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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lamb, J. S.; Wirasinghe, S. C.; Waters, N. M.;

    Delivery drones are a disruptive technology that is spurring logistics system change, such as the adoption of urban micro-fulfilment centres (MFCs). In this paper, we develop and implement a two-stage continuum approximation (CA) model of this disruptive system in a geographic information system. The model includes common CA techniques at a local level to minimise cost, and then these local solutions are used in a second stage regional location-allocation multiple knapsack problem. We then compare the drone MFC system to a traditional delivery-by-van system and investigate potential cost or emissions savings by adjusting time-window demand, logistical sprawl, electric van alternatives, and MFC emissions. Furthermore, we conduct a sensitivity analysis to show that uncertainty in demand and effective storage density both significantly influence the number of MFCs selected and benchmark our model against commercial solvers. This methodology may also be further developed and applied to other new delivery vehicle modes.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    figshare
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    Data sources: Datacite
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Stoyanovich, Sawyer; Zeyu Yang; Hanson, Mark; Hollebone, Bruce P; +7 Authors

    The main petroleum product transported through pipelines in Canada is diluted bitumen (dilbit), a semi-liquid form of heavy crude oil mixed with natural gas condensates to facilitate transport. The weathering, fate, behaviour, and environmental effects of dilbit are crucial to consider when responding to a spill, however few environmental studies on dilbit have been completed. Here we report on 11-day long experimental spills of dilbit (Cold Lake Winter Blend) in outdoor micro-cosms meant to simulate a low-energy aquatic system containing natural lake water and sedi-ments treated with a low (1:8,000 oil:water) and high (1:800 oil:water) volume of dilbit. In the first 24 hours of the experiment, volatile hydrocarbons quickly evaporated from the dilbit, result-ing in increased dilbit density and viscosity. These changes in dilbit’s physical and chemical properties ultimately led to its submergence after 8 days. We also detected rapid accumulation of polycyclic aromatic compounds in the water column of the treated-microcosms following the spills. Our study provides new information on the environmental fate and behaviour of dilbit in a freshwater environment that will be critical to environmental risk assessments of proposed pipe-line projects. In particular, our study demonstrates the propensity for dilbit to sink under ambient environmental conditions in fresh waters typical of many boreal lakes.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    figshare
    Dataset . 2019
    License: CC 0
    Data sources: Datacite
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    figshare
    Dataset . 2019
    License: CC 0
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      figshare
      Dataset . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Dataset . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Brian L. Cousens; Christian Timm; Ashley Abraham; Matthew Trenkler; +5 Authors

    Abstract Mid- to late-Miocene continental arc volcanism on the North Island of New Zealand is found in the Coromandel Peninsula, the Kiwitahi volcanic chain and the Taranaki Basin (Kora Volcano) offshore the western margin of the North Island. Coeval oceanic arc volcanism is also found along the offshore Colville Ridge/Kermadec Ridge north of New Zealand. This Pb–Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic study aims to evaluate mantle sources and potential crustal contaminants along these sections of the Miocene arc system. The Colville/Kermadec Ridge and Kora lavas have the lowest Sr (0.7029–0.7045) and highest Nd (0.51305–0.51292) ratios; the Coromandel and Kiwitahi lavas overlap (Sr = 0.704–0.706; Nd = 0.51268–0.51296). The Colville/Kermadec Ridge, Kora, and Coromandel/Kiwitahi rocks form three distinct arrays on Pb–Pb plots, all above the Northern Hemisphere Reference Line, but none trend towards local Mesozoic basement greywackes. Isotopic and trace element ratio variations suggest that subducted sediments are a component in Coromandel/Kiwitahi mafic lava sources. The younger, southern Kiwitahi lavas have a more depleted mantle source than that for the older, northern Kiwitahi chain. Evolved lavas commonly have interacted with Waipapa basement rocks. Kora rocks have compositions similar to those of back-arc lavas and have been emplaced as sills in a rift environment above a distinct subduction-modified mantle.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Md Sami Hasnine; Brittany Chung; Khandker Nurul Habib;

