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  • 2018-2022
  • 01 natural sciences
  • 0105 earth and related environmental sciences
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  • Radiacionnaâ Gigiena
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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    T. A. Marchenko; A. I. Radin; A. N. Razdaivodin;
    Publisher: Saint-Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene after Professor P.V. Ramzaev

    The aim of the study is to analyze the accumulated data on the study of forest territories of the border regions of the Bryansk region that have been exposed to radioactive contamination for their involvement in economic activity, as well as the possible transfer of radioactive materials in forest fires. The area of recorded and unaccounted forests was estimated according to the “Forest Plan of the Bryansk Region for the period 2019-2028” and the results of the analysis of remote sensing data of the earth, the assessment of radiation pollution – according to the radiation surveys of the forest fund and radioecological monitoring of forests, assessment of cesium-137 content – according to radiation monitoring. In the course of the work, the dynamics of the transition of forests from the range of a high level of radioactive contamination to lower ones from 1991 to 2018 slightly changes the total area of contaminated forests by regions was revealed. Top-level values of cesium-137 content in the main types of forest combustible materials, which a dangerous factor is contributing to a significant increase in the content of radiocesium in atmospheric air and the transfer of radionuclides beyond the limits of radioactive contamination zones in a forest fire. The most radiation-hazardous is the forest litter, which contains more than 70% of the total cesium-137 reserve in forest combustible materials, the values of which reach values of 224 kBq / kg in the Krasnogorsk district of the Bryansk region. The obtained forecast of cesium-137 content in the forest litter by the zones of radioactive contamination of forests in the most polluted areas of the Bryansk region for the period up to 2046 indicates the preservation of a high degree of radioactive contamination of forests in the Krasnogorsk and Novozybkovsky districts after more than 60 years after the Chernobyl accident power plants. Due to the high class of natural fire hazard of forests in the south-west of the Bryansk region and the high risk of fires in contaminated areas, it is necessary to assess the degree of danger in the prevention and suppression of radioactive forest fires, especially criterion of the absorbed dose for workers in order to avoid the deterministic effect.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    V. P. Ramzaev; A. N. Barkovsky;
    Publisher: Saint-Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene after Professor P.V. Ramzaev

    The aim of this study was to determine the dynamics of decrease of the dose rate of gamma radiation in air from 137Cs in typical rural locations in the remote period after the Chernobyl accident. The dose rate measurements were performed in the areas of 15 settlements of the Zlynka, Klintsy and Novozybkov districts of the Bryansk region of Russia in the period 1998–2012. After the accident in 1986, the density of contamination of the territory with 137Cs in all settlements was higher than the value of 555 kBq/m2 . Monitoring measurements of the dose rate were performed in eight locations commonly used in assessing the radiation doses to the rural population after the Chernobyl accident: 1) virgin soils (meadows) located outside settlements, 2) virgin soils located inside settlements, 3) forests, 4) arable fields, 5) kitchen gardens, 6) other ground surfaces (earthen yards next to residential buildings), 7) single-story wooden houses, 8) asphalted areas (streets, roads, courtyards next to residential buildings). The number of observation sites in individual locations ranged from 6 to 19 (a total of 103 sites). Series of measurements at individual sites were launched in the period 1998–2001 and completed in 2009–2012. On average, the duration of the series was 11.1 years. The measurements were made in the spring-autumn period annually (in some years at some sites two to three times a year) using a portable gamma-ray spectrometer-dosimeter. In the initial period of the study (1998–2001), the values of the absorbed dose rate in air from 137Cs were in the range from 40 to 2020 nGy/h. The maximum values were recorded in virgin meadows and forests, and the minimum ones were observed inside houses and over asphalted surfaces. By the end of our series of observations (2009–2012), the dose rate decreased at all sites, by an average of 33% (range 6–64%). The values of the ecological period of half-reduction of the dose rate, calculated for individual sites, ranged from 14 to 320 years and averaged 34 years (virgin soils located outside settlements), 30 years (virgin soils located inside settlements), 37 years (forests), 93 years (arable fields), 99 years (kitchen gardens), 33 years (other earth surfaces), 45 years (wooden houses), 60 years (asphalted areas). The deduced values of the rate of decrease of the dose rate of gamma radiation in the air in the surveyed locations were used to estimate the ecological period of the half-reduction of the effective external dose for rural population living in wooden houses. On average, this period was equal to 50 years. Given the radioactive decay of 137Cs, we can expect that the external dose from Chernobyl 137Cs to the rural population will decrease by approximately 4% per year. Our estimate of the rate of decrease of the external effective dose from 137Cs in the remote period after the Chernobyl accident is in agreement with the estimates that were previously given by other authors for the slow component of decreasing external doses from 137Cs to adults living in rural settlements of the Bryansk region.

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