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  • 0105 earth and related environmental sciences
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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    S. S. Aleksanin; V. Yu. Rybnikov; K. K. Rogalev; Yu. V. Gudz; S. V. Dudarenko;
    Publisher: Saint-Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene after Professor P.V. Ramzaev

    This paper presents the experience and features of the organization and provision of specialized and hightech medical care to victims of the Chernobyl accident in the framework of the activities of the Union State in the Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine EMERCOM of Russia. It reveals the features of the morbidity, disability and mortality of the injured in the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. The paper presents the data on the types and amount of medical assistance provided to victims of the Chernobyl accident for the period from 2007 to 2018 as well as the features of the organization of rendering specialized, including hi-tech, medical assistance and medical rehabilitation to participants of liquidation of consequences of the Chernobyl accident and inhabitants of the radioactively contaminated territories.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Genrietta V. Arkhagelskaya; Svetlana A. Zelentsova;
    Publisher: Saint-Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene after Professor P.V. Ramzaev

    The article discusses the features inherent in the language of communication of specialists in radiation safety among themselves and with the public. Despite the confidence expressed by the population to specialists, their communication is difficult not only for organizational reasons, but also for their languages of communication. The population best understands the language not of the source of information on radiation safety issues (specialists), but of the transmitter of this information – journalists. It is necessary to take into account the difference in the tasks of specialists and journalists in conveying information to the population on the urgent problems of radiation safety, in particular, projects of the nuclear industry. It is shown that taking into account the peculiarities of the language characteristic of the population (or any of its groups) helps in a large degree to optimize information support for risk communication of the population on radiation safety issues. This is necessary for the development of an adequate attitude to the work of the nuclear industry. The article also considers the stages of risk- communication and the factors contributing to its optimization.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    V. Yu. Golikov;
    Publisher: Saint-Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene after Professor P.V. Ramzaev

    The paper is devoted to comparing the models and the doses of the population external exposure from radioactive fallout after the accident at the Chernobyl and Fukushima-1 NPPs estimated with their help. In the case of the Fukushima-1 accident, the model proposed by the UNSCEAR was used. Both the values of the doses of gamma radiation in the environment and the values of the effective doses of external exposure of comparable population groups normalized to the same surface activity of radionuclides were close for both accidents. The reasons for this are both the similarity of the isotopic compositions of the radioactive fallout and the fact that the “Japanese” model of external exposure was based on the “Chernobyl” model up to using the same numerical values for some parameters, due to the lack of specific Japanese post-accident data for the moment of the first dose estimates for the inhabitants of Japan. For a more accurate comparison of the external exposure of residents after two accidents it is necessary to verify the values of the parameters of the Japanese model using the results of measurements of gamma radiation dose rates in the environment and individual external doses of the residents after the accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    V. F. Panin; V. I. Cherednikova;
    Publisher: Saint-Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene after Professor P.V. Ramzaev

    The article provides brief information about the life and working activities of the first head of the Department of Radiation Hygiene of the Central Institute for Advanced Medical Training, academician, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Major General of the medical service F. G. Krotkov in the field of military hygiene during its formation in the Soviet health care, in the pre-war years and during the great Patriotic War. The direction of the scientific work of F. G. Krotkov at the Department of hygiene of the Military Medical Academy and contribution to the basis of the Aviation Scientific Research Institute of Sanitary in the WorkerPeasant Red Army and the Special Food Research Institute of the Red Army and its role in improving the combat capability of the Army and Navy as the head of the sanitary Department of the Main military-sanitary Directorate of the Red Army. It also reflects the activities of Professor F. G. Krotkov on the development of radiation hygiene as the head of the country’s first specialized Department in the Central Institute for Advanced Medical Training. The paper provides information on perpetuate the name of Professor Krotkov on his small Home in S. Mosolovo, the Ryazan oblast and in Moscow city, where he worked for many years.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    V. A. Yakovlev; G. Ya. Bruk;
    Publisher: Saint-Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene after Professor P.V. Ramzaev

    This study is aimed at the evaluation of the trends of the doses from internal exposure of the adult public of the Bryansk region due to the consumption of the main dose-forming food products in the remote period after the Chernobyl NPP accident and the methodical features of the assessment of the predicted doses form the internal exposure. A new methodical approach to the calculation of the predicted doses of the public from internal exposure is based on the single exponential model of the change of the dose with a time-dependent period of a half-decrease. Results of the study allowed increasing the precision of calculation of the predicted doses to the public of the Bryansk region up to 2056. A similar method (single exponential model) can be applied for the external exposure as well. That allowed calculating predicted doses of total (external + internal) exposure. As an example, the paper includes the distribution of all settlements in the Bryansk region referred to the zones of radioactive contamination by the predicted average annual effective dose to the public and critical groups in the different time periods after the accident.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    V. Yu. Golikov;
    Publisher: Saint-Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene after Professor P.V. Ramzaev

    The paper presents an analysis of the dynamics of individual doses of external exposure among the population living for almost 20 years in the territories affected by the radioactive contamination due to the Chernobyl NPP accident. The dynamics of the average effective dose of the external exposure of the inhabitants in the period of 5 to 20 years after the Chernobyl fallout is well described by processes that consider the radioactive decay of cesium radionuclides and their natural migration. The distribution of individual doses of external exposure among residents, normalized to the average dose in the settlement corresponds to a logarithmically normal law with the time-stable parameters: the geometric mean ~ 0.9 and geometric standard deviation ~ 1.5, which allows, in particular, predicting the dose for the critical group of population or for a representative person. Comparison of the mean effective doses of external exposure of the settlement residents estimated based on the results of two different measurement technologies (using TLD-method and measurements of dose rates in air in various settlement locations) indicated their good agreement for the 17 years period after the fallout. For two settlements, where measurements were performed in 2003, the relative differences in mean effective doses did not exceed 12%. It allows using the previously developed model of external exposure for dose estimation to the population residing on the territories contaminated after the Chernobyl accident.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Dmitry V. Kononenko;
    Publisher: Saint-Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene after Professor P.V. Ramzaev