    This study investigates the factors influencing university student’s living arrangement choice, the distance between home and the university, and mode choice. A closed-form probabilistic choice modelling formulation is developed to model three choices jointly: student’s living arrangement choice, the distance between home and the university, and student’s typical commuting mode choice to campus. The proposed joint model harnesses the power of both Random Utility Maximisation (RUM) and Cobb–Douglas direct utility maximisation principle. This study identifies the nature and extent of various systematic and random factors influencing university student’s residence and mode choice behaviour to provide evidence for the planners and policymakers to act upon. Walk and cycling accessibility appear to be the most influential factor in the distance between home and the university. The results suggest that affordable housing choices by university campuses can significantly increase the number of active mode users among the student population in Toronto.

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    Authors: Almahakeri, Mohamed; Moore, Ian D.; Fam, Amir;

    Subroutine to calculate soil modulus as a as a power function of the confining stresses

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    Authors: Sunjoo Joo; Wang, Ming; Lui, Gary; Lee, Jenny; +5 Authors

    Figure S1. Alignment of TALE homeodomain sequences of the Archae-algal collection. Figure S2. Homology domain alignment of KNOX homologs. Figure S3. GLX class is defined by PBL-Chloro domain. Figure S4. Extensive homology of Picsa_04995 and Klefl_00021_0250 to Chocr_41034 indicates their classification as PBX-Red. Figure S5. Intron-retention pattern suggests parallel evolution of KNOX and non-KNOX group classes from common duplicated TALE ancestors. Figure S6. Alignment of Class-B TALE proteins in volvocales. Figure S7. Alignment of Mam-A TALE proteins in mamiellophyceae. Figure S8. Alignment of Mam-B TALE proteins in mamiellophyceae. Figure S9. Full-length proteins are necessary for mamiellophyceae non-KNOX TALE proteins to form heterodimers. Figure S10. TALE interaction network defined by this study using yeast-two-hybrid assays. Figure S11. Identification of MEIS homologs in choanoflagellates. Figure S12. Identification of PBX homologs in choanoflagellates. Figure S13. Alignment of the MEIS homologs in Amorphea. Figure S14. Alignment of the PBX homologs in Amorphea. Figure S15. ELK-domain alignment. (PDF 10098 kb)

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    Authors: Sunjoo Joo; Wang, Ming; Lui, Gary; Lee, Jenny; +5 Authors

    Data S1. Results of HMM-motif search for KN-A, KN-B, and PBL-Red domains. Data S2. Alignment of the KN-A, KN-B, and PBL-Red domains. (PDF 66 kb)

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    Authors: Tikhonenkov, Denis V.; Hehenberger, Elisabeth; Esaulov, Anton S.; Belyakova, Olga I.; +3 Authors

    Additional file 1 : Fig. S1. A-C – Syssomonas multiformis sucks out the cytoplasm of the prey; D – three cells of Syssomonas (s) suck out the cytoplasm of the same prey cell together, other Syssomonas cells (arrows) become attracted and swim to the same prey cell; E – unusual flagellated cell of Syssomonas containing vesicular structures; F – cells of Syssomonas with engulfed starch granules swim to the starch crystals druse and hide within the starch crystals. Fig. S2. Rice grain destruction in Petri dish with Pratt medium and presence of the cells of Parabodo caudatus (prey) only (A) and Syssomonas multiformis (B) after 9 days of incubation.

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    Authors: Sunjoo Joo; Wang, Ming; Lui, Gary; Lee, Jenny; +5 Authors

    Table S1. Genomic resources used in this study. Table S2. Archaeplastidal homeobox collection of TALE protein analyzed in this study. Table S3. KNOX domain homology among KNOX classes. Table S4. Primers used in this study. Table S5. Yeast-two-hybrid constructs used in this study. Table S6. Homeobox profile in Trebouxiophyceae. (XLSX 370 kb)

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    Authors: Sunjoo Joo; Wang, Ming; Lui, Gary; Lee, Jenny; +5 Authors

