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  • Publication . Preprint . Article . 2019 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2019
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Guglielmi, A. V.;
    Publisher: arXiv

    In this paper, we used the Global Catalog of the National Earthquake Information Center US Geological Survey (NEIC USGS) for analysis of the magnitude-frequency distribution of earthquakes. We selected the unimodal part of the distribution and proposed an empirical formula that approximates this part in a wide range of magnitudes. The formula may be useful in studying the problems seismology, in which the expected effect is manifested in relatively weak earthquakes. The paper will be sent to the journal Geodynamics and Tectonophysics (ISSN 2078-502X). Keywords: planetary seismicity, Gutenberg-Richter law, unimodal distribution, statistical sum, entropy, spheroidal oscillations Comment: 7 pages, 4 figures

  • Open Access Russian
    Authors: 
    Khlystov, OM; Minami, H; Hachikubo, A; Yamashita, S; De Batist, Marc; Naudts, Lieven; Khabuev, AV; Chenskiy, AG; Gubin, NA; Vorobyeva, SS;
    Country: Belgium

    Lake Baikal is the only freshwater reservoir on Earth with gas-hydrate accumulations in its bottom sediments, partly due to the activity of mud volcanoes. This paper describes a group of mud volcanoes recently discovered on the slope of the Academician Ridge between the northern and central Lake Baikal basins. Our analysis of diatom skeletons in the mud breccia sampled from the study area shows a high abundance of Cyclotella iris et var. These extinct species were also discovered in a core sample from BDP-98 borehole. Based on the biostratigraphic and seis-mostratigraphic correlations, the age of the mud breccia in the studied mud volcanoes ranges from the Late Miocene to the Early Pliocene (4.6 to 5.6 Ma). The correlations suggest that the material originated from a depth of less than 310 m below the lake bottom.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dobrynina, А. А.; Sankov, V.; Deverchere, J.; Chechelnitsky, V.;
    Publisher: Institute of the Earth's crust, Siberian Branch of RAS
    Country: France

    Attenuation of seismic waves in the crust and the upper mantle has been studied in three global rift systems: the Baikal rift system (Eurasia), the North Tanzanian divergence zone (Africa) and the Basin and Range Province (North America). Using the records of direct and coda waves of regional earthquakes, the single scattering theory [ Aki, Chouet, 1975 ], the hybrid model from [ Zeng, 1991 ] and the approach described in [ Wennerberg, 1993 ], we estimated the seismic quality factor ( Q C ), frequency parameter ( n ), attenuation coefficient (δ), and total attenuation ( Q T ). In addition, we evaluated the contributions of two components into total attenuation: intrinsic attenuation ( Q i ), and scattering attenuation ( Q sc ). Values of Q C are strongly dependent on the frequency within the range of 0.2–16 Hz, as well as on the length of the coda processing window. The observed increase of Q C with larger lengths of the coda processing window can be interpreted as a decrease in attenuation with increasing depth. Having compared the depth variations in the attenuation coefficient (δ) and the frequency ( n ) with the velocity structures of the studied regions, we conclude that seismic wave attenuation changes at the velocity boundaries in the medium. Moreover, the comparison results show that the estimated variations in the attenuation parameters with increasing depth are considerably dependent on utilized velocity models of the medium. Lateral variations in attenuation of seismic waves correlate with the geological and geophysical characteristics of the regions, and attenuation is primarily dependent on the regional seismic activity and regional heat flow. The geological inhomogeneities of the medium and the age of crust consolidation are secondary factors. Our estimations of intrinsic attenuation ( Q i ) and scattering attenuation ( Q sc ) show that in all the three studied regions, intrinsic attenuation is the major contributor to total attenuation. Our study shows that the characteristics of seismic wave attenuation in the three different rift systems are consistent with each other, and this may suggest that the lithosphere in the zones of these different rift systems has been modified to similar levels.

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