR. Fuzzy AHP was used to determine the weights of the evaluation criteria and the relative performance of the alternatives with respect to each evaluation criterion, and VIKOR was used to prioritize the alternative technologies. The two methods of VIKOR and the traditional AHP were combined to validate the proposed methodology. Three alternative technologies of low sulphur fuel, scrubber and LNG were studied using the proposed model, and the results indicate that the proposed methodology is capable of assisting the decision-makers to select the most sustainable technology for emissions reduction from shipping under uncertainties and incomplete information.

  • Publication . Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . Conference object . 2020
    Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Jonas Herskind Sejr; Arthur Zimek; Peter Schneider-Kamp;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Country: Denmark

    The detection of malicious HTTP(S) requests is a pressing concern in cyber security, in particular given the proliferation of HTTP-based (micro-)service architectures. In addition to rule-based systems for known attacks, anomaly detection has been shown to be a promising approach for unknown (zero-day) attacks. This article extends existing work by integrating outlier explanations for individual requests into an end-to-end pipeline. These end-to-end explanations reflect the internal working of the pipeline. Empirically, we show that found explanations coincide with manually labelled explanations for identified outliers, allowing security professionals to quickly identify and understand malicious requests.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Pınar Kaygan; HARUN KAYGAN; Asuman Özgür;
    Country: Denmark

    The social construction of gender through the design of technological artefacts, such as automobiles, motorcycles and domestic technologies, has received growing interest within feminist technology studies (FTS). Building on the extant FTS literature, in this research we explore how design of public transport (bus, minibus, metro) as a sociotechnical system shapes women's experiences of commute in their everyday lives. Drawing on empirical data that comes from interviews with 32 women, we focus on the complex entanglements of the women’s interactions (1) within the vehicle as a technological artefact with its layout, interior elements and technologies such as cameras, and (2) with other passengers (both men and women) and the driver. These entanglements constitute gendered experiences in public transport. Our findings specify the strategies women develop with concerns of (physical and social) personal space, safety, and travel hours in public transport; some of which have gained more prominence during the Covid-19 pandemic. We underline the diversity of these strategies depending on vehicle types, routes, and time of travel within which women negotiate the material and social interactions. We argue that such interactions can, and should, inspire all stakeholders for responsible innovation for inclusive and egalitarian public transport design.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
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Include:
7 Research products, page 1 of 1
  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Morten Monrad Pedersen; Peder Thusgaard Ruhoff;
    Country: Denmark

    Udgivelsesdato: 2002-May This paper describes a way of including entry ramps in the Nagel-Schreckenberg traffic model. The idea is to place what are called shadow cars on a highway next to cars on entry ramps, which enables the drivers to take ramp cars into account. The model is shown to capture important real-life traffic phenomena that have not been included in previous models. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the desirable properties of the Nagel-Schreckenberg model are retained.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Johan Jansson; Zeinab Rezvani;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Denmark

    Understanding public responses to environmental policies canhelp in achieving a move towards more renewable energy. Focusing on twotypes of public responses to a policy, namely public acceptance andpublic support, this study utilizes a survey of car owners (N=1,422) toexplore public responses to an environmental transport policy in Sweden.The results demonstrate higher levels of public acceptance than supportfor the policy and that adopters of Alternative Fuel Vehicles (AFVs) aremore prone to accept and support the policy by expressing higherintentions for continuous AFV adoption. Results of regression analysesshow that policy acceptance can be explained by environmental beliefs andprevious experience with AFVs. In addition, public support is alsoexplained by public acceptance, even when controlling for other factors,which lends support to the deduction that policy acceptance can betheorized as antecedent to policy support. This study emphasizes theimportance of understanding different types of public responses to anenergy policy in order to recognize drivers for, and barriers against,successfully implementing a policy and communicating it with the public.

  • Publication . Conference object . Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . 2021
    Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Reza Nasirigerdeh; Reihaneh Torkzadehmahani; Jan Baumbach; David Blumenthal;
    Publisher: Association for Computing Machinery
    Country: Denmark

