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  • 2013-2022
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  • 0105 earth and related environmental sciences
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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    G. G. Onischenko; I. A. Zvonova; M. I. Balonov; V. P. Ramzaev; V. S. Repin;
    Publisher: SPRI of Radiation Hygiene Prof. PV Ramzaev

    The article describes the main areas of scientific and administrative activities of professor P.V. Ramzaev during his work in the Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene. In particular, the results of a study of global radioactive fallout in the Far North of the USSR, as well as a study of the radiation situation and an assessment of the doses to the public after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP, are presented in a systematic way. The leading role of P.V. Ramzaev in the development of hygienic regulation and in the development of the theory of health is shown. The activities of P.V. Ramzaev in the International Commission on Radiological Protection are discussed in detail. The role of P.V. Ramzaev in the development of the law «On Radiation Safety of the Population» is shown.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    S. S. Aleksanin; V. Yu. Rybnikov; K. K. Rogalev; Yu. V. Gudz; S. V. Dudarenko;
    Publisher: Saint-Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene after Professor P.V. Ramzaev

    This paper presents the experience and features of the organization and provision of specialized and hightech medical care to victims of the Chernobyl accident in the framework of the activities of the Union State in the Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine EMERCOM of Russia. It reveals the features of the morbidity, disability and mortality of the injured in the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. The paper presents the data on the types and amount of medical assistance provided to victims of the Chernobyl accident for the period from 2007 to 2018 as well as the features of the organization of rendering specialized, including hi-tech, medical assistance and medical rehabilitation to participants of liquidation of consequences of the Chernobyl accident and inhabitants of the radioactively contaminated territories.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Genrietta V. Arkhagelskaya; Svetlana A. Zelentsova;
    Publisher: Saint-Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene after Professor P.V. Ramzaev

    The article discusses the features inherent in the language of communication of specialists in radiation safety among themselves and with the public. Despite the confidence expressed by the population to specialists, their communication is difficult not only for organizational reasons, but also for their languages of communication. The population best understands the language not of the source of information on radiation safety issues (specialists), but of the transmitter of this information – journalists. It is necessary to take into account the difference in the tasks of specialists and journalists in conveying information to the population on the urgent problems of radiation safety, in particular, projects of the nuclear industry. It is shown that taking into account the peculiarities of the language characteristic of the population (or any of its groups) helps in a large degree to optimize information support for risk communication of the population on radiation safety issues. This is necessary for the development of an adequate attitude to the work of the nuclear industry. The article also considers the stages of risk- communication and the factors contributing to its optimization.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    O. A. Istorik; L. A. Eremina; A. N. Barkovsky; T. A. Kormanovskaya; R. R. Akhmatdinov;
    Publisher: SPRI of Radiation Hygiene Prof. PV Ramzaev

    This study is focused on the analysis of the results of the radiation-hygienic passportisation and the Joint state system of control and accounting of the individual doses of the public from natural sources of ionizing radiation in the Leningrad region. The results of the study include data on the number of measurements of the gamma-radiation dose rate in buildings and in open territories, number of measurements of volume activity and equivalent equilibrium volume activity of radon in the air in the public and residential buildings in the Leningrad region in 2007–2016 as well as the number of the assessments of the total volume alpha and beta activity and concentration of the natural occurring radionuclides in drinking water. The authors performed an assessment of the annual individual effective dose per resident of theLeningradregion. It was estimated as 3.09 mSv/year considering all the data in Regional dose databank. Natural sources of ionizing exposure contribute 92.6% to the annual effective dose to the public of the Leningrad region, that exceeds the average Russian values by 6%.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    K. A. Saprykin; A. V. Gromov; S. A. Ivanov;
    Publisher: SPRI of Radiation Hygiene Prof. PV Ramzaev

    The paper presents the activities of Rospotrebnadzor to ensure radiation safety in the framework of nuclear and radiation terrorism counteractions during the FIFA World Cup 2018 in Russia. One of the main activities of Rospotrebnadzor was to ensure radiation safety of food and drinking water. This task was solved by placing stationary radiation monitoring systems and organizing of continuous radiation monitoring of all foodstuffs and drinking water incoming to all sports facilities. In addition, selective radiation monitoring of samples of cooked food and drinking water at the catering facilities of the stadiums was organized. The second important activity was to ensure the radiation safety at the sites of mass people crowding with the use of portable equipment and/or car-borne radiological laboratories. The third activity was the identification and examination of the identified sources of ionizing radiation in case of alarm of radiation monitoring systems. The last but not the least activity was the interdepartmental cooperation, the effectiveness of which directly affects the response and resolution of issues related to emergency situations or situations that threaten radiation safety. The paper also briefly described the activities of the Saint-Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene after Professor P.V. Ramzaev in the framework of ensuring radiation safety at the FIFA World Cup 2018.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    A. A. Bratilova; G. Ya. Bruk;
    Publisher: SPRI of Radiation Hygiene Prof. PV Ramzaev