    When analyzing the results of radon surveys, there could be an issue with measurements that are below the limit of detection (LOD) of the measurement technique used. This issue is usually referred to as the management of left-censored data. The paper presents the results of the practical application of one the most accurate and easy to calculate methods for analyzing censored data – the β-substitution method – to the analysis of an indoor radon concentrations dataset. The results of the radon survey conducted in the framework of the regional program “Radon” in Krasnoselskiy district of St. Petersburg in 2000 have been used as the test dataset. It is shown that inappropriate approaches to the management of the censored data, such as discarding the censored values or substituting them with the LOD value, can lead to considerably biased estimates of parameters or statistics of the resulting distributions. Further, this could result in an overestimation of doses and risk estimates which are based on the median values. The visual and quantitative analysis of Q-Q plots leads to conclusion that the estimated parameters of the distribution after the application of the β-substitution method are characterized by a minimum bias. The applied β-substitution method could be recommended for use as an element in the procedure of analyzing the results of radon surveys to minimize the bias of the estimates of the parameters of the radon concentration distributions alongside with Q-Q plots used to verify the conformity of radon concentrations with a lognormal distribution.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ilya V. Yarmoshenko; Georgy P. Malinovsky; Aleksandra D. Onishchenko; Aleksey V. Vasilyev;
    Publisher: Saint-Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene after Professor P.V. Ramzaev

    The paper presents an overview of the international scientific and technical publications on a problem of radon accumulation in new energy efficient buildings and in houses reconstructed according to requirements of energy saving. Energy efficiency is an important requirement of the environmentally sustainable development. Housing and communal services have significant potential for energy saving. In Russia, the construction of highest energy efficiency classes buildings occurs at an accelerated rate and reached 75% of all multiapartment houses built in 2017. The applying of modern technologies that reduce heat loss is accompanied by a decrease in the air exchange rate, which leads to deterioration of indoor air quality, in particular, the accumulation of radon. In the international literature, there are examples of the several times growth of radon concentration after the reconstruction of the building, the average radon concentration in retrofitted buildings increased by 22–120%. In new houses built to meet energy saving requirements, there can also be a significant increase in radon concentration compared to low-energy efficiency classes houses. Excess of sanitary and hygienic norms was found in some countries, including Russia. Radon exposure of dwellers of energy-efficient buildings is largely determined by the living habits. Based on the review data, it can be assumed that the average level of Russian population exposure to radon can increase under conditions of intensive construction of energy-efficient buildings.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    I. K. Romanovich;
    Publisher: Saint-Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene after Professor P.V. Ramzaev

    For the provision of the radiation safety of the public during the termination of the nuclear and radiation legacy within the boundaries of the Federal Targeted Program “Provision of the nuclear and radiation safety for 2016-2020 and up to 2030”, the following documents were developed: draft of the sanitary rules “Hygienic requirements for the remediation of the facilities and territories contaminated by man-made and natural radionuclides due to the past activities of the facilities of nuclear and non-nuclear branches of industry” and three methodical guidelines on the survey of the remediated territories, buildings and structures and assessment of the doses of the public residing in the zone of influence of the nuclear legacy facilities. The sanitary rules were based on the directions of the future use of the remediated territories, buildings and structures as well as on the radiation-hygienic safety criteria. It was assumed that dose criteria for the public considering the quota (0.3 mSv/year) is applied for remediated sites of the nuclear facilities (radiation facilities). The remediation of the radioactively contaminated areas with the residing public is based on the requirements of the Federal Law № 1244-1, 15.05.1991 “On the social protection of the citizens exposed due to the Chernobyl NPP accident”. Originally the drafts of documents were developed considering the approval in 2019 of the new Norms of the Radiation Safety – 2019, harmonized with the international recommendations and standards. Due to prolongation of the existing Norms of the Radiation Safety 99//2009 for the extra five years, the drafts of the regulations are adapted to the existing NRB 99/2009 and OSPORB 99/2010.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    G. G. Onischenko; A. Yu. Popova; I. K. Romanovich; S. A. Ivanov; A. M. Biblin; V. S. Repin; K. V. Varfolomeeva;
    Publisher: Saint-Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene after Professor P.V. Ramzaev

    This paper continues the series of publications on evaluation of the consequences of the Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant accident and the impact of the emergency radionuclide discharges on the contamination of the sea biota and coastal areas of the Far-East regions. In autumn 2019, the fourth scientific expedition of the Russian geographic society on the monitoring of the radiation situation in Kurily-Kamchatka region was performed on the training vessel «Professor Khlyustin». The expedition included 9 specialists from noncommercial organization «Polar research Fund «Polar Fund», «Russian state hydrometeorological institute», «Radium institute after V.G. Khlopin» of the State Corporation «Rosatom», «Kurchatov institute», «SaintPetersburg research institute of radiation hygiene after prof. P.V. Ramzaev» and «Marine state university after admiral G.I. Nevelsky». The aim of the fourth expedition was to evaluate the radiation situation in the Sea of Japan and Kurily-Kamchatka region after the Fukushima-1 NPP accident as a continuation of the similar marine expeditions in 2011, 2012 and 2014. The survey was performed in the water area of the sea of Japan and Okhotsk sea. The results indicate that the concentration of 137Cs and 90Sr in sea water, hydrobionts, soil, ground and sea vegetation is still on the baseline level due to the global fallouts.

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