    Federated learning (FL) is becoming an increasingly popular machine learning paradigm in application scenarios where sensitive data available at various local sites cannot be shared due to privacy protection regulations. In FL, the sensitive data never leaves the local sites and only model parameters are shared with a global aggregator. Nonetheless, it has recently been shown that, under some circumstances, the private data can be reconstructed from the model parameters, which implies that data leakage can occur in FL. In this paper, we draw attention to another risk associated with FL: Even if federated algorithms are individually privacy-preserving, combining them into pipelines is not necessarily privacy-preserving. We provide a concrete example from genome-wide association studies, where the combination of federated principal component analysis and federated linear regression allows the aggregator to retrieve sensitive patient data by solving an instance of the multidimensional subset sum problem. This supports the increasing awareness in the field that, for FL to be truly privacy-preserving, measures have to be undertaken to protect against data leakage at the aggregator.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Luca Ciacci; Ivano Vassura; Zhi Cao; Gang Liu; Fabrizio Passarini;
    Countries: Denmark, Italy, Belgium
    Project: EC | QUMEC (704633)

    Abstract Sustainable management strategies for securing long–term supply of rare earth elements is priority for Europe due to a complex and interlinked production chain and its dependence on Chinese export. Among rare earth elements, neodymium captured most attention due to its essential role in a wide spectrum of applications including green–energy technologies such as wind turbines and electric vehicles. Being complementary to primary production, end–of–life recycling would diversify neodymium supply, relieve the Chinese dominance on primary production and contrast the balance problem. However, neodymium recycling at end–of–life is not yet in place. In this work, we developed a dynamic material flow model to investigate neodymium stocks and flows in the EU–28 to 2016. The analysis enabled a detailed investigation of secondary sources of neodymium, which set essential boundary conditions for material recovery and recycling. We found that roughly up to 50% of the annual neodymium demand in the EU–28 could be met by domestic secondary supply, if latent recycling potentials were turned into actual capacity. Significant energy savings and GHG emissions cut could be also attained. However, product design, end–of–life collection, and scrap price issues are primary obstacles to neodymium recovery. Thus, unless going beyong those limits, establishing and maintaining a sustainable recycling chain for neodymium in the EU–28 will remain problematic.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Jingzheng Ren Ren; Marie Lützen;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Denmark

    This paper describes a methodology for the application of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) on the technology selection for emissions reduction from shipping under uncertainties and incomplete information. Nine criteria in four aspects, including technological (maturity), economic (capital cost and operation cost), environmental (effects of SO x, NO x, GHG, and PM reduction), and social-political aspects (government support and social acceptability), were used for the sustainability assessment. The study aims at developing the methodology for technology selection for emissions reduction from shipping by combining Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and VIKOR. Fuzzy AHP was used to determine the weights of the evaluation criteria and the relative performance of the alternatives with respect to each evaluation criterion, and VIKOR was used to prioritize the alternative technologies. The two methods of VIKOR and the traditional AHP were combined to validate the proposed methodology. Three alternative technologies of low sulphur fuel, scrubber and LNG were studied using the proposed model, and the results indicate that the proposed methodology is capable of assisting the decision-makers to select the most sustainable technology for emissions reduction from shipping under uncertainties and incomplete information.

  • Publication . Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . Conference object . 2020
    Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Jonas Herskind Sejr; Arthur Zimek; Peter Schneider-Kamp;
    Publisher: IEEE
    Country: Denmark

    The detection of malicious HTTP(S) requests is a pressing concern in cyber security, in particular given the proliferation of HTTP-based (micro-)service architectures. In addition to rule-based systems for known attacks, anomaly detection has been shown to be a promising approach for unknown (zero-day) attacks. This article extends existing work by integrating outlier explanations for individual requests into an end-to-end pipeline. These end-to-end explanations reflect the internal working of the pipeline. Empirically, we show that found explanations coincide with manually labelled explanations for identified outliers, allowing security professionals to quickly identify and understand malicious requests.

  • Closed Access
    Authors: 
    Pınar Kaygan; HARUN KAYGAN; Asuman Özgür;
    Country: Denmark

    The social construction of gender through the design of technological artefacts, such as automobiles, motorcycles and domestic technologies, has received growing interest within feminist technology studies (FTS). Building on the extant FTS literature, in this research we explore how design of public transport (bus, minibus, metro) as a sociotechnical system shapes women's experiences of commute in their everyday lives. Drawing on empirical data that comes from interviews with 32 women, we focus on the complex entanglements of the women’s interactions (1) within the vehicle as a technological artefact with its layout, interior elements and technologies such as cameras, and (2) with other passengers (both men and women) and the driver. These entanglements constitute gendered experiences in public transport. Our findings specify the strategies women develop with concerns of (physical and social) personal space, safety, and travel hours in public transport; some of which have gained more prominence during the Covid-19 pandemic. We underline the diversity of these strategies depending on vehicle types, routes, and time of travel within which women negotiate the material and social interactions. We argue that such interactions can, and should, inspire all stakeholders for responsible innovation for inclusive and egalitarian public transport design.

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