    An The article is devoted to the peculiarities of the internal exposure dose formation in the adult population of the internal dose forming of the adult population of Russian Federation due to consumption of different foodstuffs in the remote period after the accident on at the Chernobyl NPP. Estimation of the impact of different foodstuffs is carried out in the forming of the mentioned doses; the foodstuffs mainly contributing in the internal dose forming formation are revealed. Based on the Bryansk region data, the comparing was fulfilled of the current food rations of population with the previous rations – of during the initial and intermediate postaccidental periods. It is illustrated how the differences in food rations affect the levels of exposure of the local inhabitants, which is necessary for the appropriate assessment of the internal exposure doses for population living in the contaminated territories.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    V. Yu. Golikov;
    Publisher: Saint-Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene after Professor P.V. Ramzaev

    The paper is devoted to comparing the models and the doses of the population external exposure from radioactive fallout after the accident at the Chernobyl and Fukushima-1 NPPs estimated with their help. In the case of the Fukushima-1 accident, the model proposed by the UNSCEAR was used. Both the values of the doses of gamma radiation in the environment and the values of the effective doses of external exposure of comparable population groups normalized to the same surface activity of radionuclides were close for both accidents. The reasons for this are both the similarity of the isotopic compositions of the radioactive fallout and the fact that the “Japanese” model of external exposure was based on the “Chernobyl” model up to using the same numerical values for some parameters, due to the lack of specific Japanese post-accident data for the moment of the first dose estimates for the inhabitants of Japan. For a more accurate comparison of the external exposure of residents after two accidents it is necessary to verify the values of the parameters of the Japanese model using the results of measurements of gamma radiation dose rates in the environment and individual external doses of the residents after the accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    V. F. Panin; V. I. Cherednikova;
    Publisher: Saint-Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene after Professor P.V. Ramzaev

    The article provides brief information about the life and working activities of the first head of the Department of Radiation Hygiene of the Central Institute for Advanced Medical Training, academician, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Major General of the medical service F. G. Krotkov in the field of military hygiene during its formation in the Soviet health care, in the pre-war years and during the great Patriotic War. The direction of the scientific work of F. G. Krotkov at the Department of hygiene of the Military Medical Academy and contribution to the basis of the Aviation Scientific Research Institute of Sanitary in the WorkerPeasant Red Army and the Special Food Research Institute of the Red Army and its role in improving the combat capability of the Army and Navy as the head of the sanitary Department of the Main military-sanitary Directorate of the Red Army. It also reflects the activities of Professor F. G. Krotkov on the development of radiation hygiene as the head of the country’s first specialized Department in the Central Institute for Advanced Medical Training. The paper provides information on perpetuate the name of Professor Krotkov on his small Home in S. Mosolovo, the Ryazan oblast and in Moscow city, where he worked for many years.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    V. A. Yakovlev; G. Ya. Bruk;
    Publisher: Saint-Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene after Professor P.V. Ramzaev

    This study is aimed at the evaluation of the trends of the doses from internal exposure of the adult public of the Bryansk region due to the consumption of the main dose-forming food products in the remote period after the Chernobyl NPP accident and the methodical features of the assessment of the predicted doses form the internal exposure. A new methodical approach to the calculation of the predicted doses of the public from internal exposure is based on the single exponential model of the change of the dose with a time-dependent period of a half-decrease. Results of the study allowed increasing the precision of calculation of the predicted doses to the public of the Bryansk region up to 2056. A similar method (single exponential model) can be applied for the external exposure as well. That allowed calculating predicted doses of total (external + internal) exposure. As an example, the paper includes the distribution of all settlements in the Bryansk region referred to the zones of radioactive contamination by the predicted average annual effective dose to the public and critical groups in the different time periods after the accident.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    G. Ya. Bruk; A. B. Bazyukin; A. A. Bratilova; V. A. Yakovlev;
    Publisher: SPRI of Radiation Hygiene Prof. PV Ramzaev

    An article is devoted to the peculiarities of exposure doses forming of adult population due to the main dose-forming foodstuffs in the remote period after Chernobyl accident. On an example of the Bryansk and Tula regions, we carried out the assessment of the effective purification half-periods of the main dose-forming food products (milk and mushrooms) from 137Cs due to its radioactive decay and natural self-purification and the assessment of the periods of half-reduction of the average annual effective internal doses for the population of the Bryansk region divided on the 137Cs soil surface activity actual in the corresponding year (based on whole body measurements data). Obtained results allowed fulfilling the prognosis of the internal doses for the population of the Bryansk region for the time period up to 2056.

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