    Note S1. Lack of TALE TFs in Trebouxiophyceae. Note S2. Horizontal transfer may explain the presence of Rhodophyta TALE heterodimers in Picocystis and Klebsormidium of Viridiplantae. (PDF 55 kb)

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    Authors: Lamb, J. S.; Wirasinghe, S. C.; Waters, N. M.;

    Delivery drones are a disruptive technology that is spurring logistics system change, such as the adoption of urban micro-fulfilment centres (MFCs). In this paper, we develop and implement a two-stage continuum approximation (CA) model of this disruptive system in a geographic information system. The model includes common CA techniques at a local level to minimise cost, and then these local solutions are used in a second stage regional location-allocation multiple knapsack problem. We then compare the drone MFC system to a traditional delivery-by-van system and investigate potential cost or emissions savings by adjusting time-window demand, logistical sprawl, electric van alternatives, and MFC emissions. Furthermore, we conduct a sensitivity analysis to show that uncertainty in demand and effective storage density both significantly influence the number of MFCs selected and benchmark our model against commercial solvers. This methodology may also be further developed and applied to other new delivery vehicle modes.

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    Authors: Stoyanovich, Sawyer; Zeyu Yang; Hanson, Mark; Hollebone, Bruce P; +7 Authors

    The main petroleum product transported through pipelines in Canada is diluted bitumen (dilbit), a semi-liquid form of heavy crude oil mixed with natural gas condensates to facilitate transport. The weathering, fate, behaviour, and environmental effects of dilbit are crucial to consider when responding to a spill, however few environmental studies on dilbit have been completed. Here we report on 11-day long experimental spills of dilbit (Cold Lake Winter Blend) in outdoor micro-cosms meant to simulate a low-energy aquatic system containing natural lake water and sedi-ments treated with a low (1:8,000 oil:water) and high (1:800 oil:water) volume of dilbit. In the first 24 hours of the experiment, volatile hydrocarbons quickly evaporated from the dilbit, result-ing in increased dilbit density and viscosity. These changes in dilbit’s physical and chemical properties ultimately led to its submergence after 8 days. We also detected rapid accumulation of polycyclic aromatic compounds in the water column of the treated-microcosms following the spills. Our study provides new information on the environmental fate and behaviour of dilbit in a freshwater environment that will be critical to environmental risk assessments of proposed pipe-line projects. In particular, our study demonstrates the propensity for dilbit to sink under ambient environmental conditions in fresh waters typical of many boreal lakes.

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    Authors: Brian L. Cousens; Christian Timm; Ashley Abraham; Matthew Trenkler; +5 Authors

    Abstract Mid- to late-Miocene continental arc volcanism on the North Island of New Zealand is found in the Coromandel Peninsula, the Kiwitahi volcanic chain and the Taranaki Basin (Kora Volcano) offshore the western margin of the North Island. Coeval oceanic arc volcanism is also found along the offshore Colville Ridge/Kermadec Ridge north of New Zealand. This Pb–Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic study aims to evaluate mantle sources and potential crustal contaminants along these sections of the Miocene arc system. The Colville/Kermadec Ridge and Kora lavas have the lowest Sr (0.7029–0.7045) and highest Nd (0.51305–0.51292) ratios; the Coromandel and Kiwitahi lavas overlap (Sr = 0.704–0.706; Nd = 0.51268–0.51296). The Colville/Kermadec Ridge, Kora, and Coromandel/Kiwitahi rocks form three distinct arrays on Pb–Pb plots, all above the Northern Hemisphere Reference Line, but none trend towards local Mesozoic basement greywackes. Isotopic and trace element ratio variations suggest that subducted sediments are a component in Coromandel/Kiwitahi mafic lava sources. The younger, southern Kiwitahi lavas have a more depleted mantle source than that for the older, northern Kiwitahi chain. Evolved lavas commonly have interacted with Waipapa basement rocks. Kora rocks have compositions similar to those of back-arc lavas and have been emplaced as sills in a rift environment above a distinct subduction-modified mantle.

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